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It  occurred  long  since  to  the  author,  that  our  national 
records  might  be  made  available  to  illustrate  the  history 
of  architecture  in  England.  Strongly  impressed  with  this 
opinion,  he  began,  sixteen  years  ago,  to  note  down  every 
fact  bearing  on  the  subject  which  offered  in  the  course  of 
daily  reference  to  those  records  for  professional  objects.  It 
is  in  respect  only  of  the  information  thus  accumulated,  that 
he  can  claim  any  credit  for  the  present  work ;  and  he  trusts 
that  before  it  is  concluded  the  value  of  these  ancient  docu- 
ments, as  unerring  guides  in  the  investigation  of  the  his- 
tory of  art  in  this  country,  from  the  close  of  the  twelfth 
century,  will  be  fully  established. 

A  similar  work  was  undertaken  and  announced  some 
years  since  by  Mr.  R.  C.  Hussey,  but  the  numerous  and 
continually  increasing  professional  engagements  of  that 
gentleman  compelled  him  to  resign  the  undertaking.  The 
drawings  and  engravings  prepared  for  his  work  have, 
therefore,  with  his  consent,  been  incorporated  in  the  pre- 
sent. Many  of  these  are  from  the  valuable  original 
sketches  of  W.  Twopeny,  Esq. ;  others  from  those  of 
Edward  Blore,  Esq.,  R.A.,  who  very  liberally  allowed  the 
use  of  any  of  his  drawings.  Several  drawings  have  been 
obligingly  communicated  by  Alexander  Nesbitt,  Esq.,  who 
also  placed  his  notes  at  the  author's  disposal. 


The  author  gladly  takes  this  opportunity  to  acknowledge 
the  valuable  assistance  he  has  received  from  his  friend 
Mr.  J.  H.  Parker  of  Oxford,  whose  knowledge  of  archi- 
tectural detail  has  largely  contributed  to  the  descriptions 
of  the  various  examples  of  ancient  Domestic  Architecture 
given  in  the  following  pages.  The  notices  of  French 
remains  were  prepared  by  Mr.  Parker  during  a  tour 
in  the  west  of  France,  in  the  summer  of  1850,  in  com- 
pany with  M.  G.  Bouet,  the  artist  of  Caen,  from  whose 
drawings  the  engravings  are  taken.  M.  Viollet  Le-Duc 
of  Paris,  and  M.  de  Caumont  of  Caen,  have  also  given 
much  valuable  assistance.  He  has  also  to  thank  Mr. 
O.  Jewitt  for  many  useful  notes  and  suggestions. 

April,  1851. 



The  Romans  in  England. — Their  villas  and  houses. — Ordinary- 
plan  of  a  Roman  house. — Method  of  building. — The  Saxons. — 
Their  style  of  building ;  they  probably  occupied  Roman  houses. 
— A  Saxon  hall. — Houses  of  "Winchester  and  London  in  the 
Saxon  period. — Decoration  of  buildings. — Romanesque  style  of 
architecture  introduced  during  the  Saxon  period. — Drawings  in 
Saxon  MSS.,  their  character  and  value  as  architectural  evidence. 
— The  Greek,  or  Byzantine  school ;  its  influence  on  Saxon  art. — 
Antiquity  of  chimneys  ;  none  at  Rome  in  the  fourteenth  century. 
— Character  of  the  military  buildings  of  the  Saxons. — The  castles 
of  Coningsburgh  and  Bamborough  later  than  the  Saxon  period. 
— Arundel,  the  only  castle  said  to  have  been  standing  in  the 
time  of  the  Confessor. — Norman  castles. —  Domestic  architecture 
of  the  Normans. — Stone  quarries. — Use  of  plaster. — Bricks  and 
tiles. — Brick-making,  its  antiquity  in  England. — Masons  and 
other  workmen. — Glazing. — Iron  works  in  England. — Architec- 
tural designs  of  the  middle  ages,  how  made. — Working  moulds 
of  masons,  &c.  p.  i. — xxxii. 

CHAPTER  I.    Twelfth  Centuey. 

Geneeal  eemaeks. — Imperfect  character  of  existing  remains 
of  the  twelfth  century. — Materials  for  the  history  of  Domestic 
architecture  ;  their  nature. — General  plan  of  houses  at  this  date. 
— Halls. — Other  apartments  of  ordinary  houses. — Bed-chamber, 
kitchen,  larder,  &c— King's  houses  at  Clarendon  and  other 



places. — Hall,  always  the  chief  feature  of  a  Norman  house. — 
Alexander  Necham,  his  description  of  a  house. — Plan  of  Norman 
halls. — Their  roofs.— Situation  of  other  apartments  relatively  to 
the  hall. — Kitchens. — Cooking  in  the  open  air. — Bayeux  tapes- 
try.— Eemains  of  a  Norman  house  at  Appleton,  Berks. — Fences, 
walls,  &c. — Some  Norman  houses  built  in  the  form  of  a  parallelo- 
gram, and  of  two  stories. — Boothby  Pagnell,  Lincolnshire. — 
Christ-church,  Hants. — Jews'  House  at  Lincoln. — Moyses'  Hall, 
Bury  St.  Edmund's. — Staircases  internal  and  external. — External 
Norman  stair  at  Canterbury. — Houses  at  Southampton. — Build- 
ing materials. — Use  of  lead  for  roofs. — English  lead  exported  to 
Erance. — Style  of  Norman  roofs. — Metal  work;  hinges,  locks, 
nail-heads,  &c. — Gloucester  celebrated  for  its  iron  manufactures. 
External  decoration  of  buildings. — Windows. — Glazing. — Eire- 
places. — Kitchens  open  in  the  roof. — Hostelry  of  the  prior  of 
Lewes. — Internal  walls  plastered. — Eurniture  of  houses  ;  tapes- 
try, &c. — Eloors,  generally  of  wood. — Character  of  London 
houses  in  the  twelfth  century. — Assize  of  1189  regulating  build- 
ings in  London. — Assize  of  the  year  1212  relating  to  the  same 
subject. — Majority  of  London  houses  chiefly  of  wood  and  thatched. 
— "Wages  of  workmen. — Cook  shops  on  Thames  side. — Chimneys 
not  mentioned  in  the  London  Assizes. — Camerse  privatse. 

p.  1-27 

CHAPTEE  II.    Existing  Eemains. 

Oakham  castle,  Eutlandshire. — The  King's  house,  Southamp- 
ton.— Minster,  Isle  of  Thanet. — Christ-church,  Hants. — Manor- 
house  at  Appleton. — Sutton  Courtney,  Berks. — St.  Mary's 
Guild,  and  Jews'  houses,  Lincoln. — Staircase,  Canterbury. — 
"Warnford,  Hants. — Eountain's  abbey. — Priory, Dover.— -Moyses' 
Hall,  Bury  St.  Edmund's. — Hostelry  of  the  prior  of  Lewes, 
Southwark. — Boothby  Pagnell,  Lincolnshire. — Barnack,  North- 
amptonshire.— School  of  Pythagoras,  Cambridge. — Notes  on  re- 
mains of  Early  Domestic  Architecture  in  Erance.  p.  28—56 


CHAPTER  III.    Thirteenth  Century. 

General  Remarks. — Hall  at  Winchester. — Reign  of  Henry 
III.  remarkable  for  the  progress  of  architecture. — Condition  of 
Norman  castles  in  the  thirteenth  century. — Plan  of  manor-houses 
at  this  date. — House  built  for  Edward  I.  at  Woolmer,  Hants. — 
Description  of  house  at  Toddington,  by  M.  Paris. — Meaning  of 
term  Palatium. — Longthorpe. — Stoke  Say  castle. — West  Deane, 
Sussex. — Aydon  castle. — Little  Wenham  Hall. — Two  halls  at 
Westminster,  temp.  Henry  III. — Temporary  buildings  erected 
at  Westminster  for  the  coronation  of  Edward  I. — Private  hos- 
pitality in  this  century. — Kitchens. — Wardrobes. — Influence  of 
feudal  manners  on  Domestic  architecture. — Building  materials. 
— Wood  extensively  used.  Manor-house  of  timber  engraved  on  a 
personal  seal. — Extensive  use  of  plaster. — Roofs  of  the  thirteenth 
century. — Windows. — Glass  and  glazing. — Digression  on  the 
history  of  glass-making  in  England. — No  glass  made  in  England 
until  the  fifteenth  century. — Wooden  lattices,  fenestrals,  &c. — 

Eire-places  and  chimneys. — Mantels  Staircases,  external  and 

internal. — Internal  decoration  of  houses. — Wainscote  Poly- 
chrome.— Artists  of  the  time  of  Henry  III. ;  their  style. — Their 

names  Spurs. — Screens  &c. — Tapestry  not  used  in  private 

dwellings  in  the  thirteenth  century.  Elooring. — Tiles. — Baths. 
■ — Camerse  privatse. — Conduits  and  drains. — Houses  in  towns. — 
Parisian  houses. — Other  foreign  examples. — Eurniture. — Car- 
pets.— General  state  of  England  in  the  thirteenth  century. — 
State  of  towns. — London  and  Winchester  compared. — Travell- 
ing.— Hackneymen. — Inns. — State  of  trade  in  England. — Agri- 
culture.— Remarks  on  horticulture.  p.  57 — 147 


Thirteenth  Century.    Existing  Remains. 

Aydon  castle,  Northumberland. —  G-odmersham,  Kent. — Little 
Wenham  Hall,  Suffolk.  —  Longthorpe,  near  Peterborough. — 
Charney  Basset,  Berks. — Master's  House,  St.  John's  Hospital, 


Northampton. — Stoke-Say  castle,  Shropshire. — Coggs,  Oxford- 
shire.— Cottesford,  Oxfordshire. — Parsonage  house,  "West  Tar- 
ring, Sussex. — Archdeacon's  house,  Peterborough. — Crowhurst, 
Sussex. — Bishop's  palace,  Wells. — Woodcroft  castle,  North- 
amptonshire.— Old  rectory  house,  "West  Deane,  Sussex. — Acton 
Burnell,  Shropshire. — Somerton  castle,  Lincolnshire. — Old  Soar, 
Kent. — The  King's  Hall  at  Winchester. — The  Priory,  Winches- 
ter.— Strangers'  Hall,  Winchester. — House  at  Oakham,  known 
as  Flore's  House. — Thame,  Oxfordshire. — Chipping-Norton,  Ox- 
fordshire.— Middleton  Cheney,  Oxfordshire. — Sutton  Courtney, 
Berkshire.  p.  148—180 


Historical  Illustrations  : 

Extracts  from  the  Liberate  Rolls  of  Henry  III.,  1229—1259, 
relating  to  the  following  places. 

Bridgenorth. — Brigstock. — Brill. —  Bristol.  —  Canterbury. — 
Clarendon. — Cliff. — Clipstone. — Corfe  Castle. — Dover. — Dublin. 

Evereswell  Feckenham  Preemantle. —  Geddington  Gilling- 

ham.  —  Gloucester. — Guildford.  —  Havering. — Hereford. —  Hert- 
ford.— Kennington. — Litchfield.— London,  (tower). — Ely  House. 

— Ludgershall  Marlborough —  Newcastle.  —  Northampton.  

Nottingham.  —  Oxford. — Rochester. — Sherbourn.— Silverstone. — 
Westminster. — Winchester. — Windsor. — Woodstock. 


General  remarks.  —  Treves.  —  Laon.  —  Ratisbon.  —  Gondorf. 
— Metz.— Toulouse.  _  Laon.—  Bree.— Coucy. — Carden.  _  Tours. 
—Angers— Pontevrault,  (kitchen.)— Perigueux.— St.  Emilion.— - 
Mont  St.  Michel.— Beauvais.  p.  264  274 

p.  275—287. 




Hall  of  Oakham  castle,  Eutland,  interior  .  Frontispiece. 
House  with  external  staircase. — Cooking  in  the  open  air. 

From  the  Bayeux  Tapestry  .  .  .  .5 

Appleton,  Berks,  doorway  of  the  hall     .  .  .  .6 

Examples  of  roofs,  tiles,  and  shingles  ;  taken  from  manuscripts, 

two  plates  .  .  .  .  .  .8 

Battlements,  from  MSS.  .  .  .  .  .  ib. 

Iron-work  on  doors,  from  MSS.,  two  plates        .  .  .10 

Coloured  exteriors  of  houses,  from  MSS.  and  Bayeux  tapestry  .  11 
Fire-place,  Colchester  castle,  Essex        .  .  .  .12 

Eire-place,  Boothby  Pagnell,  Lincolnshire.— Eire-place,  Rochester 

castle,  Kent        .  .  .  .  .  .  ib. 

Examples  of  furniture,  beds,  cradle,  seat,  and  drapery ;  from  MSS.  14 
Furniture :  seats,  footstools,  and  curtains ;   from  MSS.,  and 

Bayeux  tapestry,  three  plates       .  .  .  .16 

Hall  of  Oakham  castle,  south-east  view  .  .  .  .28 

Ground-plan  .  .  .  .  .  .  ib. 

"Windows  and  principal  doorway     .  .  .  .30 

Capitals  of  pillars  and  south-east  corbel      .  .  .  ib. 

Hipknobs,  springstone,  and  section  .  .  .  ib. 

Town  wall,  Southampton.    Plan  of  house  adjoining       .  .  34 

Interior  and  exterior  of  the  same    .  .  .  .  ib. 

House  at  Minster,  Isle  of  Thanet  .  .  .  .37 

Christ-church,  Hampshire,  house  at  .  .  .38 

Part  of  St.  Mary's  Guild,  Lincoln         .  .  .  .40 

The  Jews'  House,  Lincoln         .  .  .  .  .  ib. 

Staircase,  leading  to  the  Registry  at  Canterbury  .  .  42 

Plan  of  house  at  Warnford,  Hants        .  4  .  .  ib. 



Kefectory  of  the  priory,  Dover,  exterior 


Interior  ....... 


Ground-plan  ...... 


Moyses'  Hall,  Bury  St.  Edmund's,  window,  exterior  and  interior 


Lower  story  of  the  hostelry  of  the  prior  of  Lewes,  Southwark  . 


Boothby  Pagnell,  Lincolnshire,  manor-house,  two  plates 


Barnack,  Northamptonshire,  manor-house 


Baking. — Melting  metals. — Cooking.    Illustrations  from  MSS. 

in  Bodleian  Library  ..... 


Seal,  representing  a  manor-house  of  the  thirteenth  century  (text) 


Eire-place,  Abingdon  abbey,  Berks  .... 


Eire-place  in  the  kitchen,  abbey  of  Beauport,  Brittany. — Eire- 

place  of  wood  and  plaster,  Carden  on  the  Moselle, 

Germany  ...... 


Eurniture. — Table  in  the  chapter-house,  Salisbury. — Table  in 

the  kitchen  of  the  Strangers'  Hall,  Winchester  . 


Illustrations  of  furniture,  from  illuminated  MSS. 


Back  of  the  Coronation  chair,  "Westminster  abbey 


Pottery,  domestic  utensils,  &c;  from  MSS.  in  the  Bodleian 

Library  ....... 


Illustrations  from  MSS.,  well,  granary,  &c. 


Illustrations  from  painted  glass,  Bourges. — Trades  and  occupa- 

tions ....... 


Aydon  castle,  Northumberland ;  general  external  view  . 


View  within  the  walls  ..... 


Court,  with  external  staircase  .... 


Angle  of  court  ...... 


Chimney,  and  part  of  front  ..... 


Three  windows  . 


Eire-place,  window,  and  drain  .... 


Eire-place  and  plan  ...... 


Plans  of  ground  floor  and  upper  story 


Court-lodge,  Grodmersham,  Kent  .... 


Little  Wenham  Hall,  Suffolk ;  general  view 


Ditto  and  ground-plan  ..... 


"Windows  and  entrance  to  chapel  .... 


Masonry,  coping,  &c.  ..... 


Longthorpe,  near  Peterborough  ..... 




House  at  Charney,  Berks  ;  west  front    ....  154 

Ground-plan  .  .  .  .  .  .  ib. 

Interior  of  Solar      .  .  .  .  .  .  ib. 

Chapel,  exterior  and  interior  .  .  .  .  ib. 

Fire-place  and  plan  of  south  wing   .  .  .  .  ib. 

Master's  house,  St.  John's  Hospital,  Northampton;  plan         .  156 

Eoof  and  drain       .  .  .  .  .  .  ib. 

Stoke-Say  castle,  Shropshire  ;  front  of  the  hall  from  court-yard  158 

Ground-plan  .  .  .  .  .  .  ib. 

Interior  of  the  hall  .  .  .  .  .  .  ib. 

Tower,  from  the  exterior     .  .  .  .  .  ib. 

Fire-place  in  the  Solar        .  .  .  .  160 

Chimney  and  windows  of  hall  and  tower     .  .  .  ib. 

Coggs,  Oxfordshire,  manor-house ;  window,  exterior  and  in- 
terior     .......  161 

Cottesford,  Oxfordshire ;  old  manor-house         .  .  .  162 

Ground-plan  .  .  .  .  .  .  ib. 

Window  and  drain  .  .  .  .  .  .  ib. 

West  Deane,  Sussex,  old  rectory-house  .  .  .  168 

Acton  Burnell  castle,  Shropshire  ;  south-west  view  and  plan     .  170 

Hall  and  plan         .  .  .  .  .  .  ib. 

Interior  of  window,  and  of  north-west  angle  and  tower  .  ib. 
Window  of  hall;  interior  of  door  and  window,  north  side  .  ib. 
Eemains  of  the  barn,  called  the  Parliament  house   .  .  ib. 

Somerton  castle,  Lincolnshire  ;  view  of  south-east  tower  .  172 

Interior  of  north-east  tower,  with  ground-plan       .  .  ib. 

General  ground-plan,  (text)  ....  173 

Old  Soar,  Plaxtole,  Kent  .  .  .  .  .174 

Ground-plan  .  .  .  .  .  .  ib. 

King's  Hall  at  Winchester;  window  at  west  end,  and  plan  of 

the  hall    .  .  .  .  .  .  .176 

Elevation  of  one  bay ;  exterior  and  interior  .  .  .  ib. 

Details        .  .  .  .  .  .  .  ib. 

Deanery,  Winchester,  entrance,  with  plan         .  .  .177 

Strangers'  Hall,  Winchester ;  two  views  .  .  .  178 

Flore's  House  at  Oakham,  Eutland,  doorway  and  drain  .  .  ib. 

Barn,  Eaunds,  Northamptonshire  ....  180 

Sections  of  mouldings  of  thirteenth  century  buildings    .  .  ib. 



French  Examples. 

Coucy,  window  in  the  keep  of  the  castle  of  .  .  267 

 painting  on  the  head  and  jambs  of  the  window  .  ib. 

Tours,  arcade  on  a  corner  house  at               .  .  .  268 

 window  of  a  house,  rue  Ste.  Croix      .  .  .  ib. 

 front  of  a  house,  rue  Briconnet         .  .  .  ib. 

 windows  of  a  house,  rue  de  Rapin      .  .  .  ib. 

Angers,  window  in  the  hospital  of  St.  John     .  .  .  270 

 window  in  the  Hospice  at                .  .  .  ib. 

 house  in  the  rue  des  Penitentes         .  .  .  ib. 

Eontevrault,  kitchen  of  the  abbey  of,  and  plan  .  .272 

 section  of  kitchen    .          .          .  .  .  ib. 

St.  Emilion,  window  of  a  house  at                 .  .  .  ib. 

Perigueux,  front  of  a  house  at           .          .  .  .  ib. 

Mont  St.  Michel,  window  of  the  library  at  .  .  274 

Dol,  part  of  the  front  of  a  house  at               .  .  .  ib. 

Beauvais,  house  at                .          .          .  .  .  ib. 


As  the  following  account  of  the  progress  of  domestic 
architecture  in  England  commences  only  with .  the  twelfth 
century,  some  notice  of  the  subject  during  earlier  periods 
may  be  reasonably  expected ;  yet  almost  all  that  can  be 
said  of  it  anterior  to  that  century  must  be  founded  chiefly 
on  conjecture. 

Neither  the  language  nor  the  civilization  of  the  Romans 
appear  to  have  made  any  great  impression  on  the  ancient 
population  of  England,  and  when  the  forces  of  the  empire 
were  finally  withdrawn  the  nation  relapsed  into  its  primi- 
tive barbarism.  The  feeble  school  of  native  workmen  who 
had  been  instructed  in  some  few  of  the  arts  in  which  their 
southern  conquerors  excelled,  never  produced  any  thing 
better  than  rude  imitations  of  the  models  by  which  they 
wrought.  The  works  of  the  Roman  settlers  themselves,  to 
judge  by  those  which  have  survived,  were  of  a  coarse  and 
debased  character.  Most  of  the  sculptures,  mosaics,  bronzes, 
and  pottery  which  belong  to  the  period  of  the  Roman  oc- 
cupation of  Britain,  and  are  presumed  to  be  the  work  of 
Roman  colonists,  are  inferior  in  character  and  execution  to 
remains  of  the  same  period  which  have  been  discovered  in 
Gaul  and  other  provinces  of  the  empire a.    Nor  is  this 

a  The  finer  bronzes,  and  other  works     amelled-bronze  figure  discovered  in  Sus- 
of  art,  which  have  been  found  in  this     sex,  and  presented,  by  Lord  Ashburn- 
country,  are  supposed  to  have  been  im-     ham,  to  the  British  Museum, 
ported.     Such  for  instance  as  the  en- 




surprising  if  it  be  remembered  that  the  Roman  troops 
who  occupied  the  British  islands  were  chiefly  foreign 
auxiliaries,  and  that  neither  the  climate  nor  the  wealth  of 
the  country  were  such  as  to  induce  any  extensive  settle- 
ment of  the  more  polished  subjects  of  the  Caesars.  A  few 
merchants  who  had  come  from  Belgium  and  Gaul,  a  few 
veterans  who  had  become  colonists,  a  few  of  the  chief  native 
inhabitants  who  had  received  the  honour  of  citizenship  and 
some  tincture  of  southern  civilization,  together  with  the 
army,  formed  all  that  could  be  strictly  termed  the  Roman, 
in  contradistinction  to  the  aboriginal,  population. 

Much  progress  in  the  arts  was  incompatible  with  such  a 
state  of  society,  and  the  science  of  architecture  above  all 
was  not  likely  to  be  exercised  with  great  effect.  The  for- 
tifications of  the  Romans  in  this  country  were,  it  is  true, 
on  that  grand  and  massive  scale  which  everywhere  marked 
their  military  defences,  as  enduring  remains  amply  shew ; 
but  the  temples  and  public  edifices  of  the  Romano-British 
cities,  although  constructed  on  the  unvarying  conventional 
principles  which  distinguished  the  best  examples  of  Latian 
art,  were  inferior  in  size  and  splendour  to  those  of  any 
other  province  of  the  empire.  Under  these  circumstances 
it  is  improbable  that  domestic  architecture,  which  even  in 
Italy  had  not  attained  a  great  degree  of  excellence  before 
the  last  days  of  the  Republic,  should  have  been  carried  to 
any  considerable  pitch  of  refinement  or  magnificence  by 
the  Roman  settlers  in  England. 

We  know,  however,  from  remains  of  domestic  habitations 
of  Roman  times  which  have  been  discovered  in  this  country, 
that  the  villas  and  town  houses  of  the  Roman  colonists 
were  generally  built  upon  the  same  plan  which  prevailed 
in  Italy.    In  this  respect  the  Roman  practice  was  as  un- 


changing  as  the  Chinese ;  the  same  principles  of  construc- 
tion were  observed  on  the  banks  of  the  Severn  and  the 
Thames,  as  on  those  of  the  Tiber  or  the  Po.  It  is  very 
probable  that  in  England  the  influence  of  climate  may 
have  modified  some  of  the  details  of  the  Roman  house : 
although  well  adapted  to  the  climate  of  Italy  the  open 
atrium,  with  a  rain-cistern,  or  impluvwm  in  its  centre, 
was  not  equally  suited  to  the  damp  atmosphere  of  Britain, 
and  here  therefore  that  apartment  may  have  been  covered 
in,  although  its  proportions  relatively  to  the  rest  of  the 
house  were  preserved13. 

The  various  parts  of  a  Roman  house  have  been  so  fre- 
quently described,  that  it  is  unnecessary  in  this  place  to 
enter  into  any  great  detail  respecting  them.  It  may  be 
observed,  however,  that  until  the  discovery  of  the  remains 
of  Pompeii  the  general  arrangement  of  the  apartments 
was  imperfectly  understood,  notwithstanding  the  letters  of 
Cicero  and  Pliny,  and  the  instructions  of  Vitruvius.  Judg- 
ing from  those  remains,  aided  by  the  writers  just  named, 
an  ordinary  Roman  house  does  not  appear  to  have  been 
either  a  comfortable  or  a  well-arranged  building.  The  size 
of  the  cubicula,  or  bedchambers,  was  usually  sacrificed  to  the 
atrium,  and  they  were  therefore  of  comparatively  small 
dimensions ;  they  derived  their  light  internally  from  that 
apartment,  and  rarely  from  windows  in  the  external  wall ; 
at  least  such  was  the  plan  adopted  in  Italy  i  but,  if,  as  has 
been  suggested,  the  atrium  was  entirely  roofed,  in  build- 
ings constructed  in  this  country,  external  windows  may 
have  been  more  common.  On  this  point  unfortunately  we 
have  no  evidence ;  the  remains  of  Roman  buildings  dis- 

b  No  impluvium  was  found  in  the  remarkable  ruins  at  Bignor,  in  Sussex. 
Archatologia,  vol.  xviii.  pp.  203—218. 



covered  in  England  scarcely  enable  us  to  trace  their  ground- 
plan,  much  less  to  give  any  opinion  as  to  their  elevations, 
with  the  exception  of  the  materials  composing  the  walls 
and  roofs. 

The  atrium  was  generally  the  only  sitting  room  for  the 
family,  and  was  ordinarily  the  kitchen  alsoc.  Thus  the 
chief  features  of  the  ordinary  Roman  house  were  a  large 
hall,  attached  to  which  were  one  or  more  small  chambers 
for  sleeping.  To  these  the  bath  remains  to  be  added,  for 
even  in  the  smallest  buildings  of  which  the  vestiges  have 
been  laid  bare,  a  hypocaust  has  usually  been  found :  the 
presence  of  this  apparatus  does  not,  it  is  true,  actually 
prove  that  it  was  attached  to  a  bath,  but  the  fair  inference 
is  that  such  was  generally  the  case.  The  skill  displayed  by 
the  Romans  in  the  arrangement  of  the  flues,  connected 
with  the  hypocaust,  by  which  their  apartments  were  heated, 
scarcely  prepares  us  to  believe  that  they  were  unacquainted 
with  the  use  of  chimneys ;  yet  the  balance  of  opinion  among 
the  best  modern  writers  on  the  subject  is  in  favour  of  such 
a  conclusion d. 

According  to  the  taste  and  wealth  of  the  owner,  a 
house  may  have  had  more  rooms  or  have  been  constructed 
on  a  greater  scale,  and  even  with  an  upper  story,  but  it 
has  too  long  been  the  fashion  to  assume  that  every  villa 
was  built  according  to  the  descriptions  of  Cicero  and 
Pliny  •  to  imagine  that  those  numerous  apartments  which 
were  necessary  to  the  convenience  or  fastidiousness  of 
the  wealthy  ordinarily  formed  parts  of  the  house  of  every 

c  Hence  in  middle-age  Latinity  atrium  covered  in  the  villa  at  Bignor :  "no  part 

came  to  signify  a  kitchen.  See  Du  Cange,  of  any  chimney  or  funnel  by  which  the 

sub  voce.  smoke  might  have  been  conveyed  away, 

d  The  authorities  in  favour  of  chimneys  remained."  Mr.  Lysons  in  Archaeologia, 

are  collected  by  Becker,  Gallus,  Sc.  ii.  ut  supra. 
Excurs.i.  Two  open  fire-places  were  dis- 



Roman  who  could  afford  to  possess  a  suburban  retreat. 
We  may  reasonably  assume  that  such  was  not  the  case  on 
the  continent,  and  the  description  here  given  is  submitted 
as  generally  accurate  with  respect  to  the  numerous  rural 
habitations  which  at  the  beginning  of  the  fifth  century 
were  scattered  over  Britain,  from  the  hills  of  Perthshire  to 
the  coast  of  Kent.  If  the  Roman  villa  was  in  any  part 
of  the  country  distinguished  by  greater  splendour,  it 
was  in  the  milder  climate  of  the  south-western  counties, 
where  ground-plans  have  been  traced,  on  sunny  slopes,  of 
edifices  which  seem  to  have  been  built  with  long  porticos, 
almost  rivalling  that  of  Pliny  at  Laurentinum,  and  paved 
with  mosaics  almost  equal  to  those  of  Italy6. 

Of  domestic  habitations  within  towns  during  the  Roman 
dominion  in  this  country,  we  know  very  little  ;  to  some  of 
them  what  has  been  said  of  the  country  residences  is,  of 
course,  applicable,  so  far  as  general  arrangement  is  con- 
cerned. Ground  not  being  so  valuable  as  in  Rome  and 
other  cities  of  the  continent,  we  may  conclude  the  houses 
were  generally  built  without  an  upper  story,  a  contrivance 
which  appears  to  have  been  originally  suggested  by  the 
difficulty  of  accommodating  an  increased  population  within 
a  limited  area.  Of  the  meaner  class  of  houses,  as  shops  for 
instance,  we  are  left  to  form  an  idea  from  an  inspection  of 
the  remains  of  such  buildings  at  Pompeii. 

The  Roman  method  of  building  in  England  appears  to 
have  been  fully  as  substantial  as  that  observed  in  Italy ; 
wherever  the  remains  of  their  edifices  are  laid  bare  by  the 

e  The  supposed  cryptoporticus  at  Big- 
nor  was  of  the  entire  length  of  two  hun- 
dred and  twenty-seven  feet.  The  mo- 
saics  found   there,  attributed   by  Mr. 

Lysons  to  the  age  of  Titus,  were  superior 
in  design  and  execution  to  any  other 
examples  known  to  exist  in  this  country. 
Archaeologia,  vol.  xviii.  pp.  203 — 208. 



plough,  or  by  excavating,  the  foundations  are  invariably  of 
the  most  solid  materials  ;  concrete,  stone  and  tile.  Some 
of  the  best  quarries  known  at  the  present  day  were  known 
and  worked  in  the  fourth  century  of  our  sera,  and  not 
merely  for  constructions  in  their  immediate  vicinity.  The 
great  roads  constructed  by  the  Romans  throughout  this 
island  rendered  the  transport  of  materials  from  distant 
points  more  easy  then  than  it  was,  probably,  in  the  eleventh 
and  twelfth  centuries,  when  those  roads  had  fallen  into 
decay;  and  the  geologist  now  often  recognises  in  the  ruins 
of  Roman  villas  situated  in  districts  not  devoid  of  quarries, 
stone  of  a  superior  quality,  which  must  have  been  brought 
by  land  or  water  fifty  or  a  hundred  miles.  The  edifices  of 
the  towns  they  founded  were  equally  well  built,  and  en- 
dured through  the  succeeding  periods  of  British  anarchy, 
Saxon  conquest,  and  Danish  spoliation.  In  the  tenth  and 
eleventh  centuries  the  ruins  of  Verulamium  furnished 
materials  for  the  construction  of  the  church  and  abbey  of 
St.  Alban's  ;  and  recent  discoveries  prove  that  source  to  be 
not  yet  exhausted.  When  the  Saxon  power  was  at  its 
zenith,  massive  buildings  of  Roman  days,  yet  standing  in 
the  chief  towns  of  England,  were  significantly  distinguished 
in  the  Saxon  dialect  from  constructions  of  a  later  date ;  as 
the  quarter  called  the  Aldwark  in  York,  and  the  suburb 
called  the  Southwark  at  London. 

We  may  reasonably  assume  that  when  the  Romans 
finally  abandoned  England  as  a  colony,  every  building 
throughout  the  country,  except  the  huts  of  the  native 
peasantry  and  labourers,  exhibited  in  a  greater  or  less 
degree  the  peculiar  features  of  their  style  of  architecture. 
Nor  does  there  appear  to  be  any  good  reason  for  sup- 
posing that  this  condition    of  things  was  immediately 



changed.  Their  retirement  was  not  sudden  but  gradual ; 
and  the  state  of  the  continent  was  not  such  as  to  induce 
the  emigration  of  any  great  numbers  of  the  Romano-British 
population,  although  they  found  themselves  deprived  of  the 
protection  of  the  forces  of  the  empire.  The  history  of  the 
period  between  the  withdrawal  of  the  Roman  legions  and 
the  arrival  of  the  Saxons  is,  however,  a  mass  of  fable 
and  contradictions,  amidst  which  we  search  in  vain  for 
glimpses  of  truth  ;  one  fact  alone  is  certain,  that  it  was 
a  period  of  internal  discord,  and,  therefore,  unfavourable 
either  to  the  progress  or  the  preservation  of  the  arts. 
Yet  it  cannot  be  doubted  that  when  the  Saxons  landed  in 
England  they  found  its  population  dwelling  in  towns  still 
possessing  all  the  chief  features  of  Roman  construction, 
both  civil  and  military.  Those  features  could  not  have 
been  immediately  and  wholly  effaced,  destructive  as  was 
the  struggle  which  took  place  before  the  supremacy  of  the 
new  comers  was  established.  Whatever  was  destroyed  was 
destroyed  in  warfare,  that  ended  it  would  be  puerile  to 
suppose  that  the  Saxons  pulled  down  every  thing  that  re- 
mained for  the  sake  of  rebuilding  after  their  own  fashion. 

Here  the  question  arises,  how,  or  in  what  style,  the 
Saxons  were  likely  to  replace  the  habitations  they  destroyed. 
If  we  turn  to  the  Sagas,  and  other  early  records  of  the 
history  and  manners  of  the  northern  races,  we  find  that 
the  dwellings  of  their  kings  and  chiefs  in  the  countries 
adjacent  to  the  Baltic  consisted  only  of  two  apartments, 
and  that  sovereigns  and  their  counsellors  are  described  as 
sleeping  in  the  same  room.  The  habitations  of  the  mass  of 
the  people  were  wooden  huts,  rarely  containing  more  than 
one  room,  in  the  centre  of  which  the  fire  was  kindled. 
Such  was  the  style  of  domestic  architecture  which  the 



Saxons  would  bring  with  them  to  this  country;  and  in 
that  fashion  most  of  their  houses  were  built  down  to  the 
latest  period  of  their  dominion.  To  this  method  there  was 
nothing  repugnant  in  houses  erected  on  the  Roman  plan 
which  they  found  on  their  arrival,  and  we  may  be  pretty 
certain  that  wherever  in  town  or  country  such  houses 
existed  in  a  habitable  state,  or  capable  of  being  made 
habitable,  however  rudely,  they  were  occupied  by  the  in- 
vadersf.  The  Saxon  chieftain  would  find  better  accommo- 
dation in  a  large  Roman  house,  with  its  spacious  atrium, 
than  he  had  been  wont  to  enjoy,  and  in  its  essential  fea- 
tures the  plan  of  the  edifice  did  not  vary  from  that  of  the 
rude  habitation  of  his  fatherland ;  there  was  still  the  hall 
for  feasting  his  numerous  retainers,  and  more  chambers  for 
other  domestic  purposes. 

It  is  sufficiently  obvious  that  buildings  either  wholly 
or  partially  of  Roman  construction  must  have  gradually 
diminished  in  number  during  the  continual  wars  of  the 
Saxon  period  ;  and  it  is  next  to  certain  that  most  do- 
mestic edifices  built  during  the  same  time  were  chiefly  of 
wood,  a  material  which  could  be  more  readily  obtained  and 
more  easily  converted  than  stone.  The  quarries  which  had 
supplied  the  Roman  builders  ceased  to  be  worked;  the 
mechanical  skill  of  the  new  conquerors  was  scanty,  and 
had  it  been  greater  the  difficulty  and  cost  of  carrying 
were  obstacles  not  easily  surmounted.  The  Saxon  thegne 
built  his  "hall"  from  the  woods  on  his  demesne,  by  the 

f  Mr.  Kemble,  in  his  "  Saxons  in  of  London  and  York,  of  Gloucester  and 
England,"  is  of  opinion  that  the  Saxons  Chester,  proved  equally  attractive  to 
avoided  Roman  towns.  No  doubt  they  their  successors  in  power.  The  ad- 
formed  many  new  rural  settlements,  vantage  of  water  communication  would 
but  the  same  convenience  of  situation  equally  influence  Roman  and  Saxon, 
which  led  the  Romans  to  fix  on  the  sites 


labour  of  his  bondmeng;  it  was  thatched  with  reeds  or 
straw,  or  roofed  with  wooden  shingles.  In  plan  it  was 
little  more  than  its  name  implied,  a  capacious  apartment 
which  in  the  day-time  was  adapted  to  the  patriarchal  hos- 
pitality of  the  owner,  and  formed,  at  night,  a  sort  of  stable 
for  his  servants11,  to  whose  rude  accommodation  their  mas- 
ter's was  not  much  superior  in  a  small  adjoining  chamber. 
There  was,  as  yet,  but  a  slight  perception  of  the  decencies 
of  life.  The  fire  was  kindled  in  the  centre  of  the  hall ; 
the  smoke  made  its  way  out  through  an  opening  in  the 
roof  immediately  above  the  hearth,  or  by  the  door,  windows 
or  eaves  of  the  thatch.  The  lord  and  his  "hearth-men," 
a  significant  appellation  given  to  the  most  familiar  re- 
tainers1, sat  by  the  same  fire  at  which  their  repast  was 
cooked,  and  at  night  retired  to  share  the  same  dormitory, 
which  served  also  as  a  council  chamber.  These  hearth- 
companions  of  the  Saxon  kings  and  nobles  have  been  com- 
pared by  writers  of  considerable  erudition,  to  the  counts 
of  the  palace  of  the  Frank  sovereigns,  and  no  doubt  some 
analogy  existed  between  the  customs  of  all  the  northern 
races  which  supplanted  the  Roman  power.    So  late  as  the 

&  See  in  the  Venedotian  code,  art.  16; 
"  nine  buildings  which  the  villains  of 
the  king  are  to  erect  for  him  :  a  hall,  a 
chamber,  a  buttery,  a  stable,  a  dog-house, 
a  barn,  a  kiln,  a  privy,  and  a  dormitory." 
Ancient  Laws  and  Institutes  of  Wales, 
p.  37.  See  also  for  the  worth  of  the 
hall,  p.  142. 

h  Persons  of  higher  rank  also  slept  in 
the  hall.  "  A  multitude  of  warriors 
watched  the  hall,  as  they  before  had  often 

'  Beowulf,  1.  4353. 

dreah  aefter  dome 
nealles  druncne  slog 

done;  they  bared  the  bench-planks;  it 
was  spread  all  over  with  beds  and  bolsters  ; 
some  one  of  the  beer-servants,  ready  and 
fated  to  die,  bent  to  his  palace  rest." 
Beowulf,  translated  by  J.  M.  Kemble, 
vol.  ii.  p.  51.  Compare  the  regulations 
of  the  king's  hall  in  the  Welsh  Laws, 
"The  king's  hall  is  to  be  apportioned 
into  three  parts,"  &c.  Ancient  Laws 
and  Institutes  of  Wales,  p.  688. 

he  acted  according  to  justice, 
nor  drunken  struck 
his  hearth  companions. 



fourteenth  century  it  was  the  custom  of  a  king  of  France 
to  distinguish  those  courtiers  and  counsellors  whom  he 
particularly  favoured,  by  inviting  one  or  more  of  them  to 
share  his  bed,  or  to  sleep  in  the  same  room. 

During  the  greater  part  of  the  Saxon  period  houses  in 
towns  appear  to  have  been  generally  constructed  of  woodk 
or  mud,  with  thatched  roofs.    We  have  no  better  autho- 
rities on  this  point  than  the  manuscripts  containing  the 
miracles  wrought  by  various  saints  in  those  ages.    It  is 
true  that  perhaps  few  of  these  writings  are  older  than 
the  tenth  century,  many  were  certainly  composed  about 
that  time ;  but  the  notices  they  afford  of  contemporary 
domestic  buildings  must  be  taken  as  correct,  and  we  may 
infer  that  the  edifices  described  were  then  very  much  what 
they  had  been  for  several  centuries,  mean  in  size,  generally 
without  an  upper  floor,  and  mostly  containing  but  one 
room.    The  treatise  of  Lantfred,  a  monk  of  Winchester, 
on  the  miracles  of  St.  Swithun,  seems  to  have  been  com- 
piled between  the  years  950  and  1000  ;  it  refers  prin- 
cipally to  events  which  occurred  at  Winchester,  and  fur- 
nishes us  with  some  means  of  forming  an  idea  of  the 
aspect  of  that  ancient  capital  of  the  most  powerful  Saxon 
state.    The  houses  of  the  persons  to  whom  the  saint  ap- 
peared in  visions,  are  often  called  huts,  (tuguria,)  in  one 
case,  the  dwelling  of  an  honest  smith  is  said  to  have  had 
an  old  roof  or  thatch1;  another  dwelling  is  termed  a  ce  little 
house"  {domicula).    Offending  slaves,  whom  their  owners 
had  manacled,  reserving  them  for  further  punishment,  see 
their  masters  leave  home,  and  so  take  the  opportunity  to 

k  Thus  in  the  Colloquium  of  /Elfric, 
the  treo-wriht,  or  carpenter,  replies  to 
the  querist  "  that  he  makes  houses  and 

1  "  Sanctus  vates — tugurium  obsoleti 
deserens  tegetis."  MS.  Reg.  15  C.  7, 
fol.  7  b. 


escape,  which  they  could  not  well  do  unless  they  had  been 
in  the  same  room.  Almost  every  allusion  to  houses  con- 
tained in  this  work  proves  their  small  dimensions.  We 
may  thus  understand  how  Winchester  could  contain  the 
numerous  population  it  is  said  to  have  had  in  Saxon  times. 
Its  streets  consisted  of  low  huts,  closely  packed  together : 
at  the  time  of  the  survey  taken  in  the  reign  of  Henry  I. 
those  streets  were  sixteen  in  number;  in  the  fifteenth 
century,  nine  of  them  were  in  a  ruinous  and  deserted  state, 
having,  in  all  probability,  never  been  any  better  than  in 
Saxon  times — rows  of  wooden  and  mud  hovels.  Much 
stress  has  been  laid  upon  the  supposed  opulence  of  Win- 
chester from  the  number  of  goldsmiths  enumerated  in  the 
survey  alluded  to ;  but  there  is  very  little  in  the  point. 
The  goldsmiths  in  those  days  worked,  but  did  not  gene- 
rally trade,  in  the  precious  metals  :  and  there  is  no  reason 
to  suppose  they  had  better  dwellings  than  any  other  class 
of  artificers  in  early  times.  The  goldsmiths  of  Paris  worked 
and  dwelt  in  booths  on  the  Pont-au-Change,  and  the  Pont- 
Notre-Dame,  as  late  as  the  fourteenth  century. 

The  houses  of  London  in  Saxon  times  could  not  have 
been  superior  to  those  of  Winchester ;  a  statement  made 
by  the  chief  inhabitants  of  that  city  in  the  twelfth  century, 
expressly  declares  that  down  to  the  reign  of  Stephen  the 
houses  were  built  of  wood  and  covered  with  thatch.  At 
length  the  frequent  recurrence  of  disastrous  fires  compelled 
the  citizens  to  employ,  where  possible,  more  enduring  ma- 
terials, but  London,  nevertheless,  continued  to  be  a  town 
mainly  of  wood  and  plaster,  almost  to  the  period  of  the 
great  conflagration  in  the  seventeenth  century. 

Prom  these  facts  it  may  be  justly  inferred  that  through- 
out the  whole  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  period,  domestic  habita- 


tions  were  generally  constructed  on  a  very  small  scale,  and 
were  adapted  only  to  afford  one  of  the  great  necessaries  of 
life,  protection  from  the  weather.  Style  in  architecture 
there  could  have  been  none,  properly  speaking :  one  house 
may  have  differed  from  another  in  being  higher  or  lower,  a 
square  or  a  parallelogram ;  but  there  the  difference  ceased  : 
all  must  have  been  alike  rude  internally  and  externally ; 
faintly  lighted,  badly  ventilated,  and  wanting  in  every  ap- 
pliance for  comfort  and  decency.  It  is  not  improbable, 
however,  that  the  house  of  an  Anglo-Saxon  thegne  may 
have  exhibited  some  coarse  decorative  features.  The  parti- 
ality of  the  northern  races  to  carving,  particularly,  in  the 
ornamentation  of  their  war-galleys,  is  well  known.  Those 
vessels  were  sculptured  at  the  prow  with  representations  of 
the  animals  or  reptiles,  fabulous  or  real,  after  which  they 
were  named,  and  were  besides  resplendent  with  paint  and 
gilding.  The  history  of  art  amply  shews  that  wherever  the 
first  principles  of  decoration  have  been  introduced  among 
a  people,  their  application  soon  becomes  general :  the  same 
conventional  and  mythic  forms  which  adorned  the  sea-boat 
of  the  Saxon,  appeared  on  the  slab  or  cross,  which  marked 
his  burial-place,  and  on  the  ornaments  and  vessels  of  brass, 
or  more  precious  metals,  which  he  wore  on  his  person  or 
used  at  table ;  and  similar  designs  may  have  been  rudely 
painted,  or  more  rudely  carved  both  within  and  without 
his  dwelling.  The  introduction  of  painting  is  commonly 
said,  on  the  authority  of  Beda,  to  have  taken  place  in  the 
seventh  century ;  but  his  words  may  be  understood  to 
refer  only  to  the  northern  parts  of  the  kingdom"1 :  indeed, 

m  If,  indeed,  they  imply  more  than     opera  hist,  minora  Ven.  Bedae,  Lond. 
that  Benedict  brought  pictures  already     1841.  p.  145. 
finished.    See  Vit.   S.   Benedicti  inter 



it  is  probable  they  allude  simply  to  the  first  application  of 
that  species  of  decoration  to  ecclesiastical  buildings.  It  is 
obvious  that  people  who  possessed  a  sufficient  knowledge  of 
colours  to  enable  them  to  paint  one  class  of  objects  were 
likely  to  apply  the  same  skill  to  another ;  and  it  seems  in- 
contestable that  the  Saxons  painted  their  vessels  in  very 
remote  times.  That  exterior  ornaments  were  sometimes 
given  to  domestic  buildings  in  Saxon  times,  scarcely  admits 
of  doubt ;  the  "  pinnacled  hall"  is  a  phrase  which  occurs 
in  the  poem  of  Beowulf" ;  from  another  passage  in  the 
same  work,  we  may  gather  that  the  roof  of  a  Saxon  hall 
had  a  high  pitch,  and  was  sometimes  covered  with  a  better 
material  than  thatch :  "he  went  to  the  hall,  stood  on  the 
steps,  and  beheld  the  steep  roof  with  gold  adorned0." 

It  hardly  admits  of  reasonable  doubt,  however,  that  some 
edifices,  both  ecclesiastical  and  domestic,  were  built  during 
the  latter  centuries  of  Saxon  dominion,  of  stone,  and  in 
imitation  of  the  Roman  or  rather  Romanesque  style.  From 
the  period  of  the  conversion  of  the  nation  to  Christianity, 
and  more  particularly  from  the  close  of  the  seventh  century, 
the  intercourse  of  the  Saxons  with  foreign  countries  became 
greatly  extended,  both  by  commerce  and  by  the  custom  of 
religious  pilgrimages.  English  churchmen  and  traders 
were  frequent  visitors  in  the  chief  cities  of  France  and 
Italy :  from  Rome  they  sometimes  found  their  way  to 
Constantinople  and  Syria.  At  the  beginning  of  the  eighth 
century,  a  great  fair  was  held  yearly  in  the  city  of  Jerusalem 
which  was  attended  by  merchants  from  all  parts  of  the 

n  "The  hall  rose  aloft;    high  and  fifth  century.    The  text  copied  by  Mr. 

curved  with  pinnacles  it  awaited  the  hos-  Kemble  belongs  to  a  period  subsequent 

tile  waves  of  loathed  fire."     Kemble's  to  A.D.  597.  pref.,  p.  xx. 
Trans.,  p.  4.     The  date  of  the  events        °  Beowulf,  1.  1844. 
described  in  Beowulf  is  the  middle  of  the 



world p.  The  clergy  who  had  thus  become  familiar  with 
the  remains  of  ancient  art  existing  in  the  south  of  Eu- 
rope, as  well  as  with  the  superior  method  of  building- 
still  practised  there,  were  the  means  of  introducing  new 
modes  of  construction  in  their  own  country  ;  they  desired, 
like  Benedict  of  Wear  mouth,  to  have  their  churches  built 
"in  the  Roman  manner"  {more  Romano),  and  to  that  end 
hired  artificers  from  the  continent.  It  has  been  well  ob- 
served by  a  learned  writer  of  the  last  century,  that  skilful 
workmen  were  always  to  be  found  in  Italy,  notwithstanding 
its  occupation  by  the  barbariansq:  the  masons  of  Como  are 
mentioned  in  the  Lombardic  coder,  and  the  class  of  native 
artists  was  increased  from  time  to  time  by  others  who  emi- 
grated from  Byzantium  in  search  of  employment.  The  tide 
of  art  rolled  northwards  by  the  Rhine,  and  thus  in  the 
seventh  century,  a  Saxon  ecclesiastic  could  hire  masons, 
glaziers,  and  other  necessary  workmen  in  France. 

What  the  style  then  called  "  Roman"  was,  as  applied  to 
churches,  is  known  to  us,  by  many  buildings  still  existing 
in  Italy,  and  we  may  observe  from  illuminations,  or  draw- 
ings, in  manuscripts  executed  in  England,  that  the  general 
principles  of  that  style  seem  to  have  been  rendered  subser- 
vient to  domestic  buildings.   When  a  king  or  noble  built  his 

p  "Diversarum  gentium  undique  prope 
innumera  multitudo,  15  die  Septem- 
bris  anniversario  more,  in  Hierosolymis 
convenire  solet  ad  commercia  mutuis 
conditionibus  et  emtionibus  peragenda." 
See  the  travels  of  St.  Arculf  inter  Acta 
Sanct.  Ord.  S.  Benedicti,  vol.  iv.  The 
history  of  European  commerce  before  the 
aera  of  the  first  crusade  has  never  been 
satisfactorily  elucidated  :  there  is  a  slight 
essay  on  the  subject,  by  M.  de  Guignes, 
among  the  "  Memoires  de  l'Academie, 

Royale  des  Inscriptions  et  Belles-Let- 
tres,"  vol.  37,  pp.  467—527.  The  author 
believed  that  the  interruption  of  the  ac- 
customed traffic  with  the  east  contributed 
in  a  great  measure,  though  indirectly,  to 
excite  the  people  of  Europe  to  attempt 
the  recovery  of  the  Holy  Land. 

i  Muratori  de  Antiq.  Ital.,  diss.  xxiv. 
"  de  artibus  Italicorum  post  inclinationem 
Rom  an  i  imperii." 

r  Leg.  144. 



hall  of  stone,  the  furcce,  or  wooden  posts,  which  had  at  an 
earlier  time  supported  the  thatch,  gave  place  to  columns  of 
stone  connected  by  circular  arches,  and  light  was  admitted 
by  round  or  square-headed  windows.  These  columns  were 
ornamented  by  rude  capitals  and  bases  which  sometimes 
bore  a  slight  resemblance  to  ancient  forms,  and  sometimes 
exhibited  no  relation  whatever  to  any  preconceived  type8. 
The  roof  appears  to  have  been  covered  with  oval-shaped  tiles 
or  shingles,  such  as  the  Romans  had  used,  and  examples  of 
which  are  often  found  among  their  remains  in  this  country. 
If  we  are  to  rely  upon  the  authority  of  these  ancient 
drawings,  the  iron-work  on  hall- doors  was  as  florid  and 
luxuriant  in  design  as  such  work  undoubtedly  was  in  the 
thirteenth  and  fourteenth  centuries* ;  nor  is  this,  perhaps, 
very  improbable,  considering  how  anciently  the  working  of 
iron  had  been  practised  among  the  northern  races",  and  the 
general  skill  of  the  Saxons  in  metallurgy.  Houses  are  re- 
presented adorned  with  towers  with  conical  roofs  ;  walls  are 
generally  drawn  with  crenellationsx. 

"  Unfortunately,  the  drawings  in  Saxon  manuscripts  cannot 
be  entirely  depended  on  as  accurate  delineations  of  contem- 
porary architecture,  ecclesiastical  or  domestic.  Notwith- 
standing the  great  difference  in  style  perceptible  among 
them,  it  is  obvious  that  the  artists  generally  worked  after 
certain  admitted  standards  of  design,  which  seem  to  have 
been  furnished  originally  by  the  Greek  school,  to  which  later 

s  See  the  drawing  representing  the  especially  the  internal  hinges  of  the  gate 

birth  of  Abel,  from  the  metrical  para-  of  Paradise,  pi.  58,  shewing  how  the  door 

phrase  of  Casdmon,  engraved  in  the  Ar-  was  hung  to  the  jamb, 

chseologia,  vol.  xxiv.  pi.  47.  Compare  the  u  The  king's  "  ambiht  smid"  or  master 

capitals  with  those  in  pi.  57.    The  date  smith  (prefectus  fabrorum),  is  named  in 

of  this  manuscript  is   about  the  year  the  laws  of  iEthelbiiht,  king  of  Kent, 

1000.  who  died  early  in  the  seventh  century. 

*  See  the  drawings  in  Caedmon,  passim,  x  Caedmon,  pi.  81,  87. 



additions  were  made  from  time  to  time.  This  con- 
ventional style  of  drawing  lasted  till  the  twelfth  cen- 
tury ;  and  there  is  little  difference  between  the  archi- 
tectural details  in  works  of  that  age  and  those  which 
occur  in  writings  two  centuries  older.  Occasionally 
also  we  may  perceive  a  strong  tinge  of  Saracenic  cha- 
racter in  Saxon  delineations  of  buildings  ;  this  may  be 
remarked,  particularly,  in  a  drawing  representing  the 
Annunciation,  in  the  celebrated  Benedictional  of  St. 
iEthelwold,  where  the  blessed  Virgin  is  seated  under  a 
porch,  covered  by  a  dome,  wholly  in  the  Arabian  style y. 
On  the  other  hand,  many  of  the  architectural  decorations 
in  the  same  manuscript,  as  the  acanthus-leaved  capitals 
and  bases  of  columns,  are  drawn  with  a  grace  and  freedom 
to  which  there  could  have  been  no  parallel  in  any  English 
building  extant,  when  those  drawings  were  made,  in  the 
latter  half  of  the  tenth  century.  Still,  although  too  much 
credit  is  not  to  be  given  to  early  illuminations,  they 
frequently  present  minor  details  which  were  undoubtedly 
taken  by  the  artists  from  objects  which  surrounded  them  ; 
and  the  impression  left  on  the  mind,  by  a  careful  com- 
parison of  various  examples,  will  be,  that  much  of  the 
Romanesque  style  prevailed  in  some  domestic  buildings 
erected  in  this  country  in  the  ninth  and  tenth  centuries. 
Indeed,  it  is  not  easy  to  perceive  that  a  substantially  built 
Saxon  hall  could  have  materially  differed  from  a  Norman 
hall  of  the  same  period,  any  more  than  a  Saxon  house 
could  have  differed  in  its  arrangement  from  a  Norman 
house.  The  chief  difference  was,  probably,  that  the  latter 
had  an  upper  story,  a  feature  which  seems  to  have  been  un- 
common in  England  until  late  in  the  twelfth  century.  Both 

J  Archaeologia,  vol.  xxiv.  pi.  x.  p.  50. 



Saxon  and  Norman  had  originally  built  much  in  the  same 
style,  and  both  derived  every  modification  and  improve- 
ment of  that  style  from  the  same  source — an  imitation  of 
the  details  of  Roman  architecture. 

There  is  one  very  necessary  feature  in  a  house,  for 
which  we  look  in  vain  among  Saxon  drawings, — a  chimney. 
That  useful  invention  appears  to  have  been  then  unknown, 
in  England,  as  indeed  it  was  in  many  parts  of  Europe, 
until  the  fifteenth  century.  Perhaps  the  strongest  argu- 
ment in  favour  of  the  opinion  that  there  were  no  chimneys 
in  ancient  Roman  houses,  is  supplied  by  the  fact  that  there 
were  none  in  Roman  houses  of  the  fourteenth  century;  al- 
though this  contrivance  appears  to  have  been  then  known 
in  at  least  one  of  the  Italian  cities.  In  1368,  a  prince  of 
Padua,  on  making  a  journey  to  Rome,  took  with  him  ma- 
sons who  constructed  a  chimney  in  the  inn  at  which  he 
stayed,  "  because  in  the  city  of  Rome  they  did  not  then  use 
chimneys  ;  and  all  lighted  the  fire  in  the  middle  of  the 
house,  on  the  floor2."  A  chronicler  of  Placentia,  who  wrote 
in  the  same  century,  praising  the  frugality  of  past  times, 
and  censuring  the  luxury  then  prevalent  among  all  classes, 
observes,  "  there  was  then  no  chimney  in  houses,  because 
then  they  made  only  a  fire  in  the  middle  of  the  house 
under  the  dome  of  the  roof.  And  all  of  the  said  house 
stood  around  the  said  fire  ;  and  there  the  cooking  was 
done.    And  in  my  time  I  have  seen  it  in  many  houses a." 

z  "  Perche  nella  citta  di  Roma  allora  domo  stabant  circa  dictum  ignem  ;  et 

non  si  usavano  camini  ;  anzi  tutti  face-  ibi  fiebat  coquina.    Et  vidi  meo  tempore 

vano  fuoco  in  mezzo  delle  case  in  terra."  in  pluribus   domibus."  —  Muratori,  ut 

— Muratori,  Antiq.  Italicas,  vol.  ii.  diss.  supra,  col.  419.    Muratori  thought  that 

25,  col.  418.  chimneys  might  have   been  known  in 

a  "  In  quibus  domibus  nullum  sole-  Roman  times,  and  that  they  were  for- 

bat  esse  caminum  ;  quia  tunc  faciebant  gotten  after  the  irruption  of  the  bar- 

unum  ignem  tantum  in  medio  domus  bariane. 
sub  cupis  tecti.     Et  omnes  de  dicta 




It  must  be  confessed,  however,  that  in  investigating  the 
antiquity  of  chimneys,  well  ascertained  facts  are  strangely 
opposed  to  the  statements  of  respectable  writers  of  early 
times.  Thus  in  the  sixteenth  century  we  rind  Leland  ex- 
pressing some  wonder  at  a  chimney  in  Bolton  castle,  al- 
though existing  remains  fully  prove  that  perpendicular 
flues  were  constructed  in  this  country  in  the  twelfth  cen- 
tury. The  only  solution  of  the  difficulty  that  offers  itself, 
is  to  presume,  that  although  the  principle  of  the  modern 
chimney  was  understood  at  a  very  early,  it  was  not  gene- 
rally adopted  until  a  comparatively  recent  time. 

Whatever  amount  of  difficulty  may  attend  our  enquiry 
respecting  the  domestic  buildings  of  the  Saxons,  the  cha- 
racter of  their  military  edifices  is  involved  in  far  greater 
obscurity.  If  reliance  is  to  be  placed  on  the  drawings  at- 
tributed to  Saxon  times,  a  hall  and  other  buildings  sur- 
rounded by  a  high  embattled  wall  appears  to  have  been 
the  usual  mode  of  fortification5 ;  all  the  internal  buildings 
seem  to  have  been  of  lower  elevation  than  the  ramparts, 
by  which  they  were  effectually  screened  •  whenever  mural 
towers  are  represented  they  are  of  no  great  height,  and  are 
crowned  by  pyramidal  roofs.    In  these  details  a  marked 

b  The  Saxon  Chronicle,  describing  the 
building  of  Bamborough  by  Ida,  in  the 
sixth  century,  says,  he  "  built  Barn- 
borough,  which  was  at  first  inclosed  by 
a  hedge,  and  afterwards  by  a  wall:" — 
"  he  getimbrade  Bebban-burh.  sy  wses 
aerorst  mid  hegge  betined.  and  thser 
aefter  mid  wealle."  Monumenta  His- 
torica  Britannica,  vol.  i.  p.  302.  The 
reader  may  be  referred  also  to  a  curious 
poetical  fragment  entitled  "  The  Ruin," 
in  the  Codex  Exoniensis,  a  MS.  of  the 
tenth  century,  for  a  description  of  a 
Saxon  fortress. 

"  Wonderous  is  this  wall-stone 

the  fates  have  broken  it, 

have  burst  the  burgh-place. 

Perishes  the  work  of  giants, 

the  roofs  are  fallen, 

the  towers  tottering, 

the  hoar  gate-towers  despoil'd, 

rime  on  the  lime, 

shatter'd  the  battlements,"  &c. 
Codex  Exon.,ed.B.Thorpe,1842;  p.  476. 

It  is  not  improbable,  however,  that 
these  lines  may  have  been  suggested  by 
a  decayed  Roman  building. 



contrast  is  seen  to  the  style  introduced  by  the  Normans, 
in  which  the  lofty  proportions  of  all  the  members  form 
a  distinguishing  characteristic.  At  the  same  time  it  must 
be  acknowledged  that  several  eminent  antiquaries  have 
claimed  a  Saxon  origin  for  some  castellated  structures  yet 
existing.  Sir  Walter  Scott  considered  Coningsburgh  castle 
to  be  "one  of  the  very  few  remaining  examples  of  Saxon 
fortification0;"  and  Mr.  King  attributed  a  similar  antiquity 
to  the  castle  of  Bamboroughrt ;  yet  both  these  edifices  are 
now  thought  to  belong  to  the  Norman  period.  Numerous 
castles  of  stone  and  brick,  fortified  with  walls  and  lofty 
towers,  are  described  among  the  glories  of  Britain  by  Gildas 
and  Nennius,  and  also  by  Beda ;  these  authorities,  however, 
apparently  three  in  number,  are  in  reality  but  one ;  as  Nen- 
nius writing  in  the  ninth  century  merely  copies  the  words 
of  Gildas,  who  lived  in  the  sixth,  who  is  also  the  autho- 
rity used  by  Beda.  But  even  admitting  the  testimony  of 
Gildas  and  Nennius  to  be  unimpeachable,  their  expres- 
sions are  vague  and  rhetorical ;  while  Beda  speaks  of  these 
castles  as  formerly  existing6 ;  it  is  therefore  extremely  pro- 

c  See  the  last  note  (L)  to  the  romance 
of  Ivanhoe  ;  in  which  Sir  Walter  allu- 
ding to  the  burghs  of  the  Zetland  islands, 
as  remains  of  the  "  architecture  of  the 
ancient  Scandinavians,"  observes,  "  I  am 
inclined  to  regard  the  singular  castle  of 
Coningsburgh — I  mean  the  Saxon  part 
of  it — as  a  step  in  advance  from  the  rude 
architecture,  if  it  deserves  the  name, 
which  must  have  been  common  to  the 
Saxons  as  to  other  Northmen." 

d  The  Saxon  chronicle,  ut  supra,  does 
not  say  that  Ida  erected  a  castle  at  Barn- 
borough  ;  he  made  the  rock  an  enclosed 
burh  only.  Simeon  of  Durham,  writing 
at  the  beginning  of  the  twelfth  century, 
does  not  mention  a  castle  there ;  his 
words  are  ;  "  Bebba  vero  civitas  urbs  est 

munitissima,  non  admodum  magna,  sed 
quasi  duorum  vel  trium  agrorum  spatium, 
habens  unum  introitum  cavatum,  et 
gradibus  miro  modo  exaltatum.  Habet 
in  summitate  montis  ecclesiam  praepul- 
chre  factam,"  &c. — Monumenta  Hist. 
Brit.,  p.  664.  It  would  appear  from  the 
Pipe  Rolls  that  the  existing  keep  of  Bam- 
borongh,  was  built  about  the  end  of  the 
twelfth  centnry,  and  in  the  reign  of 
Henry  the  Second.  It  has  been  much 
altered  in  its  details. 

e  "  Erat  et  civitatibus  quondam  viginti 
et  octo  nobilissimis  insignita,  praeter  cas- 
tella  innnmera,  quae  et  ipsa  muris,  tur- 
ribus,  portis,  ac  seris  erant  instructa 
firmissimis." — Bedae  Hist.  Eccl.,  lib.  i, 
cap.  1. 



babie  that  buildings  of  Roman  times  were  referred  to. 
It  is  moreover  a  significant  fact  that  of  forty-nine  castles 
enumerated  in  the  Domesday  Survey,  one  only,  that  of 
Arundel,  is  said  to  have  been  standing  in  the  time  of  the 
Confessor;  we  have  no  mention  of  castles  in  the  Saxon 
Chronicle ;  and  no  fortified  places  obstructed  the  march  of 
William  to  London.    On  the  other  hand  we  have  the  con- 
curring testimony  of  all  early  writers  that  the  Conqueror 
was  obliged  to  build  fortresses  in  various  parts  to  overawe 
the  surrounding  country.    The  passage  of  Beda  in  which 
he  speaks  of  Putta  as  bishop  "  castetti  Cantuariorum,"  has 
been  taken  by  some  as  proof  that  a  castle  existed  at  Roch- 
ester before  the  Conquest ;  but  it  is  evident  from  the  con- 
text that  Beda  only  uses  the  word  castettum  as  synonymous 
with  the  Latin  castrum f,  a  fortified  station  which  had  grown 
into  a  city.    Roman  stations  bore  no  analogy  to  those  iso- 
lated citadels  which  were  erected  in  England  during  the 
Norman  period,  except  in  so  far  as  both  stations  and 
castles  naturally  became,  in  their  respective  periods,  nuclei 
of  towns,  owing  to  the  population  of  the  neighbourhood 
thronging  to  spots  which  afforded  protection ;  here  how- 
ever all  likeness  ceased.    The  Roman  stations  were  fixed 
with  reference  to  the  lines  of  road  throughout  the  country, 
and  the  maintenance  of  a  general  plan  of  communication 
between  military  posts  :  the  Norman  castle  when  not  reared 
in  a  town  of  Roman  foundation,  as  Rochester,  Chester,  or 
Norwich,  was  built  merely  with  a  view  to  the  advantage  of 
the  owner  and  the  defence  of  his  individual  estate  ;  it  was 
the  chief  place  of  his  honour  or  fee. 

On  the  whole  an  anxious  consideration  of  all  existing 

f  His  words  are,  "Putta  episcopus  Hrofescaestir,"  &c. — Hist.  Eccl.,  lib.  iv. 
Caste. li     Cantuariorum    quod    dicitur     cap.  5. 


sources  of  information  leads  to  the  conclusion  that  Saxon 
fortifications  were  confined  to  the  enclosure  of  an  advan- 
tageous site,  as  Bamborough,  for  example,  by  a  wall,  and, 
where  necessary,  possibly  by  earth-works :  but  the  strength 
of  such  positions  must  have  been  generally  inconsiderable, 
or  the  skill  of  the  defenders  must  have  been  small,  as 
throughout  the  annals  of  the  Saxon  period  we  find  no  in- 
stance recorded  of  the  successful  or  even  protracted  defence 
of  a  fortified  places.  The  genius  of  that  people  seems  to 
have  been  better  adapted  to  field  warfare  than  to  the  con- 
struction or  maintenance  of  strong  military  stations.  When 
defeated  they  took  refuge  in  natural  fastnesses  •  the  woods 
and  marshes  of  Somersetshire  protected  Alfred  from  the 
pursuit  of  the  Danes,  and  enabled  him  to  re-organize  his 
forces,  and  the  last  stand  of  the  Saxons  against  their  Nor- 
man invaders  was  amid  the  fens  of  Ely  and  Cambridge- 

It  now  remains  to  consider  the  changes  which  the  Nor- 
mans wrought  in  the  style  of  domestic  architecture  in 
England;  and  it  is  scarcely  paradoxical  to  observe  that 
they  rather  introduced  novelty  of  detail  than  novelty  in 
plan.  The  amount  of  accommodation  in  a  Norman  was 
not  greater  than  in  a  Saxon  house  or  homestead ;  we  be- 
hold still  only  the  chief  room  or  hall  and  the  single  bed- 
chamber, or  thalamus.  By  the  Normans,  however,  the  prin- 
ciples of  the  Romanesque  style  were  more  generally  ap- 
plied to  civil  as  well  as  to  ecclesiastical  buildings  :  yet 
even  in  this  respect  no  considerable  alteration  could  have 
occurred  before  the  close  of  the  eleventh  or  commencement 
of  the  twelfth  century.    It  is  not  to  be  supposed  that  the 

s  If  we  except  the  resistance  of  Lon-  M the] red  ;  but  London  was  still  pro- 
don,  against  the  Danes,  in  the  time  of     tected  by  its  Roman  walls. 



Norman  invaders  were  attended  by  legions  of  architects 
and  masons  who  began  at  once  to  reconstruct  every  edifice 
in  the  island.  It  took  William  some  years  to  consolidate 
his  power,  and  the  only  buildings  of  importance  erected 
during  that  unsettled  period  were  fortresses.  Domesday 
informs  us  how  many  burgage  tenements  were  destroyed 
by  the  Conqueror  and  his  followers  in  building  castles  at 
Lincoln,  York  and  other  places,  but  there  its  information 
on  this  head  ceases  :  still  from  other  sources  we  know 
that  the  first  movement  towards  the  new  style  must  have 
taken  place  in  the  south  of  England,  as  the  country  be- 
tween the  Humber  and  the  Tyne  had  been  savagely  laid 
waste  in  suppressing  the  rebellion  of  Earl  Morcar,  and  re- 
mained almost  a  desert  till  the  foundation  of  the  great 
Yorkshire  monasteries  in  the  twelfth  century.  As  a  gene- 
ral rule,  therefore,  it  may  be  asserted  that  there  are  very 
few  buildings  of  Norman  character  in  this  country  which 
can  be  safely  referred  to  an  earlier  date  than  the  year  1 1 0  0  h ; 
for  this  reason  it  has  been  deemed  advisable  to  commence 
the  present  work  with  that  century. 

That,  like  the  Saxons,  the  Normans  continued  to  build 
in  towns,  of  wood  and  mud-clay1,  in  timber  frame-work, 
is  beyond  doubt  ;  houses  of  stone  were  then,  as  they  have 
generally  been,  exceptions  to  the  general  method  of  con- 

h  For  example,  the  dates  of  the  foun- 
dation of  Yorkshire  monasteries  of  which 
some  remains  yet  exist  are — Kirkham, 
1121,— Gisburn,  1129— Rivaulx,  1131, 
—Fountains,  1 132,— Byland,  1143,— 
Meaux,  1150,— Kirkstall,  1152,— Jer- 
vaulx,  1156.  In  Middlesex;  St.  Bartho- 
lomew's, Smithfield,  (finished?),  between 
1122  and  1133.  In  Hampshire;  St. 
Cross,  about  1132;  Porchester  or  South- 
wick,  1133.    In  Norfolk;  Norwich  ca- 

thedral, after  1100;— Binham,  c.  1106; 
— Wymondham,  c.  1107.  In  Berkshire  ; 
Reading  abbey,  1121.  In  Kent;  Priory, 
Dover,  1121.  The  period  of  the  com- 
pletion of  the  Norman  part  of  all  these 
buildings  may  be  safely  taken  as  ten  or 
fifteen  years  later  than  the  date  of  foun- 
dation. It  was  not  unusual  to  consecrate 
the  chancel  of  a  church  before  the  rest  of 
the  edifice  was  finished. 

1  See  p.  23,  the  London  assize  of  1212. 


struction.  The  cost  of  the  latter  material,  and  the  still 
greater  expense  of  converting  it,  must  have  necessarily 
limited  its  employment  in  domestic  buildings  to  the  more 
opulent ;  and  in  the  middle  ages  there  were,  comparatively, 
few  modes  of  displaying  opulence ;  one  of  the  few,  how- 
ever, was  in  the  external  decoration  of  houses,  a  fashion 
which  declined  in  proportion  as  the  advance  of  commerce 
and  the  arts  enlarged  the  catalogue  of  human  necessaries 
and  luxuries.  Yet,  although  the  few  examples  of  the 
domestic  architecture  of  the  twelfth  century  which  have 
survived  to  this  time,  exhibit,  in  a  mutilated  state,  all  the 
main  features  of  the  Ilomanesque  style,  both  in  its  early 
and  its  transition  stages ;  it  would  be  a  great  mistake  to 
suppose  that  there  were  in  that  century  in  London,  or  in 
any  other  city,  many  houses  equal  in  decorative  character 
to  the  house  at  Barnack,  or  the  Jew's  house  in  Lincoln. 

It  is  improbable  that  there  should  have  been  many 
manor-houses  built  during  this  century  ■  land  had  not  yet 
been  largely  subdivided  ;  and  whole  districts  of  great  ex- 
tent were  still  held  by  the  heirs  of  the  followers  of  the 
Conqueror,  who  ruled  almost  independently  in  their  feudal 
strongholds.  The  troubles  attending  the  contested  succes- 
sion of  Stephen,  and,  later  again,  the  rebellion  of  Mowbray 
in  the  time  of  Henry  the  Second,  led  to  the  erection  of  nu- 
merous fortresses,  adulterine  castles  they  were  termed,  as 
built  without  license  from  the  crown ;  but  the  times  were 
too  unsettled  to  encourage  the  building  of  houses  not  abso- 
lutely defensible,  and  situated  in  strong  positions.  By  the 
close  of  the  century  most  of  these  castles  had  been  dis- 
mantled, some  were  actually  razed  to  the  ground.  Licenses 
to  embattle  manor-houses,  occurring  frequently  in  the  re- 
cords of  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Third,  would  seem  to  in- 



dicate  the  thirteenth  century  as  the  period  when  the  mesne 
tenants  of  the  great  barons  first  began  to  build  substantially 
on  their  own  account.  It  had  however  long  been  usual  for 
the  more  wealthy  monasteries  to  erect  granges  in  their 
principal  manors,  sufficiently  capacious  to  garner  the  pro- 
duce of  the  harvest,  and  to  accommodate  the  abbot  and  his 
attendants  during  an  occasional  retirement,  or  when  resting 
on  a  journey.  The  granges  of  Cistercian  houses  had  gene- 
rally chapels  annexed,  and  were  tenanted  by  the  conversi, 
or  lay-brethren  of  the  order,  who  busied  themselves,  ac- 
cording to  their  rule,  in  agricultural  labours. 

These  introductory  remarks  may  be  appropriately  closed 
by  a  few  illustrations  of  the  technical  branches  of  the  prac- 
tice of  architecture  in  the  twelfth  century.  The  authorities 
from  which  they  are  derived,  do  not  indeed  wholly  belong 
to  that  century,  but  as  the  science  of  construction  has  been 
in  all  countries,  and  in  all  times  of  slow  growth,  we  are 
justified  in  concluding  that  the  methods  of  working  ob- 
served early  in  the  thirteenth,  were  not  unusual  in  the  pre- 
vious century.  Materials  for  building  must  at  all  events 
have  been  obtained  from  the  same  sources  in  both  ages ; 
and  the  workmen  of  the  latter  period  must  have  learnt 
their  business  from  masters  who  had  been  taught  in  the 

The  stone  quarries  which  appear  to  have  been  most 
generally  used  in  the  twelfth  and  following  century,  were 
those  of  Caen,  Boulogne,  Pevensey,  Corfe,  Reigate,  Folk- 
stone,  and  that  of  Egremont,  in  Cumberland.  There  were 
of  course  numerous  other  quarries  which  were  used  for 
buildings  in  their  immediate  neighbourhood,  but  those 
mentioned  above  supplied  materials  to  all  parts  of  the 
kingdom.    Thus  parts  of  Windsor  castle  were  built  of 



Egremont  stone,  both  in  the  reigns  of  Henry  the  Second 
and  of  Edward  the  Third  k ;  considering  the  difficulty  and 
expense  of  bringing  it  by  sea  in  those  early  times,  this  ma- 
terial would  appear  to  have  been  then  greatly  esteemed ; 
at  present  it  is  believed  the  Egremont  quarries  are  scarcely 
known  in  the  south  of  England.  The  stone  commonly 
called  "  Kentish-rag,"  was,  under  the  same  name,  exten- 
sively used  early  in  the  thirteenth  century;  in  1282  the 
gaol  of  Newgate  was  repaired  with  "  Kentish-rag at  that 
time  a  boat  load  of  it  cost  from  7s.  8d.  to  lis.  7 d.  The  ma- 
terial used  for  finishing,  and  for  the  mullions  of  windows, 
is  usually  termed  free-stone,  and  was  brought,  in  all  pro- 
bability, from  Corfe.  Caen  stone  appears  to  have  been 
mainly  employed  for  ashlar- work,  as  at  the  present  time. 
The  free-stone  of  Maidenestane,  or  Maidstone,  occurs  in 
one  record  of  this  period,  relating  to  a  private  building  in 

The  materials  used  in  laying  the  foundations  of  the  better 
class  of  buildings  may  be  judged  of  by  the  mode  in  which 
Master  Michael  of  Canterbury,  the  architect  of  Eleanor's 
cross  in  Cheapside,  prepared  the  foundation  of  the  royal 
chapel  in  the  palace  at  Westminster,  in  the  year  1292. 
He  used  two  ship  loads  of  chalk,  four  hundred-weight  of 
quick -lime,  two  ship  loads  of  cinders,  and  one  ship  load  of 
flints  1  from  Aylesford. 

In  the  thirteenth  century  lime  was  sold  by  the  bag,  as  at 
present,  as  well  as  by  the  hundred- weight ;  in  preparing  it 
for  mortar  it  was  mixed  with  sand,  and  occasionally  with 

k  The  groined  roof  of  the  "treasury"  Windsor,  39-40  Edw.  III. 

of  St.  George's  chapel,  built  by  Edward  1  In  the  original,  "j.  navata  grisee 

the  Third,  was  of  Egremont  stone,  which  petre,  vj.  s.  vj.  d."    Du  Cange  renders 

cost,  rough,  100s. — Accounts  of  works  at  grisea  petra  by  silex. 




pounded  tile  m,  a  fact  which  may  tend  to  correct  the  haste 
with  which  some  antiquaries  pronounce  fragments  of  mortar 
in  which  that  ingredient  appears,  wherever  they  may  occur 
in  medieval  buildings,  to  be  of  Roman  origin. 

At  whatever  period  the  use  of  gypsum  may  have  been 
introduced  into  this  country  for  plastering  and  whitewash- 
ing internal  stone- work,  it  was  certainly  known  by  its  pre- 
sent name  of  "  plaster  of  Paris/'  very  early  in  the  thirteenth 
century.  Plasterers  and  whitewashes  {de  alb  at  ores)  are 
mentioned  in  the  London  assize  of  the  year  1212;  and 
Necham,  writing  in  the  twelfth  century,  alludes  to  smooth- 
ing the  surface  of  walls  by  the  trowel".  We  are  not  to 
consider  the  practice  of  whitewashing  stone-work  as  a  vice 
peculiar  to  modern  times.  Our  ancestors  had  as  great  an 
objection  to  the  natural  surface  of  stone,  whether  in  churches 
or  other  buildings,  as  any  churchwardens  or  bricklayers  of 
the  nineteenth  century.  Several  writs  of  Henry  the  Third 
are  extant  directing  the  Norman  chapel  in  the  Tower  to 
be  whitewashed :  Westminster  Hall  was  whitewashed  for 
the  coronation  of  Edward  the  First,  and  many  other  an- 
cient examples  might  be  cited.  In  fact,  it  seems  to  have 
been  the  rule  to  plaster  ordinary  stone-work ;  for  instance, 
when  Newgate  was  repaired  in  1282,  two  new  windows 
of  free-stone  were  constructed  "  in  the  chamber  where  the 
justices  sit,"  yet  the  account  of  the  architect  has  this  item, 
"  in  plaster  of  Paris  bought  to  plaster  the  windows  and  the 
chamber  where  the  justices  sit,  within,  13s.  4d.  In  the 
wages  of  a  plasterer  and  his  servant,  four  days,  2s.  8d." 

There  is  no  mention  of  bricks  in  any  ancient  building 

m  Thus  in  the  items  for  mortar  in  the  lime,  7s.    In  twelve  cart  loads  of  sand, 

account  of  the  repairs  of  Newgate  in  2s." 

1282.    "In  the  purchase  of  hroken  tiles,  n  See  hereafter,  p.  15. 
2s.  4±d.    In  four  score  and  four  bags  of 



account  which  has  hitherto  fallen  under  the  writer's  notice. 
The  art  of  working  clay,  one  of  the  earliest  arts,  never  fell 
wholly  into  abeyance  in  any  country  in  which  it  had  been 
once  practised.  In  England  it  survived  the  period  of 
Roman  dominion,  during  which  it  was  extensively  culti- 
vated ;  in  the  Domesday  Survey  potters  appear  among 
other  crafts  incidently  enumerated ;  and  people  who  could 
work  at  all  in  clay  were  likely  to  have  made  bricks.  The 
silence  of  early  records  on  this  subject  is  the  more  remark- 
able because  there  are  still  existing  buildings  of  the  thir- 
teenth century  constructed  in  whole,  or  part,  of  these 
materials :  it  may  be  accounted  for,  by  supposing  that 
bricks  continued  to  be  made  in  the  Roman  fashion,  and 
passed  by  the  name  of  tiles :  if  so,  tiles  and  tilers  are  men- 
tioned as  early  as  the  twelfth  century,  and  constantly  occur 
in  documents  of  succeeding  periods.  In  1289,  Edward  the 
First  began  to  enlarge  the  moat  round  the  tower ;  the  clay 
thrown  up  was  sold  by  the  constable  to  certain  tilers  who 
worked  in  East  Smithfield.  In  that  year  it  produced  only 
twenty  shillings ;  but  the  alterations  in  the  fosse  were 
twelve  years  in  progress,  during  which  time  the  soil  ex- 
cavated and  sold  for  the  same  purpose,  yielded  an  average 
yearly  profit  to  the  exchequer  of  rather  more  than  seven 
pounds ;  a  very  large  sum,  if  the  relative  value  of  money 
be  considered,  and  equal,  at  least,  to  .a  hundred  pounds  a 
year  of  the  present  currency0.  From  this  fact  we  may  infer 
that  the  London  manufacture  of  tiles  was  considerable  at 
the  close  of  the  thirteenth  century. 

The  art  of  brick-making  must,  however,  have  been  car- 

0  Account  of  Ralph  de  Sandwich,  con-  Edward  the  First,  among  the  records 
stahle  of  the  Tower  of  London,  from  the  formerly  in  the  custody  of  the  Queen's 
seventeenth  to  the  twenty-ninth  year  of  Remembrancer. 



ried  early  in  this  country  to  a  great  state  of  perfection,  if 
the  specimens  of  moulded  brick  discovered  in  Essex,  and 
attributed  to  the  fourteenth  centuryp,  were  really  the  pro- 
duce of  native  skill.  But  as  it  is  in  Essex  and  Suffolk, 
counties  devoid  of  stone,  that  we  find  the  earliest  brick 
buildings,  it  is  by  no  means  improbable,  that  the  materials 
were  imported  from  Flanders,  or  manufactured  on  the  spot 
by  Flemish  workmen,  many  of  whom,  it  is  well  known, 
settled  in  the  eastern  counties  at  a  remote  time.  It  is 
certain,  that  in  the  fourteenth  century  tiles  were  imported 
from  Flanders :  during  the  progress  of  the  works  at  St. 
George's  chapel  in  the  time  of  Edward  the  Third,  nume- 
rous entries  appear  in  the  accounts  of  the  purchase  of 
Flemish  tiles ;  three  thousand  were  bought  on  one  occa- 
sion to  line  the  chimneys  in  the  chambers  of  the  canons  <i. 
Among  the  varieties  of  tile  mentioned,  are  channel-tiles r, 
paving-tiles,  and  rug-tiles.  It  is  rarely  that  old  accounts 
supply  any  information  respecting  the  cost  or  manufacture 
of  those  tiles  which  were  employed  in  the  construction  of 
decorative  pavements'  Perhaps  the  earliest  notice  extant 
occurs  in  the  building  accounts  of  Thornton  abbey,  in  Lin- 
colnshire, under  the  year  1313;  it  is  for  the  purchase  of 
earth  to  colour  the  tiles  of  the  church8. 

Among  the  workmen  employed  in  ancient  times  we  find 
the  masons,  or  cemenfarii,  separated  into  classes  as  early  as 
the  beginning  of  the  thirteenth  century ;  they  were  cutters 
and  sculptors  of  free-stone1 ;  layers,  or,  as  they  were  termed 
vernacularly,  "leggeres"  and  setters ;  they  worked  either  by 

p  Mr.  Hussey  in  Archaeological  Jour  -  from  the  French  canele. 

nal,  vol.  v.  pp.  34 — 40.  s  Archaeological  Journal,  vol.  ii.  p. 

i  They  cost  about  six  shillings  a  thou-  364. 

sand.  t  "  Sculptores    lapidum  liberorum." 

r  Can'  tegulae,  or  tegulae  canellatae,  London  Assize  of  1212. 



the  pieceu,  or  at  fixed  daily  wages,  with  an  extra  allowance 
in  some  cases,  as  "metesilver,"  but  at  the  highest  fixed  rate 
of  daily  pay  no  "  metesilver,"  or  corrody,  was  given x.  Be- 
sides the  plasterers  and  whitewashes,  to  whom  we  have 
already  alluded,  there  were  mud-stickersy,  who  filled  up 
the  frame-work  of  timber  houses  with  mud-clay ;  and  be- 
sides the  usual  assistant  labourers  were  excavators  and  bar- 
rowmen.  In  extensive  buildings  the  various  operatives 
worked  in  gangs  under  foremen ;  such  gangs  sometimes 
consisted  of  twenty  men,  whose  foreman  was  called  a  vin- 
tenier2,  (yintenarius,)  an  appellation  which  was  given  in 
France,  in  after  times,  to  the  corporals  of  foot  companies. 

Although  there  are  in  this  country  many  specimens  of 
painted  glass  of  the  twelfth  century,  that  material  is  not 
mentioned  for  ordinary  glazing  purposes  in  any  document 
of  so  early  a  date  hitherto  discovered.  It  seems  pro- 
bable that  it  was  originally  confined  to  ecclesiastical  build- 
ings, and  that  windows  in  houses  were  simply  closed  by 
wooden  shutters,  iron-stanchions  being  sometimes  intro- 
duced for  greater  safety.  That  in  some  cases  the  method 
of  securing  windows  was  very  inefficient  appears  by  an 
anecdote  related  by  Matthew  Paris.  When  Henry  the 
Third  was  staying  at  the  manor  of  Woodstock  in  the  year 
1238  a  person  who  feigned  insanity  made  his  appearance 
in  the  hall,  and  summoned  the  king  to  resign  his  king- 
dom ;  the  attendants  would  have  beaten  and  driven  him 
away,  but  Henry  making  light  of  his  conduct  ordered 
them  to  desist  and  suffer  the  man  to  enjoy  his  delusions. 
In  the  night-time,  however,  the  same  individual  contrived 

u  "Ad  tascham." 
x  London  Assize,  1212. 
Newgate,  1282. 

y  "  Luti  appositores."    See  p.  25. 
Repairs  of        z  Accounts  of  Works  at  Caernarvon 
castle,  14  Edw.  I.,  A.D.  1286. 



to  enter  the  royal  bed-chamber  through  a  window,  and 
made  towards  the  king's  bed  with  a  naked  dagger  in  his 
hand ;  luckily  the  king  was  in  another  part  of  the  house 
and  the  intruder  was  discovered  and  secured*.  Where 
windows  were  externally  mere  narrow  apertures,  widely 
splayed  on  the  inside,  it  is  probable  that  there  were  in- 
ternal shutters ;  but  it  is  clear  from  early  drawings 
that  shutters  frequently  opened  outwards,  being  attached 
by  hinges  to  the  head  of  the  window ;  in  such  instances 
they  were  kept  open  by  props. 

It  would  appear  that  canvas  or  a  similar  material,  was 
occasionally  used  instead  of  glass  in  early  times  ;  that  it 
was  employed  to  fill  in  the  windows  of  churches  before  they 
were  glazed,  as  early  as  the  thirteenth  century,  does  not 
admit  of  doubt,  inasmuch  as  its  application  to  that  purpose 
is  specifically  mentioned  in  the  building  accounts  of  West- 
minster abbey  in  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Third b. 

Whenever  purchases  of  glass  are  noted  in  ancient  ac- 
counts we  find  that  it  was  bought  at  so  much  per  foot ; 
indeed  it  may  be  observed,  generally,  that  there  has  been 
little  variation  in  the  customs  of  trade  in  this  country  since 
the  date  of  the  earliest  records  existing. 

The  iron  used  in  architectural  construction  in  early 
times  is  usually  termed  "  Spanish  iron the  same  ma- 
terial continued  to  be  imported  till  a  comparatively  late 
period.  Yet  the  extensive  iron  works  of  the  forest  of 
Dean,  and  the  bloomeries  of  Furness,  in  Lancashire,  were 
in  full  operation  in  the  thirteenth  century.    There  is  also 

a  Matthew  Paris,  ed.  Wats,  1640,  p.  castle.    Liberate,  23  Hen.  III.  This 

474.    There  is  existing  a  writ  of  Henry  was  soon  after  the  event  at  Woodstock 

the  Third  ordering  the  bailiffs  of  Windsor  narrated  above. 

to  put  iron-bars  in  the  windows  of  the        b  Rotuli  Compotorum,  on  the  Pipe  Rolls, 

chamber  of  Prince  Edward  in  Windsor  from  the  50th  to  the  55th  Henry  III. 



another  sort  of  iron  mentioned  in  accounts  of  the  thir- 
teenth century  ;  it  is  called  "  Osmund' the  signification 
of  the  term  is  not  very  obvious,  though  we  may  presume 
it  to  be  the  name  of  the  place  of  manufacture. 

It  seems  reasonable  to  suppose  that  the  architectural  de- 
signs of  the  middle  ages  were  made  on  vellum.  The 
material  used  in  drawing  is  not  satisfactorily  ascertained, 
but  it  is  said  that  the  use  of  the  carburet  of  iron,  or  black 
lead,  has  been  observed  in  a  manuscript  of  the  twelfth 
century  in  the  library  at  Wolfenbuttel0.  In  the  absence 
of  that  material  however,  common  lead  or  chalk  were  pro- 
bably used ;  and  the  lines  might  have  been  afterwards 
traced  with  pen  and  ink,  as  we  may  observe  to  be  the  case 
in  unfinished  miniature  paintings  in  manuscripts  of  early 
dated.  It  should  be  remarked  that  the  late  Mr.  Rick- 
man  was  disposed  to  think  that  working  drawings  were 
sometimes  made  on  wooden  tablets6;  but  there  is  little 
ground  for  the  supposition  ;  particularly  if  we  remember 
how  generally  vellum  or  parchment  was  employed  for  the 
purposes  of  design  in  medieval  times. 

That  the  moulds  of  working  masons  were  cut  in  wood 
hardly  appears  to  admit  of  doubt,  since  they  continued  to 
be  of  the  same  material  till  the  recent  application  of  metal 
to  that  purpose.  The  great  uniformity  of  mouldings  in 
different  buildings  of  the  same  date  has  been  ascribed  by 
some  to  the  use  of  tools  made  to  a  particular  size ;  it 
may  be  more  readily  accounted  for  by  reflecting  how  in- 
considerable the  number  of  masons  must  have  been  in 

c  See  the  Archaeological  Journal,  vol. 
iv.  p.  20. 

d  This  method  may  be  especially  re- 
marked in  a  splendid  MS.  Bible  of  the 

twelfth  century  in  the  chapter  library  at 

e  Archaeological  Journal,  vol.  iv.  pp. 
17,  18. 



early  times,  and  how  probable  it  is  that  they  should  have 
carried  their  moulds  from  place  to  place,  thus  multiplying 
the  same  contours  during  the  prevalence  of  the  style  to 
which  they  belonged. 

There  is  little  difference  between  the  mechanical  powers 
employed  in  building  in  the  thirteenth  century  and  those 
in  use  at  the  present  time.  The  lewis f  and  the  crane  were 
well  known  at  the  former  period,  and  although  the  pro- 
gress of  mechanical  skill  has  led  to  the  introduction  of 
many  valuable  improvements  in  the  apparatus  of  leverage, 
the  principle  involved  remains  the  same.  Indeed  it  may 
be  reasonably  affirmed  that  few  of  the  arts  which  minister 
to  the  convenience  or  gratification  of  man  have  remained 
so  stationary  since  the  days  of  Vitruvius,  as  the  science  of 
architectural  construction. 

f  In  early  accounts  it  is  called  a  "  lowes." 



An  enquiry  into  the  state  of  Domestic  Architecture  in 
England  during  the  twelfth  century  is  attended  with  much 
difficulty.  The  comparatively  few  remains  of  domestic  edi- 
fices of  that  period  which  have  descended  to  our  times, 
are  either  so  greatly  dilapidated,  or  so  entangled  with  later 
alterations,  that  we  are  compelled  to  resort  to  early  writings 
and  evidences  for  materials  to  aid  in  describing  their  main 
features,  and  to  determine  the  plan  of  construction  usually 
adopted  at  the  date  of  their  erection. 

Such  writings  and  evidences  consist  of  the  more  ancient 
accounts  of  the  Exchequer;  of  early  conveyances  of  pro- 
perty, prepared  late  in  the  twelfth,  or  at  the  beginning  of 
the  thirteenth,  century,  and  of  notices  in  chroniclers  and 
other  writers.  The  process  of  evolving  any  consider- 
able amount  of  information  from  these  sources  is  pain- 
ful and  laborious ;  but  whoever  would  successfully  pursue 
this  subject  must  have  recourse  to  it.  The  deeds  referred 
to  are  especially  important ;  the  boundaries  and  descrip- 
tions of  property  set  forth  in  them  frequently  supplying 
valuable  facts  for  consideration  and  comparison ;  and  it 
is  chiefly  from  an  assemblage  of  isolated  facts  that  we  can 
venture  to  speak,  with  any  degree  of  authority,  upon  the 
character  of  the  various  buildings  adapted  to  domestic 
accommodation  either  in  the  twelfth  or  succeeding  cen- 


tury.  There  is  also  another  species  of  information  which 
must  not  be  overlooked,  viz.  illuminations  in  ancient 
manuscripts,  but  unfortunately  these  pictorial  decorations 
are  comparatively  scarce  anterior  to  the  thirteenth  century, 
and  are,  generally  speaking,  not  to  be  too  greatly  relied 
upon  as  evidences  of  architectural  style ;  however,  they 
frequently  afford  useful  hints  as  to  minor  details  which 
should  not  be  disregarded. 

It  results  from  a  comparison  of  these  various  authorities 
that  in  England,  particularly  in  the  southern  parts  of  the 
country,  ordinary  manor-houses,  and  even  domestic  edifices  of 
greater  pretension,  as  the  royal  palaces,  were  generally  built, 
during  the  twelfth  century,  on  one  uniform  plan,  compris- 
ing a  hall  with  a  chamber  or  chambers  adjacent.  The  hall 
was  generally  situated  on  the  ground  floor,  but  sometimes 
over  a  lower  story  which  was  half  in  the  ground ;  it  pre- 
sented an  elevation  equal  or  superior  to  that  of  the  build- 
ings annexed  to  it :  it  was  the  only  large  apartment  in  the 
entire  edifice,  and  was  adapted,  in  its  original  design,  to 
accommodate  the  owner  and  his  numerous  followers  and 
servants ;  they  not  only  took  their  meals  in  the  hall,  but 
also  slept  in  it  on  the  floor,  a  custom  the  prevalence  of 
which  is  shewn  by  numerous  passages  in  early  authors, 
particularly  in  the  works  of  the  romance  writers. 

In  medieval  Latin  this  apartment,  and,  not  unfrequently, 
the  whole  building,  is  termed  "  aula  "  thus  the  royal  palace 
was  styled  "  aula  regis''  both  in  legal  records  and  in 
chronicles.  When  the  French  language  became  generally 
used,  the  hall  or  building  was  called  "la  sale'  or  " salle ;" 
but  in  Saxon  and  Norman  times  alike  the  chief  mansion 
was  vernacularly  designated  a  "Halla;"  a  place  named 
"  halla  Haroldi"  or  "  Harold's  hall/'  occurs  in  the  sheriffs' 
accounts  for  Hampshire  throughout  the  reign  of  Henry  the 

a  Anglo-Saxon  heall.  In  Domesday  tached  to  manors.  See  Ellis's  Intro- 
halls  are  frequently  mentioned  as  at-     duction  to  that  record,  vol.  i.  p.  232. 


Second5.  Hence  the  origin  of  the  modern  word  "hall" 
as  applied  to  a  country  residence. 

There  is  every  reason  to  believe  that  this  plan  of 
building,  so  well  fitted  to  the  usages  of  domestic  life  in 
medieval  times,  was  that  which  obtained  most  extensively 
not  only  in  the  twelfth  but  also  in  the  preceding  century. 
A  house  on  this  plan  appears  in  the  Bayeux  tapestry. 
A  valuable  writer,  Alexander  Necham,  or  Nequam0,  who 
lived  under  the  reigns  of  Henry  the  Second,  of  Richard 
the  First,  and  John,  in  describing  the  various  parts  of 
a  housed,  enumerates  the  hall,  the  private,  or  bed-chamber, 
the  kitchen,  the  larder,  the  sewery,  and  the  cellar.  His 
notice  may  be  applied  generally  to  all  domestic  buildings 
of  any  magnitude  in  the  twelfth  century.  Such,  and  no 
more  chambers,  do  the  "king's  houses"  at  Clarendon, 
Kennington,  Woodstock,  Portsmouth,  and  Southampton, 
appear  to  have  contained,  according  to  the  Exchequer 
accounts  of  the  time  of  Henry  the  Second.  The  hall  is 
constantly  referred  to  as  the  chief  feature  in  all  those  edifices, 
and  the  only  respect,  probably,  in  which  the  houses  of  that 
monarch  differed  from  the  ordinary  manor-houses  of  his 
time  was,  that  they  were  on  a  greater  scale,  and  had  always 

b  Under  the  head  "  Mienes."  commissioners  to  investigate  the  king's 

c  Alexander  Nequam  is  said  to  have  right  to  the  patronage  of  the  priory  of 

heen  born  at  St.  Alban's,  in  1157;  he  Kenilworth,  dated  30th  August,  1213,  at 

was  master  of  the  grammar  school  in  that  which  time  he  was  not  abbat  of  Ciren- 

town  some  time  between  the  years  1188  cester;  his  election  seems  to  have  oc- 

andll95;  he  had  previously  a  school  at  curred  between  August  1213  and  May 

Dunstable.     The   punning   answer   of  1214,  as  on  the  19th  of  the  latter  month 

abbot  Warin  to  Nequam's   request  to  the  sheriff  of  Somerset  and  Dorset  was 

have  the  school  at  St.  Alban's,  is  recorded  ordered  to  put  him  in  possession  of  the 

by  Matthew  Paris;  "  Si  bonus  es  venias.  temporalities  of  the  abbey  in  those  coun- 

Si  nequam,  nequaquam."  "  Vitae  viginti  ties.  Rot.  Pat,  vol.  i.  p.  103  b. ;  Rot. 

trium  S.  Albani  abbatum,"  ed.  Wats,  Claus.,  vol.  i.  p.  204  b.  According  to  the 

1640,  p.  94.     In  1213  Nequam  was  authorities   quoted   by  bishop  Tanner, 

elected  abbat  of  Cirencester  : — "  Ann  ales  Necham  died  in  1217.  Bibl.  Brit.  Hib. 

Prioratus  de  Dunstaple,"  ed.  Hearne,  p.  541. 

67.    There  is  extant,  however,  a  writ  of  d  In  his  treatise  "  de  nominibus  uten- 

King  John,  appointing  him  one  of  three  silium."  Cotton  MS.  Titus,  D.  xx. 


a  chapel  annexed  to  them.  The  instruments  of  sacred  use, 
and  furniture  necessary  for  such  chapels,  were  transferred 
from  place  to  place  with  the  sovereign  •  and  thus  in  the 
most  ancient  household  accounts  extant,  we  find  notices  of 
the  cost  of  hiring  sumpter-horses,  or  carts,  to  carry  "  the 
king's  chapel." 

The  roof  of  the  hall,  when  too  large  to  be  covered  by  a 
roof  of  a  single  span,  was  supported,  according  to  its  size, 
on  one  or  more  ranges  of  pillars  of  wood  or  stone.  Marble 
columns,  for  the  king's  hall  at  Clarendon,  are  mentioned 
in  an  account  of  the  year  1176e.  Necham  says  "in  the 
hall  let  there  be  pillars  at  due  intervals f."  Sometimes  there 
appears  to  have  been  only  one  range  of  such  supports,  which, 
extending  longitudinally  through  the  room,  reached  to  and 
carried  the  ridge  or  crest  of  the  roof.  But  halls  were 
frequently  divided  by  pillars  and  arches  of  wood  or  stone 
into  three  parts,  or  aisles,  like  a  church.  One  of  this 
description  remains  at  Oakham  castle,  Rutlandshire,  being 
part  of  the  structure  erected  by  Walkelin  de  Ferrers  about 
1180.  The  manor-house  of  Adam  de  Port,  at  Warneford, 
in  Hants,  a  portion  of  which  still  exists,  seems  to  have  been 
built  on  this  plan.  Another  existed  until  lately  at  Bar- 
nack,  in  Northamptonshire^  The  engraving  shews  the 
remains  of  the  arches  which  divided  the  hall.  The  hall 
at  Winchester,  now  appropriated  to  the  County  Courts, 
and  which  was  built  very  early  in  the  thirteenth  century, 
is  a  fine  example  of  this  arrangement.  Mr.  Smirke  has 
proved  clearly h  that  it  never  was  a  chapel,  as  many  persons 
believed  it  to  have  been.  The  greater  part  of  the  epis- 
copal palace  at  Hereford  appears  to  have  been  originally 
a  hall  with  pillars  and  arches  of  wood.    The  refectory  of 

e  Rot.  Pip.  de  eod.  anno.  tit.  Hants.  s  It  was  destroyed  about  the  year  1830. 

f  "  In  aula  sint  postes  debitis  inter-  h  Proceedings  of  the  Archaeological 
sticiis  distincti."  Institute  at  Winchester  in  1846. 



the  priory  at  Dover  is  a  hall  of  magnificent  dimensions, 
being  100  ft.  long  by  27  ft.  wide,  bnt  it  appears  never  to 
have  been  supported  by  pillars. 

The  private,  or  bed,  room,  annexed  to  the  hall,  there 
being  frequently  only  one1,  was  situated  on  the  second 
story,  and  was  called,  from  an  early  period,  the  "solar," 
or  "sollerej;"  the  chamber  beneath  it,  on  a  level  with 
the  hall,  was  called  the  "cellar,"  and  used  as  such.  It 
would  appear  that  there  was  no  internal  communication 
between  the  cellar  and  solar ;  access  from  the  latter 
to  the  hall  being  had  by  stairs  of  stone  or  wood  within 
the  hall  or  on  its  exterior.  As  to  the  kitchen,  Necham 
remarks  it  was  wont  to  be  placed  nigh  the  road  or  street. 
Accordingly  we  may  observe  in  illuminations  of  the  twelfth 
century,  that  the  repast  is  brought  into  the  hall,  apparently 
from  a  court-yardk.  In  the  Bayeux  tapestry  is  a  represen- 
tation of  cooking  going  on  in  the  open  air.  Of  the  position 
of  the  larder  or  buttery  nothing  exact  can  be  said  ;  it  was 
probably  annexed  to  that  part  of  the  hall  which  Necham 
terms  the  "vestibule,"  like  a  buttery-hatch  in  one  of  our 
Collegiate  halls. 

At  Appleton  in  Berkshire  there  remains  the  entrance 
doorway  to  the  hall  of  a  Norman  house  of  this  period, 

>  Henry  the  Second  had  a  manor- 
house  at  King's  Sombourn,  Hants ;  in 
the  7th  of  his  reign  the  sheriff  claimed 
an  allowance  of  £12  for  "  the  works  of 
the  chamber  of  the  king  and  queen  there." 
Rot.  Pip.  de  eod.  anno.  The  fashion  of 
having  but  one  private  room  which  served 
alike  as  a  sitting  and  bed-chamber  con- 
tinued for  some  time  after  the  twelfth 
century.  Thus  in  1287,  Edward  the  First 
and  Queen  Eleanor  were  sitting  on  their 
bed-side,  attended  by  the  ladies  of  the 
court.,  when  they  narrowly  escaped  death 
by  lightning.  See  Walsingham,  "  Ypo- 
digma  Neustriae,"  p.  71,  ed.  1574. 

j  The  upper-chamber  of  a  house  is  so 
called  in  the  London  assize  of  1189.  It 
is  unnecessary  to  refer  to  the  various  ex- 
planations of  this  term  that  have  been 
given;  every  ancient  deed  which  has 
fallen  under  the  author's  notice  proves 
that  it  was  an  upper  room.  The  private 
room  was  however  sometimes  on  a  level 
with  the  hall. 

k  As  in  the  representation  of  Lot 
entertaining  the  Angels,  engraved  in 
Strutt's  Horda,  from  the  Cottonian  MS. 
Tiberius,  C.  vi.  There  are  many  other 
examples  which  need  not  be  enume- 


opening  at  one  end  of  the  vestibule  or  "  screen,"  as  it 
was  often  called  ;  the  two  small  doorways  opening  into 
the  kitchen  and  buttery  also  remain,  shewing  that  the 
arrangement  of  the  hall  was  nearly  the  same  as  it  still 
continues  in  Colleges  and  Inns  of  Court. 

Such  were  the  accommodations  deemed  necessary  in  a 
manor-house  of  the  twelfth  century ;  one  might  be  larger 
than  another,  but  the  same  simple  plan  appears  to  have 
been  common  to  all.  Tor  defensive  purposes  it  was  en- 
closed by  stone  walls,  or  by  a  fence  of  wood,  and  moated. 
The  walls  or  fence  did  not  immediately  surround  the  build- 
ings. Necham  says  the  hall  should  have  a  porch  beside 
the  vestibule,  and  also  a  court-yard1;  in  this,  the  front 
and  principal  court,  the  kitchen  was  placed,  and  probably 
the  stables.  He  speaks  also  of  an  inner  court  in  which 
poultry  should  be  keptm.  It  would  appear  that,  in  addition 
to  the  outer  defences,  the  entry  to  the  hall-porch  was  some- 
times protected  by  posts  and  chains,  forming  a  sort  of  bar- 
rier, probably  against  cattle. 

It  is  certain,  however,  that  some  houses  were  built  during 
this  century  on  a  different  plan,  viz.  in  the  form  of  a  paral- 
lelogram, and  consisting  of  an  upper  story,  between  which 
and  the  ground  floor  there  was,  sometimes,  no  internal  com- 
munication. The  lower  apartment  in  such  cases  was  vaulted, 
and  the  upper  room  approached  by  a  flight  of  steps  on  the 
outside ;  it  was  the  only  habitable  chamber,  and  in  it  were 
frequently  the  only  windows  and  fire-place.  The  manor- 
house  at  Boothby  Pagnell  in  Lincolnshire  is  a  good  instance 
of  such  a  house,  but  as  the  chimney  rises  from  the  ground, 
it  most  probably  had  fire-places  in  both  stories :  at  Christ- 

1  "  Corpus  aule  vestibulo    muniatur,  altilibus,  gallis  et  gallinis,  aucis  et  an- 

juxta  quod  portions  honeste  sit  disposita ;  seribus"  &c.  Alex.  Necham,  "  De  Na- 

atrium  etiam  habeat"  &c.  turis  Rerum."     MS.  Harl.  3737.  fo. 

m  "  Curia  spectaculis  eommunibus  de-  Hence  domestic  fowls  were  termed  "  cor- 

servire  debet,  sed  chors  secretior  vestiatur  tile  byrries." 




church  in  Hampshire  is  another  example  of  rather  earlier 
date.  A  building  in  the  High-street  at  Lincoln,  known  as 
the  Jew's  house,  is  a  fine  specimen  of  this  period ;  the 
principal  dwelling  room  is  on  the  first  floor,  where  there 
is  a  fire-place  on  the  side  towards  the  street ;  the  chimney  is 
corbelled  out  over  the  door,  the  lower  part  of  it  with  the 
corbels  forming  a  canopy  over  the  doorway,  which  is  richly 
ornamented ;  the  staircase  appears  to  have  been  internal. 
There  is  another  house  in  the  same  street  of  equal  an- 
tiquity, but  in  a  less  perfect  state.  Moyses'  hall  at  Bury 
St.  Edmund's,  a  larger  and,  possibly,  later  building,  appears 
to  have  been  constructed  on  the  same  plann.  On  the 
Bayeux  tapestry  there  is  the  representation  of  a  feast,  held 
in  the  upper  story  of  a  house,  which  is  supported  on  arches, 
and  approached  by  steps  on  the  outside.  It  would  be 
wrong,  nevertheless,  to  assume  that  the  principle  of  having 
no  internal  communication  between  the  upper  and  lower 
story  in  single  houses,  prevailed  exclusively  at  this  or  at 
any  other  time,  either  in  the  country  or  in  towns.  The 
finest  example  of  an  external  Norman  staircase  at  present 
remaining  in  England  is  at  Canterbury,  immediately  within 
the  entrance  of  the  close,  it  led  to  the  Stranger's  Hall  which 
is  destroyed.  It  is  a  covered  staircase  with  an  open  ar- 
cade on  each  side  richly  ornamented,  the  arches  of  which 
gradually  diminish  in  length  to  the  top.  At  the  bottom 
of  the  stairs  are  three  arches,  two  of  which  serve  for  a 
passage  through,  and  the  third  opened  to  an  adjoining 
building.  In  the  remains  of  a  twelfth  century  house,  ad- 
joining the  west  wall  of  Southampton,  the  corbels  on  which 
the  internal  staircase  was  carried,  still  remain0.  In  short, 
it  is  well  known  that  even  in  the  seventeenth  century  houses 

»  It  is  Mr.  Blore's  opinion  that  this     the  same  date,  of  which  there  are  many 
house  evidently  had  a  tower;  resembling     examples  at  Ratisbon. 
in  this  feature  the  old  houses,  of  about        °  See  p.  32. 


were  constructed  on  both  plans,  either  with  internal  or  ex- 
ternal access  to  the  upper  floor ;  and  they  were,  doubtless, 
so  built  in  every  previous  century.  Early  houses  in  the 
north  of  England,  particularly  in  Northumberland,  can 
scarcely  be  cited  as  examples  of  the  general  mode  of  con- 
struction, except  so  far  as  that  particular  district  is  con- 
cerned. Exposed  as  a  border  country  to  the  perpetual 
inroads  of  the  Scots,  its  domestic  buildings  were  rendered 
as  strong  as  possible.  Houses  of  this  period  when  not  en- 
closed within  the  walls  of  a  town,  seem  to  have  been  gene- 
rally built  in  such  a  manner  as  to  resist  any  sudden  attack. 

Little  need  be  said  of  the  materials  of  which  the  build- 
ings described  were  constructed.  The  hall  was  probably 
the  most  substantial  part  of  a  manor-house  \  the  solar  or 
chamber  adjacent  was  undoubtedly  often  merely  a  wooden 
structure  reared  on  the  solid  walls  of  masonry  forming  the 
cellar  beneath.  Necham  observes  that  the  hall  should  be 
roofed  with  stone  shingles  or  tiles,  both  of  which  were 
generally  oval-shaped  p,  having  a  nail-hole  in  the  upper 
part :  several  illuminations  of  the  twelfth  cen- 
tury represent  workmen  nailing  shingles  of 
this  form  to  roofs ;  the  effect  of  such  a  mode 
of  roofing  is  thus  conventionally  represented 
in  those  authorities.  Tiles  seem  to  have  been 
fastened  by  wooden  pegs. 

Although  Necham  does  not  mention  lead  as  a  material 
for  roofing,  his  remarks  applying  we  may  presume  to 
ordinary  houses,  for  which  that  metal  would  have  been 
too  expensive,  it  was  extensively  used  during  this  century 
in  buildings  of  a  superior  class,  both  for  roofs,  and,  as  it 

p  Shingles  of  the  same  form  were  used  during  some  recent  excavations  on  the 

by  the  Romans,  and  are  found  among  the  supposed  site  of  a  Roman  building  in 

remains  of  their  villas  in  this  country.  Micheldever  wood,  Hants. 
A  considerable  number  were  dug  up 

Cotton  MS.  Nero  C.  IV.,  circa  1125 

Bayeux  tapestry. 



Cotton  MS.  Nero  0.  IV.  circa  1125. 



will  be  shewn  hereafter,  for  gutters q.  It  was  then  ob- 
tained from  the  rich  mines  of  Cumberland,  from  Allendale 
in  Northumberland,  and  from  Swaledale  in  Yorkshire'. 
It  was  purchased  in  the  mass,  and  cast  into  sheets  at  the 
place  where  it  was  to  be  used.  In  building  accounts  of 
this,  as  well  as  of  a  later  period,  we  find  the  item  for  fuel 
to  melt  lead. 

Norman  roofs  had  a  considerable  pitch  or  elevation. 
The  angle  or  ridge  formed  by  the  meeting  of  the  rafters  of 
the  hall  is  mentioned  by  Necham8 ;  he  does  not  allude, 
however,  to  any  crest  ornament.  It  seems,  indeed,  impro- 
bable that  there  was,  at  this  period,  much  external  orna- 
ment employed.  Although  embattled  parapets  were  ordinary 
features  in  castellated  buildings  of  the  twelfth  century, 
there  is  no  certain  evidence  of  their  application  to  domestic 
structures  of  the  same  date ;  yet  it  may  be  worthy  of  obser- 
vation, that  battlements  appear  in  almost  every  representa- 
tion of  an  architectural  character  in  manuscripts  of  this  and 
the  preceding  century*.  It  is  well  known  that  crenellated 
walls  appear  on  monuments  of  very  remote  antiquity — as 
on  the  marbles  brought  from  Nineveh  and  Lycia. 

For  the  sake  of  convenience  it  may  be  as  well  to  give 

1  See  deeds,  Appendix,  No.  II. 

r  See  in  the  series  of  Pipe  Rolls  for 
the  reign  of  Henry  II.  the  returns  for 
Cumberland  and  Northumberland.  No- 
tices of  the  Swaledale  mines  will  be  found 
in  the  Yorkshire  accounts,  under  the 
heading  "Honor  Comitis  Conani;"  the 
honour  of  Richmond  being  the  appanage 
of  Conan,  earl  of  Bretagne,  who  built 
the  keep  of  the  castle  there  circa  1170. 
The  lead  for  Windsor  castle,  in  this  reign, 
came  from  Cumberland;  "  et  pro  plumbo 
ad  domos  Regis  de  Windresore,  xli.  iijs." 
13  Hen.  II.  At  this  period  large  quan- 
tities of  lead  were  exported  ;  the  great 
church  of  the  abbey  of  Clervaux,  in 


Champagne,  was  roofed  with  lead  from 
the  Cumberland  mines,  given  by  Henry 
II.: — "Et  pro  c.  careatis  plumbi  libe- 
ratis  fratri  Simoni  ad  operationem  ec- 
clesie  Clarevallensis,  Ixvj.lL  xiijs.  iiijd." 
25  Hen.  II.  The  same  accounts  contain 
frequent  notices  of  the  shipment  of  lead 
to  Caen. 

s  "  Tigillis  etiam  opus  est  usque  ad 
domus  commissuram  porrectis."  The 
French  interlinear  gloss  is  "  cheveruns." 

t  As  for  example  in  the  MS.  of  Ca?d- 
mon's  Paraphrase  in  the  Bodleian 
Library. —  See  Archseologia,  vol.  xxiv. 
PI.  77,  96,  100. 


in  this  place  some  account  of  metal-work,  as  architec- 
turally applied,  in  the  twelfth  centiuy.  From  an  early 
period,  in  fact  from  the  tenth  century,  it  may  be  remarked 
that  in  all  drawings  and  paintings  in  manuscripts  iron-work 
on  doors  presents  an  ornamental  character :  the  bars  of  the 
hinges  project  almost  entirely  across  the  panel,  and  are 
more  or  less  floriated11.  The  scutcheons  of  locks  are  fre- 
quently ornamented,  as  in  the  annexed  example v.  Pad- 
locks, however,  appear,  according  to  Necham,  to  have  been 
an  ordinary  apparatus  for  securing  doors ;  he  says,  "  let 
the  door  have  a  pensile  lockx."  Nail-heads  are  rarely  re- 
presented, in  early  drawings,  on  the  surface  of  doors ;  and 
it  may  be  that  no  attempt  was  made  to  render  them  orna- 
mental until  a  later  date :  we  find  that  in  the  1 9th  of 
Henry  II. ,  twenty-five  thousand  great  nails,  with  heads, 
were  supplied  for  the  king's  house  at  Winchester,  by  the 
borough  of  Gloucester,  which,  from  its  vicinity  to  the  iron 
forges  of  the  forest  of  Dean,  was  the  Birmingham  of  the 
middle  agesy.  As  in  the  case  of  lead,  it  may  be  observed, 
that  much  of  the  smith's  work,  as  in  bars,  hinges,  &c, 
was  done  upon  the  spot.  In  this  and  succeeding  centuries 
the  various  classes  of  workmen  having  been  assembled, 
their  employer  found  the  rough  material,  and  it  was  worked 
by  the  side  of  the  structure  to  which  it  was  to  be  applied. 
This  mode  of  proceeding  naturally  resulted  from  the  gene- 
rally straitened  means  of  the  artificers  of  early  times,  the  im- 
perfect division  of  labour,  and  also  from  the  trouble  and 

u  Compare  the  MS.  of  Credmon  be-  cester.   "Etproxxv.miliariis  magnorum 

fore  quoted.  clavorum  coronatorum,  ad  domus  Regiis 

v  From  the  Cottonian  MS.,  Claudius  de  Wintonia,  xlvs.    Et  pro  v.  miliariis 

D.  iv.  minorum  clavorum  ad  easdem  domos, 

*  "Ostium  seram  habeat  pensulam."  vj  s.  viijd."    The  word  "coronatorum" 

It  is  scarcely  necessary  to  remark  that  can  scarcely  be  taken  to  imply  more  than 

this  direction  could  refer  generally  only  that  the  nails  had  heads,  although  it  may 

to  an  internal  fastening.  be  inferred,  without  much  probability, 

y  Pipe  Roll,  19  Hen.  II.,  under  Glou-  that  they  were  in  some  degree  ornamental. 



Cottonian  MS.  Nero  C.  IV.  circa  1125. 

Cotton  MS.  Nero  C  IV. 



cost  of  obtaining  manufactured  articles  from  the  few  great 
towns  which  then  existed  in  this  country2. 

So  far  as  the  exterior  of  buildings  at  this  period  is 
concerned,  there  is  only  one  observation  remaining  in  the 
authority  that  has  been  so  frequently  quoted,  to  which  we 
need  refer.  It  is  recommended  that  the  talus,  or  foot,  of 
the  wall  should  be  protected  by  stakesa. 

It  may  seem  extraordinary  to  suggest  the  probability 
that  ashlaring  was  sometimes  painted  during  this  century ; 
yet  it  is  often  so  represented  in  contemporary  drawings, 
and  the  fact  can  scarcely  be  accounted  for  by  supposing 
that  artists  introduced  colour  in  that  respect  for  the  mere 
purpose  of  enhancing  the  effect  of  their  work ;  more  especi- 
ally when  it  is  considered  how  very  literal  the  pictorial 
efforts  of  the  age  appear  to  have  been.  Without  insisting 
that  such  was  really  the  case,  it  may  be  observed  that  the 
blocks  are  generally  painted  in  alternate  colours,  like  a 
chess-board,  and  it  is  not  improbable  that  the  fashion  may 
have  been  borrowed  from  continental  examples.  The  over- 
flowing of  the  people  of  the  north  upon  southern  and 
eastern  Europe  during  the  first  crusades,  ultimately  exer- 
cised much  influence  upon  the  various  arts  of  their  re- 
spective countries,  and  it  is  scarcely  necessary  to  add  that 
external  decoration  in  colour,  naturaP  or  artificial,  was  an 
ordinary  feature  of  the  more  remarkable  buildings  of  the 
Italian  cities  and  of  Constantinople.  It  will  be  seen,  when 
we  come  to  treat  of  the  state  of  domestic  architecture  in  the 

2  Of  course  more  complicated  works  in 
iron,  as  locks,  were  not  executed  in  the 
way  described  above.  The  "  Locwrichtes" 
seem  to  have  been  a  superior  and  inde- 
pendent craft  from  an  early  time ;  work- 
ing also,  as  in  later  days,  as  bell-found- 

a  "  Projectum  sive  pes  parietis  stipiti- 

bus  muniatur."  The  interlinear  gloss 
is  "  bartuns." — Necham,  ut  supra.  This 
may  mean  that  the  footings  should  be 
strengthened  with  cross-ties  of  wood 
(barotitis),  or  with  planking  laid  unt!er 

b  That  is,  in  the  material  employed. 


fourteenth  century,  that  one  of  the  towers  of  Windsor 
castle  was  undoubtedly  painted  in  various  colours  on  the 
exterior.  The  flint  panelling  in  ecclesiastical  and  secular 
buildings  in  Norfolk,  and  other  parts,  although  it  may  have 
originated  in  a  scarcity  of  stone,  proves  that  mere  diversity 
of  colour  was  considered  a  legitimate  means  of  producing 
architectural  effect  externally. 

These  remarks  comprehend  the  plan  and  those  exter- 
nal features  of  domestic  buildings  of  this  period,  which 
presented  any  striking  architectural  character;  it  now  re- 
mains to  give  some  account  of  their  internal  arrangement 
and  decoration. 

Necham  says  that  the  windows  of  the  hall  should  be 
properly  constructed,  looking  towards  the  east.  Moyses' 
hall,  at  Bury  St.  Edmund's,  supplies  a  good  example  of  the 
external  and  internal  details  of  windows  of  this  date.  It 
will  be  observed  that  internally  the  masonry  is  not  carried 
up  all  the  way  to  the  sill  of  the  window ;  by  this  arrange- 
ment a  bench  of  stone  is  formed  on  each  side  of  it.  The 
same  fashion  may  be  remarked  in  the  windows  of  the  hall 
at  Winchester,  built,  as  already  stated,  in  the  thirteenth 
century,  and  it  continued  much  later.  The  window  in  the 
upper  story  of  the  king's  house  at  Southampton,  perhaps 
the  earliest  remaining  example  of  this  period,  presents 
some  striking  peculiarities.  There  is  an  early  instance  of 
the  square-headed  window  in  Moyses'  hall ;  where  it  occurs 
divided  by  a  mullion  under  a  semicircular  arch.  It  seems 
probable,  however,  that  during  the  twelfth  century  win- 
dows were  often  very  narrow  apertures  in  the  wall,  splayed 
internally.  Joceline  of  Brakelonde  describes  Samson  abbat 
of  Bury  as  lodging,  in  the  year  1182,  in  one  of  the  manor- 
houses,  or  granges,  of  that  abbey,  and  narrowly  escaping 
death  by  fire,  the  only  door  of  the  upper  story  of  the  house 
being  locked,  and  the  windows  too  narrow  to  admit  of 







W.  Twopeny,  drf. 

O.  Jewitt,  sc 



escape0.  Abbat  Samson  was  of  a  rather  spare  habit  of 

There  is  not,  unfortunately,  any  good  evidence  that 
windows  in  domestic  buildings  of  this  century  were  glazed. 
In  the  Exchequer  accounts,  already  so  often  quoted,  there 
are  many  charges  for  making  and  repairing  windows,  in  the 
reign  of  Henry  IT.,  but  it  is  believed  that  glass  is  not  once 
named,  although  it  was  certainly  used  in  ecclesiastical  build- 
ings of  the  same  date.  The  probability  is  that  the  win- 
dows were  usually  fitted  with  wooden  shutters,  lattices  or 
fenestrate,  and  sometimes  with  iron  bars,  as  we  know  they 
continued  to  be  very  generally  in  the  thirteenth  and  early 
in  the  fourteenth  century,  long  after  glass  had  been  intro- 
duced into  the  royal  palaces  and  the  houses  of  the  nobility. 

It  has  been  stated  previously  that  frequently  the  only 
fire-place  in  the  building  was  in  the  private  chamber,  or 
solar,  annexed  to  the  hall,  on  the  upper  story,  over  the  cellar. 
The  chimney-piece  remaining  in  the  house  at  BoothbyPagnell 
presents  a  good  example  of  the  form  generally  prevalent 
in  this  century,  and  corresponds  very  minutely  with  the 
representations  of  fire-places  in  contemporary  illuminations. 
Indeed  down  to  the  fifteenth  century  there  is  very  little 
variation  in  the  general  design  of  fire-places.  At  Rochester 
castle  they  have  semicircular  arches,  ornamented  with  zig- 
zags, and  with  shafts  in  the  jambs.  In  Colchester  castle 
the  fire-places  are  constructed  of  Roman-like  tiles,  which 
give  them  an  earlier  appearance,  but  their  real  date  seems 
to  be  the  Norman  period .  At  Newcastle  there  is  a  fire-place 
of  this  period,  with  a  segmental  arch  ornamented  with  the 
usual  Norman  billet.  There  are  several  fire-places  at  Foun- 
tain's abbey  of  this  century.    At  Coningsburgh  castle  the 

c  "Cronica  Jocelini  de  Brakelonda,"  Rugby,  for  directing  my  attention  to  this 
published  by  the  Camden  Society,  p.  23.  passage.  The  room  is  called  solium,  a 
I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  M.  H.  Bloxam,  of     term  often  used  for  solarium. 



opening  of  the  chimney  is  square,  with  shafts  in  the  jambs, 
and  what  is  called  a  straight  arch,  that  is,  the  mantel-piece 
is  formed  of  several  stones  joggled  together.  This  is  the 
case  also  at  Fountain's  abbey.  In  the  Norman  house  ad- 
joining the  west  wall  of  Southampton,  there  is,  on  the  first 
floor,  another  instance,  differing  from  that  at  Boothby 
Pagnell,  inasmuch  as  it  has  shafts  in  the  jambs ;  there  the 
chimney  appears  to  have  been  carried  up  to  the  top  of  the 
wall,  which  was  certainly  not  always  the  case,  the  vent  for 
the  smoke  being  sometimes  pierced  through  the  wall. 

If  we  may  draw  any  positive  conclusion  from  representa- 
tions in  manuscripts,  taken  in  connection  with  good  evidence 
of  the  practice  of  the  thirteenth  century,  to  be  hereafter 
cited,  the  kitchen  was  open  in  the  roof,  the  cooking  being 
performed  at  an  iron  grate d,  which  stood  in  the  centre  of  it. 
Necham  directs  that  the  kitchen  should  have  a  drain  or 
gutter  to  carry  off  the  refuse  of  the  apartment6 ;  it  is  not  im- 
probable that  this  convenient  appendage  ran  across  the  floor. 

As  regards  the  cellar,  or  substructure  of  masonry,  gene- 
rally vaulted,  over  which  the  hall,  solar,  or  private  chamber 
was  built,  a  fine  example  of  this  period  was  destroyed  some 
years  ago,  viz.,  the  lower  story  of  part  of  the  inn  of  the 
Prior  of  Lewes,  in  Southwark,  of  which  an  engraving  is 
annexed.  In  this  instance  the  hall  appears  to  have  been 
over  the  vaulted  room.  The  general  destination  of  this 
part  of  a  twelfth  century  house  has  been  before  explained ; 
it  may  be  added,  however,  that  in  some  instances  it  appears 
to  have  been  used  not  only  as  a  store-room,  but  also  as  a 
brewery,  and  not  unfrequently,  where  great  security  was 
needed,  as  a  stable. 

d  "  Caminum  ferreum."  This  appa- 
ratus continued  in  use  until  the  fifteenth 

e  "  In  coquina  sit  mensula  &c.  et  ruder 

ad  quod  sordes  coquine  defluere  possint." 
The  interlinear  gloss  is  guter. — Conf. 
Prompt.  Parv.,  sub  voce. 





Csedmon  MS. 



We  have  no  great  amount  of  information  respecting  the 
internal  finish,  decoration,  or  furniture  of  houses  at  this 
early  period ;  but  several  curious  details  occur  in  Caedmon 
and  on  the  Bayeux  tapestry.  Necham,  to  whose  hints  the 
reader  is  indebted  for  many  of  the  illustrations  already  given, 
alludes,  in  his  somewhat  rhetorical  censure  of  the  luxury  ex- 
hibited in  buildings  of  his  own  times,  to  the  smoothing  and 
polishing  of  the  surface  of  the  walls  by  the  mason's  trowelf. 
It  is  certain  that  rough  Norman  masonry  was  very  frequently 
plastered,  and  in  this  case  he  may  have  referred  to  neater 
work  of  that  description  on  the  internal  surface  of  walls. 
The  finer  material  used  for  that  purpose,  now,  as  anciently, 
called  plaster  of  Paris,  was  an  article  imported  into  this 
country  in  the  thirteenth  century8,  and  probably  at  an  earlier 
date.  The  same  writer  speaks  also  of  carving  and  painting 
as  internal  ornaments,  and  sneers  at  sculptured  epistyles 
as  obnoxious  to  spiders'  websh.  In  another  place  he  says, 
the  walls  of  the  private  chamber  should  be  covered  with 
hangings,  to  avoid  flies  and  spiders;  and  observes  that 
tapestry  should  be  conveniently  suspended  from  the  epi- 
style, meaning,  of  course,  in  cases  where  the  room  was 
divided  by  columns ;  we  know  that  this  contrivance  for 
separating  one  portion  of  an  apartment  from  the  remainder 
was  in  use  until  the  sixteenth  century,  and  it  appears  to 
have  been  often  employed  at  the  entry  of  rooms  in  place 
of  a  door1.  Of  domestic  furniture  in  the  twelfth  century 
little  can  be  said,  except  that  it  appears  to  have  been 

f  "  Surgit  et  erigitur  altitudo  muri  ex  h  "  Supponitur  tectum  tignis  et  laque- 

cemento  et  lapidibus  constructi,  secun-  aribus  obnoxium.    Quid  de  celaturis  et 

dum  legem  amussis  et perpendiculi.  De-  picturis   dicam," — "Scilicet   opus  erat 

betsesuperficiei  muri  equalitas  levigature  ut  celature  epistiliorum  aranearum  casses 

et  perpolitioni  trulle  cementarie,"  &c.  sustinereut."  Necbam,  ut  supra. 

Alex.  Necbam  de  Naturis  Rerum,  MS.  1  Hangings  of  this  description  are  of 

Harl.  3737  fo.  95,  b.  See  also  Introduc-  ordinary  occurrence  in  the  drawings  orna- 

tion,  p.  xxvi.  menting  Saxon  MSS.  of  the  tenth  and 

S  The  gypsum  was  brought  over  rough  eleventh  centuries, 
and  burnt  here. 


scanty.  A  bed  and  a  chest  were  the  chief  appendages  of 
the  sleeping  room,  and  tables  and  benches,  sometimes  with 
back-rails,  of  the  hall.  In  contemporary  illuminations 
stools  of  various,  and  sometimes  fantastical,  shapes  may  be 
noticed.  Beds  in  this,  or  indeed  any  earlier,  period  are 
seldom  represented  with  canopies.  The  walls  in  the 
houses  of  the  wealthy  were  undoubtedly  hung  with  some 
kind  of  tapestry,  as  we  find  Necham  recommends  it ; 
though  it  is  probable  that  this  decoration  was  confined  to 
the  private  chamber,  and  to  the  dais,  or  raised  part,  of  the 
hall.  The  chest  in  the  bed -room  served  the  place  of  a 
wardrobe,  and  held  the  cumbrous  apparel  and  valuables  of 
the  owner ;  it  may  be  added  that  coffins  were  often  made 
like  chests  with  locks  and  hinges,  and  are  so  represented  in 
ancient  drawings ;  stone  coffins  appear  to  have  been  mostly 
confined  to  districts  where  the  material  was  abundant. 

The  floors  of  rooms  seem  to  have  been  usually  of  wood, 
as  well  in  domestic  as  in  military  buildings J,  unless  they 
were  on  the  ground,  or  on  a  vault,  and  it  is  believed  that 
no  mention  of  the  use  of  paving  tiles  during  this  century 
can  be  found  that  does  not  refer  to  an  ecclesiastical  edifice. 
The  existence  of  corbel  stones,  on  which  the  joists  of  floor- 
ing were  carried,  in  the  remains  of  domestic  buildings 
of  this  date,  both  ecclesiastical  and  secular,  shew  that 
wooden  floors  were  in  ordinary  use ;  and  the  fact  will  be 
further  attested  in  the  observations  to  be  made  on  houses 
within  towns.  They  were,  at  this  time,  strewed  with  dried 
rushes  in  winter,  and  green  fodder  in  summer ;  a  custom 
which,  like  other  early  usages,  prevailed  to  a  late  date. 

At  this  point  we  may  quit  the  subject  of  the  larger  class 
of  those  domestic  edifices  during  the  twelfth  century  which 
were  not  of  a  military  character,  and  were  situated  without 

j  "  Pro  turri  planchianda"  Acct.  of  the  lisle  castle,  temp.  Hen.  II.  Many  other 
sheriff  of  Cumberland,  for  repairs  of  Car-     examples  might  be  adduced. 

Benedictional  of  St.  Ethel  wold  MS 








i  n  o  I 



Bayeux  tapestry. 



Bayeux  tapestry. 

Cotton  MS.  Nero  C.  IV 

Caedracn  ?J3 



the  walls  of  cities.  Before  doing  so,  however,  it  may  be 
observed  that,  singular  as  it  may  appear  that  there  should 
have  been  but  one  principal  private  chamber  contained  in 
any  house  at  that  period,  not  even  excepting  the  royal  man- 
sions, there  is  nevertheless  very  little  doubt  that  such  was  the 
case.  We  find  that  when  our  sovereigns  did  not  attend 
to  public  business  in  the  hall,  or  give  audience  in  their 
chamber,  they  used  the  chapel  for  that  purpose.  In  the 
chroniclers  of  the  twelfth,  and  even  of  the  thirteenth  cen- 
tury, there  are  frequent  notices  of  the  transaction  of  secular 
business  in  the  domestic  chapel k.  The  apparent  difficulty 
may  be  resolved  by  remembering  the  comparative  poverty 
of  the  country,  the  trouble  and  cost  of  obtaining,  in  some 
parts,  any  other  building  materials  than  wood,  and  lastly  the 
rude  manners  of  medieval  times,  which  tolerated  the  indis- 
criminate use  of  the  hall,  as  a  sleeping  apartment,  for  cen- 
turies after  the  immorality  which  the  practice  engendered 
had  supplied  themes  for  the  ribald  songs  and  tales  of  the 
earliest  itinerant  minstrels  and  romancers. 

The  most  satisfactory  evidence  exists  of  the  style  in 
which  the  better  class  of  houses  in  towns  were  built,  in 
London  at  least,  during  this  century.  The  citizens  assem- 
bled, in  the  first  year  of  the  reign  of  Richard  I.,  en- 
acted certain  regulations  "for  appeasing  the  contentions 
which  sometimes  arise  among  neighbours  touching  boun- 
daries made  or  to  be  made  between  their  lands,  so  that 
such  disputes  might  be  settled  according  to  that  which 
was  then  provided  and  ordained.  And  the  said  pro- 
vision and  ordinance  was  called  an  Assize."  We  learn 
from  this  remarkable  document,  which  is  printed  at  length 
in  the  Appendix,  that  in  ancient  times,  that  is,  in  times 
anterior  to  the  year  1189,  the  greater  part  of  the  city  was 

k  See  the  anonymous  chronicle  of  Legibus,"  recently  published  by  the  Cam- 
Battle  Abbey  ;  also  "  Liber  de  Antiquis     den  Society. 



built  of  wood,  the  houses  being  roofed  with  straw,  reeds, 
and  similar  materials.  The  frequent  fires  which  took  place 
owing  to  this  mode  of  building,  and  more  particularly  the 
great  conflagration  in  the  first  year  of  the  reign  of  Stephen, 
which  spread  from  London  bridge  to  the  church  of  St. 
Clement  Danes,  destroying  in  its  progress  the  cathedral, 
compelled  the  citizens  to  adopt  some  measures  to  avert  the 
recurrence  of  such  a  calamity.  Therefore,  says  the  Assize, 
"  many  citizens,  to  avoid  such  danger,  built  according  to 
their  means,  on  their  ground,  a  stone  house  covered  and 
protected  by  thick  tiles  against  the  fury  of  fire,  whereby  it 
often  happened  that  when  a  fire  arose  in  the  city  and  burnt 
many  edifices  and  had  reached  such  a  house,  not  being  able 
to  injure  it,  it  there  became  extinguished,  so  that  many 
neighbours'  houses  were  wholly  saved  from  fire  by  that 

It  is  clear  from  this  statement,  that  up  to  the  first  of 
Stephen  houses  in  London  were  constructed  much  as 
they  had  been  in  the  earlier  Saxon  times,  almost  wholly 
of  wood;  but  from  that  period  a  change  began  to  take 
place ;  the  inhabitants  were  encouraged  to  build  of  stone, 
and,  to  that  end,  various  privileges  were  conceded  to  those 
who  adopted  the  new  fashion.  These  privileges  are  thus 
detailed  in  the  Assize  of  1189. 

"  When  two  neighbours  shall  have  agreed  to  build  between 
themselves  [a  Avail]  of  stone,  each  shall  give  a  foot  and  a 
half  of  his  land,  and  so  they  shall  construct,  at  their  joint 
cost,  a  stone  wall,  three  feet  thick  and  sixteen  feet  in  height. 
And,  if  they  agree,  they  shall  make  a  gutter  between  them, 
at  their  common  expense,  to  receive  and  carry  off  the  wrater 
from  their  houses,  as  they  may  deem  most  convenient. 
But  if  they  should  not  agree,  either  of  them  may  make 
a  gutter  to  carry  the  water  dripping  from  his  house  on  to 
his  own  land,  except  he  can  convey  it  into  the  high  street. 


"  They  may  also,  if  they  agree,  raise  the  said  wall 
as  high  as  they  please,  at  their  joint  expense :  and  if  it 
shall  happen  that  one  should  wish  to  raise  the  wall,  and 
the  other  not,  it  shall  be  lawful  for  him  who  is  willing, 
to  raise  his  own  part  as  much  as  he  please,  and  build 
upon  it l*  without  damage  of  the  other,  at  his  own  cost ; 
and  he  shall  receive  the  falling  water  as  is  aforesaid. 

"And  if  both  would  have  arches m  in  the  wall,  let  the 
arches  be  made  on  each  side  of  the  depth  of  one  foot 
only,  so  that  the  wall  between  the  arches  may  be  one  foot 
thick.  But  if  one  would  have  an  arch,  and  the  other  not, 
he  shall  find  free-stone  and  cause  it  to  be  cut,  and  the 
arch  shall  be  set  at  their  joint  expense. 

"  And  if  any  one  would  build  of  stone,  according  to  the 
Assize,  and  his  neighbour  through  poverty  cannot,  or  per- 
chance will  not,  then  he  shall  yield  unto  him  desiring  to 
build  by  the  Assize  three  feet  of  his  land,  and  the  other 
shall  make  a  wall  upon  that  land,  at  his  own  cost,  three 
feet  thick  and  sixteen  feet  in  height ;  and  he  who  giveth 
the  land  shall  have  the  clear  moiety  of  the  wall,  and 
[the  right  to]  put  his  timber"  upon  it  and  build.  And  they 
shall  make  gutters  to  receive  and  carry  off  the  water  falling 
from  their  houses  as  is  aforesaid.  But  as  regards  a  wall 
built  at  the  joint  cost  of  neighbours  it  is  always  lawful 
for  him  so  desiring  to  raise  his  own  part  at  his  own  expense, 
without  damage  of  the  other.  And  if  they  would  have 
arches,  let  them  be  made  on  each  side,  as  is  aforesaid. 

1  The  unraised  half  of  the  wall  was  pear  hereafter,  for  aumbries  or  cup- 
called  the  rebate,  in  deeds  nearly  con-  boards. 

temporary  with  this  docu- 
ment. See  Appendix,  No. 
II.  The  propriety  of  the 
name  is  obvious  if  a  sec- 
tion of  the  wall  be  taken  ; 

m  Such  arches  were  used,  as  will  ap 

n  The  word  in  the  original  Latin  is 
panna,  which  may  signify  either  the  joists 
for  flooring,  or  a  wooden  superstructure. 
In  its  original  sense  the  phrase  appears 
to  have  been  confined  to  wooden  roofing. 
See  Du  Cange,  sub  voce. 


But  nevertheless  he  who  giveth  the  land  shall  find  free-stone 
and  cause  it  to  be  cut,  and  the  other  at  his  own  cost  shall 
set  it. 

"And  if  any  one  shall  build  his  own  stone-wall,  upon 
his  own  land,  of  the  height  of  sixteen  feet,  his  neighbour 
ought  to  make  a  gutter  under  the  eaves  of  the  house0 
which  is  placed  on  that  wall,  and  receive  in  it  the  water 
falling  from  that  house,  and  lead  it  on  to  his  own  land, 
unless  he  can  lead  it  into  the  high  street ;  and  he  shall, 
notwithstanding,  have  no  interest  in  the  aforesaid  wall, 
when  he  shall  build  beside  it.  And  even  though  he  should 
not  build,  he  shall  nevertheless  always  receive  the  water 
falling  from  his  house  built  on  that  wall,  on  his  land,  and 
carry  it  off  without  damage  of  him  to  whom  the  wall 

"Also  no  one  of  two  parties  having  a  common  wall 
built  between  them,  can,  or  ought,  to  pull  down  any 
portion  of  his  part  of  the  said  wall,  or  lessen  its  thickness, 
or  make  arches  in  it  without  the  assent  and  will  of  the 

"  And  concerning  the  necessary  chambers  in  the  houses 
of  citizens,  it  is  thus  appointed  and  ordained ;  that  if  the 
pit  made  in  such  a  chamber  be  walled  with  stone,  the 
mouth  of  the  said  pit  should  be  distant  two  feet  and  a 
half  from  the  land  of  a  neighbour,  even  though  there  be 
a  common  wall  between  them.  But  if  it  should  not  be 
lined  with  stone,  it  ought  to  be  distant  three  feet  and  a 
half  from  the  neighbour's  land. 

"  And  if  any  one  shall  have  windows  looking  towards 
the  land  of  a  neighbour,  and  although  he  and  his  pre- 
decessors have  been  long  possessed  of  the  view  of  the  afore- 

0  In  the  original  domus,  meaning,  pro- 
bably, nothing  more  than  the  upper  room 
erected  on  the  party  walls  of  stone ;  this 

superstructure  was  generally  of  wood ;  in 
one  of  the  clauses  it  is  called  the  solar. 
See  the  next  page. 



said  windows,  nevertheless  his  neighbour  may  lawfully 
obstruct  the  view  of  those  windows,  by  building  opposite 
to  them  on  his  own  ground,  as  he  shall  consider  most 
expedient ;  except  he  who  hath  the  windows  can  shew 
any  writing  whereby  his  neighbour  may  not  obstruct 
the  view  of  those  windows. 

"  And  if  any  one  have  corbels  in  the  wall  of  his  neigh- 
bour, the  entire  wall  being  his  neighbour's,  he  cannot 
remove  the  aforesaid  corbels,  that  he  may  fix  them  in 
any  other  part  of  the  aforesaid  wall,  except  with  the  assent 
of  him  to  whom  the  wall  belongs ;  nor  put  more  corbels 
in  the  aforesaid  wall  than  he  had  before. 

"And  if  any  one  have  a  wall  built  between  him  and 
his  neighbour,  entirely  covered  at  the  top  with  his  roof 
and  timber,  although  his  neighbour  may  have  in  the  afore- 
said wall  corbels  or  joists  for  the  support  of  his  solar, 
or  even  arches  or  aumbries,  either  by  the  grant  of  him  who 
hath  the  wall  covered,  or  of  his  ancestor,  or  even  with- 
out their  knowledge,  nevertheless  he  cannot  claim  nor 
have  more  in  the  aforesaid  wall  than  he  hath  in  possession, 
without  the  assent  of  him  who  hath  the  wall  covered  ; 
and  he  ought  to  receive  the  water  falling  from  the  house 
built  upon  the  wall  under  the  eaves  of  the  said  house,  as  is 
aforesaid,  and  lead  it  off  at  his  own  proper  cost. 

"Also  if  any  one  should  make  a  pavement  in  the 
high  street  unjustly,  to  the  nuisance  of  the  City  and  of 
his  neighbour,  that  neighbour  may  lawfully  hinder  it  by 
the  bailiffs  of  the  city,  and  it  shall  so  remain  until  it  be 
considered  and  decided  by  the  jurors  of  the  Assize.'' 

It  is  very  evident  upon  carefully  analysing  this  curious 
specimen  of  early  civic  legislation,  which  is  now  first 
printed  in  English,  that  although  the  citizens  might,  if  it  so 
pleased  them,  construct  their  houses  entirely  of  stone,  yet 
they  were  not  absolutely  required  to  do  more  than  erect 


party -walls  sixteen  feet  in  height ;  the  material  of  the 
structure  built  on  such  walls  being  left  entirely  to  individual 
choice ;  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  in  the  generality 
of  houses  it  was  of  wood.  This  assumption  is  justified  by 
the  fact  that  in  deeds  of  a  much  later  period,  houses  con- 
structed wholly  of  stone  are  frequently  named  as  boun- 
daries without  any  further  or  more  special  description  than 
that  such  was  the  substance  of  which  they  were  built.  It 
is  obvious  that  in  a  district  where  edifices  were  generally 
reared  in  stone  such  a  description  would  have  been  vague 
and  insufficient.  If  in  the  thirteenth  and  fourteenth  cen- 
turies stone  buildings  were  objects  of  mark  in  London, 
we  are  justified  in  believing  that  they  were  equally  un- 
common in  the  twelfth  century.  Therefore  it  would  ap- 
pear that  the  Assize  of  1189  had  no  more  direct  effect  upon 
the  style  of  building,  at  the  time  it  was  enacted,  than  that 
of  regulating  the  method  of  constructing  party-walls  of  a 
given  height,  and  then  only  in  cases  where  individuals  were 
willing  to  build  of  stone.  It  took  no  cognisance  of  any  part 
of  an  edifice  beyond  such  walls,  and  the  contrivances  in 
them,  as  corbels,  for  carrying  a  superstructure.  People 
being  left  to  their  own  discretion  finished  their  dwellings 
with  the  cheapest  and  most  accessible  materials ;  and  thus 
the  solars  of  the  Londoners  continued  to  be,  during  this 
and  a  long  subsequent  period,  mere  wooden  lofts,  and  that 
indeed  is  the  primary  signification  of  the  term.  This  view 
of  the  subject  is  supported  by  the  circumstance  that  when- 
ever the  upper  apartment  was  carried  out  in  stone  it  is 
called,  in  deeds,  "  solarium  lapideum,"  a  stone  solar,  whereas 
in  ordinary  cases  the  material  of  the  substructure  being- 
named  that  of  the  solar  is  not  described. 

But  if  further  proof  be  required  that  the  regulations  of 
1189  produced  no  great  or  immediate  effect  on  the  style 
of  building  in  London,  it  is  supplied  by  a  similar  ordinance 


issued  in  the  reign  of  King  John.  A  fire  occurred  on  the 
eleventh  of  July,  in  the  year  1212,  which  destroyed  London 
bridge,  then  a  wooden  structure,  and  a  great  number  of 
houses.  In  some  respects  this  accident  appears  to  have 
been  more  serious  than  the  conflagration  of  the  time  of 
Stephen.  The  citizens  again  took  counsel  to  provide,  if 
possible,  against  the  recurrence  of  such  a  calamity,  when 
the  following  decrees  were  published. 

"That  all  ale-houses  be  forbidden,  except  those  which 
shall  be  licensed  by  the  common  council  of  the  city  at 
Guildhall,  excepting  those  belonging  to  persons  willing  to 
build  of  stone,  that  the  city  may  be  secure.  And  that  no 
baker  bake,  or  ale-wife  brewp,  by  night,  either  with  reeds 
or  straw  or  stubble,  but  with  wood  only. 

"  They  advise  also  that  all  the  cook-shops  on  the  Thames 
be  whitewashed  and  plastered  within  and  without,  and 
that  all  inner  chambers  and  hostelries  be  wholly  removed, 
so  that  there  may  remain  only  the  house  (domusq),  and 

"  Whosoever  wishes  to  build,  let  him  take  care,  as  he 
loveth  himself  and  his  goods,  that  he  roof  not  with  reed, 
nor  rush,  nor  with  any  manner  of  litter,  but  with  tile  only, 
or  shingle,  or  boards,  or,  if  it  may  be,  with  lead,  within  the 
city  and  Portsoken.  Also  all  houses  which  till  now  are 
covered  with  reed  or  rush,  which  can  be  plastered,  let 
them  be  plastered  within  eight  days,  and  let  those  which 
shall  not  be  so  plastered  within  the  term  be  demolished 
by  the  alderman  and  lawful  men  of  the  venue. 

p  In  London,  and  other  parts  of  the 
country,  brewing  was  generally  managed 
by  women,  till  a  comparatively  late  time. 
In  the  fifteenth  century  Fleet-street  was 
chiefly  occupied  by  ale-wives  and  felt- 
cap  makers. 

q  In  this  passage  house  appears  to  mean 

the  large  apartment  or  hall  in  which  the 
family  and  customers  assembled.  In 
farm-houses  in  the  north  of  England  the 
kitchen,  where  the  family  and  servants 
used  formerly  to  sit,  was  called  the 
house-place.  See  the  colloquy  of  Eras- 
mus entitled  Diversoria. 


"All  wooden-houses  which  are  nearest  to  the  stone- 
houses  in  Cheap,  whereby  the  stone-houses  or  Cheap  may- 
be in  peril,  shall  be  securely  amended  by  view  of  the  mayor 
and  sheriffs,  and  good  men  of  the  city,  or,  without  any 
exception,  to  whomsoever  they  may  belong,  pulled  down. 

<c  The  watches,  and  they  who  watch  by  night  for  the 
custody  of  the  city  shall  go  out  by  day  and  return  by  day, 
or  they  by  whom  they  may  have  been  sent  forth  shall  be 
fined  forty  shillings  by  the  city.  And  let  all  houses  in 
which  brewing  or  baking  is  clone  be  whitewashed  and 
plastered  within  and  without,  that  they  may  be  safe 
against  fire. 

<c  Let  all  the  aldermen  have  a  proper  hook  and  cord,  and 
let  him  who  shall  not  have  one  within  the  appointed  term, 
be  amerced  by  the  city.  Foreign1'  workmen  who  come 
into  the  city,  and  refuse  to  obey  the  aforesaid  decree  shall 
be  arrested,  until  brought  before  the  mayor  and  good  men 
to  hear  their  judgment.  They  say  also  that  it  is  only 
proper  that  before  every  house  there  should  be  a  tub  full 
of  water,  either  of  wood  or  stone8." 

These  compulsory  regulations  shew  how  little  good  had 
resulted,  up  to  the  beginning  of  the  thirteenth  century, 
from  the  assize  of  1189;  although  there  were  some  stone 
houses  in  Cheapside,  the  generality  of  domestic  buildings 
were  still  wooden  and  thatched.  That  they  were  little 
better  than  mean  hovels  may  be  inferred  from  the  sum- 
mary way  in  which  their  demolition  is  ordered,  and  from 
the  fact  that  an  alderman's  hook  and  cord  were  imple- 
ments quite  sufficient  to  pull  them  down  in  case  of  sudden 
fire,  or  any  other  emergency.    The  wages  of  the  various 

Extranei ;  this  terra  does  not  imply 
foreigners,  in  the  modern  sense  of  the 
term,  but  simply  workmen  not  belonging 
to  the  liberties  of  the  city. 

s  From  Add.  MS.  (British  Museum) 
14,252,  fo.  133,  b.  to  134,  b.  It  is  of 
the  same  date  as  the  ordinance. 



classes  of  workmen  were  fixed  by  this  ordinance  ;  as  car- 
penters, masons,  tilers,  cutters  of  free-stone,  whitewashes, 
mud-plasterers,  torchers',  excavators  and  barrow-men. 
The  daily  pay  of  carpenters,  masons,  and  tilers  was  the 
same,  threepence  with  keep,  or  fourpence  halfpenny  with- 
out, sums  equal,  at  least,  to  five  shillings  per  diem  of  the 
present  currency,  if  not  more.  It  is  remarkable  that  brick- 
layers are  not  mentioned,  as  it  is  certain  bricks  were  some- 
times used  for  building  in  the  thirteenth  century  :  indeed 
people  who  could  make  tiles  would  naturally  make  bricks, 
although,  as  before  observed",  the  latter  were  made  per- 
haps in  the  Roman  manner,  as  thick  flat  tiles.  The  mud- 
plasterers  were,  doubtless,  those  who  filled  up  the  timber 
framework  of  houses  with  mud-clay  well  mixed  with  straw, 
which  was  afterwards  whitewashed  ;  a  material  resembling 
Devonshire  cob  of  the  present  time. 

The  passage  relating  to  the  cook-shops  on  Thames  side 
is  worthy  of  observation.  The  fondness  of  the  Londoners 
for  good  cheer  is  noticed  by  several  writers  of  the  twelfth 
century,  as  Fitzstephen  and  Richard  of  Devizes.  These 
eating-houses,  which  resembled  in  character  the  popince  of 
the  Romans,  continued  to  be  chiefly  situated  on  the  line  of 
the  road  from  St.  Paul's,  by  Watling-street,  to  the  Tower, 
down  to  the  fifteenth  century,  when  most  of  them  had 
become  regular  inns.  From  the  order  to  demolish  the 
inner  chambers  and  hostelries  attached  to  them,  it  would 
appear  that  even  at  this  early  period  they  partook  of 
the  nature  of  inns  for  the  accommodation  of  travellers  : 
the  buildings  directed  to  be  removed  were  probably  mere 

4  The  signification  of  this  word  is  ob-  in  the  above  instance,  to  those  who  pre- 

scure  :  in  old  French  torcher  means  to  pared  a  material  like  the  modern  French 

wipe  or  make  clean  ; — torche,  a  wisp,  or  torchis,  a  compost  of  mud-clay  and  straw, 

wad,  of  straw  ; — iorchon  de  paille,  a  hand-  or  chopped  hay. 

ful  of  straw,  as  much  as  a  thatcher  lays  u  Introd.,  p.  xxvii. 
on  at  once.    It  seems  however  to  apply, 



pent-houses,  or  temporary  structures,  which  had  grown  up 
around  the  kitchen.  Thus  the  inns  of  our  universities, 
and  the  inns  of  court  were,  originally,  mean  lodgings  for 
scholars,  clustered  round  a  common  hall,  and  a  common 

It  will  be  remarked  that  chimneys  are  not  once  named 
in  either  of  the  Assizes  ;  no  provision  is  made  for  them  in  the 
construction  of  a  party  wall.  At  first  sight  this  omission 
would  seem  to  favour  the  belief  that  in  towns  as  in  the 
country,  fire-places  were  ordinarily  on  the  upper  story  of 
a  house.  It  must  be  recollected,  however,  that  to  have 
permitted  the  making  of  a  fire-place  in  walls  which  were 
devised  as  a  protection  against  the  ravages  of  fire,  would 
have  been,  in  some  measure,  to  defeat  the  object  of  the 
ordinance,  and  that  the  walls  in  front  and  rear  of  a 
house  were  still  applicable  to  the  construction  of  hearths 
and  flues x.  Still,  it  is  singular  that  a  set  of  regulations 
originating  in  a  wish  to  avert  the  consequences  of  fire, 
should  make  no  reference  to  the  frequent  cause  of  that 
calamity.  It  may  be  observed  that  in  London  houses  of 
this  period  the  kitchen  and  brewhouse  were  on  the  ground 
floor,  and  there  seems  no  reason  to  doubt  that  there  was  a 
fire-place  in  it  alsoy. 

It  is  evident  from  existing  remains,  civil  as  well  as  mili- 
tary, and  from  the  documents  cited  above,  that  private 
decency  was  anything  but  neglected  during  this  century. 
Indeed  from  very  early  times  the  English  seem  to  have 
made  better  provision  in  that  respect  than  their  neighbours 
on  the  continent.  In  the  domestic  buildings  yet  remaining 
of  monasteries  of  this  date,  the  contrivances  alluded  to  are 
admirably  designed.  The  assize  of  1189,  it  will  be  ob- 
served, regulates  the  position  of  the  camera  privates  of  the 

x  There  remain  a  few  houses  of  early      the  gable  and  towards  the  street, 
date  in  which  the  chimney  is  carried  up         y  See  the  Deed,  Appendix,  No.  II. 



Londoners  with  respect  to  party  walls ;  pits  walled  with 
stone  are  noticed  as  if  they  were  in  ordinary  use.  Stone 
shafts,  apparently  of  this  kind,  have  been  occasionally  found 
in  late  excavations  in  London ;  the  last  example  discovered 
was  on  the  site  of  the  new  Coal  Exchange  in  Thames- 
street  ;  its  base  rested  on  a  portion  of  the  pavement  of  a 
Roman  house2. 

These  observations  on  the  character  of  houses  in  the 
metropolis,  in  the  twelfth  century,  have  a  general  rela- 
tion to  similar  buildings  in  other  parts  of  the  kingdom. 
There  were  from  the  earliest  period  certain  peculiarities 
of  situation,  as  with  reference  to  the  security  of  the  district, 
and  the  facility  with  which  building  materials  of  a  par- 
ticular description  could  be  obtained,  that  exercised  an 
undoubted  influence  upon  the  style  of  construction  in 
different  provinces ;  but  it  may  be  safely  assumed  that 
the  general  plan  of  domestic  buildings  in  towns  was  very 
similar  in  all  parts  of  the  country. 

z  Archaeological  Journal,  vol.  v.  p.  32. 




The  remains  of  Oakham  castle  consist  of  the  hall  and 
a  ruined  wall  which  surrounds  the  enclosure  in  which  it 
stands.  This  is  of  an  irregular,  somewhat  circular,  shape. 
It  is  entered  by  a  gateway  of  late  date  on  the  south  side. 
The  wall  does  not  appear  to  have  been  intended  for  defence, 
as  it  is  in  general  thin,  and  is  composed  of  loose  rubble, 
or  rag,  and  filled  in  with  mud.  Within  the  wall  is  a  well, 
and  the  inequalities  of  the  ground  shew  the  foundations  of 
several  buildings,  but  there  are  none  standing  except  the 
hall.  Outside  the  wall  is  a  high  bank  and  wide  moat,  now 
nearly  dry,  and  other  banks  which  have  enclosed  a  garden, 
fish-pond,  &c.  The  walls  of  the  enclosure  are  only  sepa- 
rated from  the  churchyard  by  a  narrow  path. 

The  history  of  the  whole  building,  together  with  much 
curious  information,  is  given  by  the  Rev.  C.  H.  Hartshorne 
in  the  Archaeological  Journal,  vol.  v. 

The  hall,  which  (though  with  some  alterations  to  adapt 
it  to  its  present  use  as  a  county  hall)  is  still  in  a  remark- 
ably perfect  state,  is  built  east  and  west,  and  in  a  direct 
line  with  the  centre  of  the  church.  The  masonry  is  rubble, 
with  ashlar  buttresses  and  quoins.  The  style  of  the  build- 
ing is  that  of  the  latter  part  of  the  twelfth  century,  being  a 
transition  from  Norman  to  Early  English,  and  the  beauty 
of  design  and  superiority  of  execution  of  its  ornamental 
parts  render  this  building  one  of  the  most  valuable  exam- 
ples of  that  style  which  Ave  possess.    It  measures  inside 







65  ft.  by  43  ft.,  and  is  divided  by  two  rows  of  pillars  and 
arches,  thus  cutting  off  two  aisles  which  are  lean-tos.  The 
arches  rise  from  circular  pillars  with  highly  enriched  capi- 
tals. There  are  no  responds,  the  arches  at  the  ends  spring- 
ing from  corbels. 

The  principal  entrance  was  originally  at  the  east  end  of 
the  south  side,  and  there  are  also  two  low  segmental- 
headed  doors  at  the  east  end,  and  another  door  at  the 
north-west,  which  have  all  communicated  with  the  offices, 
as  may  be  seen  by  the  foundations  yet  remaining.  There 
are  two  buttresses  of  slight  projection  at  each  end  of  the 
building,  but  none  on  the  sides.  There  are  four  win- 
dows each  on  the  north  and  south  sides,  and  one  in 
the  gable  of  the  east  end,  which  is  round-headed,  with 
two  pointed  lights.  The  windows  on  the  side  are  all 
of  one  general  form  but  varied  in  detail,  no  two  being 
exactly  alike.  They  are  externally  double  lancets  divided 
by  a  shafted  mullion,  and  internally  round-headed,  but  the 
openings  for  light  are  square,  the  upper  part  of  the  lancet 
being  left  solid,  and  either  plain  or  filled  in  with  foliage, 
small  arches,  or  trefoils.  They  have  all  shafts  on  the 
mullion,  in  general  with  a  row  of  tooth-ornament  on  each 
side.  They  have  likewise  all  of  them  had  shafts  in  the 
jamb,  the  square  angles  of  the  jamb  being  cut  in  tooth- 
ornament,  but  these  shafts  are  gone  except  a  portion  in  one 
of  the  windows  on  the  north  side,  which  is  cut  out  of  the 
same  stone  as  the  jamb.  The  shafts  are  sometimes  round, 
sometimes  octagonal.  The  abacus  throughout  is  square, 
with  good  Norman  mouldings.  The  foliage  of  the  capitals 
is  in  general  Norman,  but  in  some  approaches  Early  Eng- 
lish. The  bases  are  in  general  good,  one  of  them  has 
the  corner  ornament.  The  heads  have  round  and  hollow 
mouldings  with  another  which  prevails  throughout  the 
building,  this  is  a  quirked  ogee.    The  window  recesses 


inside  are  splayed  and  round-headed,  and  have  the  angle 
chamfered  off  with  a  hollow  moulding  filled  with  tooth- 
ornament,  which  has  a  very  good  effect.  The  tympanum 
has  two  slightly  sunk  semicircular  arches  rising  from  the 
mullion.  The  east  window  has  a  bold  round  moulding  on 
the  angle.  The  door  is  round-headed,  with  a  square  abacus 
to  the  capitals  and  banded  shafts,  and  the  tooth-ornament 
on  the  jambs.  On  the  inside  it  has  a  round  moulding 
instead  of  the  hollow  chamfer.  The  pillars  are  circular, 
with  bases  with  foot  ornaments,  and  mouldings  partaking 
much  of  Early  English  character.  The  capitals  are  very 
rich  and  of  a  Corinthian  form,  the  scrolls  and  cauliculi 
being  imitated,  but  very  much,  and  elegantly,  varied.  The 
plan  of  the  upper  moulding  of  the  bell  is  sometimes  circular 
and  sometimes  quatrefoil,  and  is  in  some  of  them  beauti- 
fully worked  into  the  tooth-ornament,  which  is  bold  and 
deeply  undercut,  and  produces  a  fine  effect ;  in  others  it  is 
plain.  The  abacus  is  square,  with  the  angles  canted,  and 
in  some  has  the  lower  part  ornamented  with  the  indented 
moulding  or  with  a  series  of  small  round  arches.  The 
whole  character  of  the  capitals  is  very  similar  to  those  at 
Canterbury  and  Oxford  cathedrals,  but  more  so  to  some 
foreign  examples,  as  at  Soissons  and  Blois. 

On  the  capitals  at  the  springing  of  the  arches  are  female 
figures  and  animals  playing  on  musical  instruments,  but 
these  are  much  mutilated,  a  harp  and  two  crowts  may  still 
be  seen.  In  the  same  situation  in  the  aisles  are  human 
heads  very  well  executed.  The  arches  have  no  projecting 
label,  but  the  outer  moulding  is  the  same  as  that  round  the 
window  recesses,  filled  with  the  tooth-ornament,  and  resting 
on  heads  against  the  walls ;  under  this  is  the  plain  wall, 
and  within  this  the  quirked  ogee. 

The  corbels  which  support  the  outer  arches  are  very  fine, 
they  consist  of  a  moulded  corbel,  out  of  which  is  cut  a  small 


WINDOW,  SOUTH  SIDE,  'Interior. 













arch,  with  the  tooth -ornament  on  the  angle,  this  is  sup- 
ported by  an  animal  which  again  is  supported  by  two 
heads.  The  one  nearest  the  entrance  door  at  the  east  end 
appears  to  be  what  is  heraldically  called  a  "cat  a  mountain/' 
and  is  supported  by  the  heads  of  a  king  and  queen,  which 
appear  evidently  to  be  those  of  Henry  II.  and  his  queen, 
Eleanor  of  Guienne.  The  next  is  a  lion  supported  on  two 
heads,  male  and  female,  which  appear  to  be  portraits.  The 
third  has  the  mane  and  tail  of  a  lion,  but  the  head  is 
different,  this  is  supported  by  two  heads  without  beards, 
but  still  apparently  male  and  female,  with  very  expressive 
faces.  The  fourth  is  a  bull,  supported  by  male  and  female 
heads,  remarkable  for  the  mode  in  which  the  hair  is  dressed, 
indeed  the  whole  series  are  highly  valuable  as  examples  of 
costume,  shewing  the  various  modes  of  wearing  the  hair 
and  beard  at  that  period.  The  disposition  of  the  folds  in 
the  drapery  of  the  musicians  is  also  very  characteristic  of 
the  sculpture  of  the  time.  The  roof  is  a  king-post  roof,  but 
has  nothing  original  except  the  pitch,  part  of  it  having  been 
put  up  by  Villiers,  duke  of  Buckingham,  and  the  rest  being 

The  style  of  the  building  clearly  shews  it  to  be  about 
1180,  and  as  it  is  said  to  have  been  built  by  Walkelyn  de 
Ferrars,  that  date  agrees  with  it. 

It  should  have  been  mentioned  that  the  spring-stones  or 
skew-tables  of  the  gables  on  the  north  side  are  each  sup- 
ported by  two  heads,  male  and  female.  The  crests  of  the 
gables  too  are  ornamented  with  large  figures,  that  at  the 
east  end  being  a  figure  in  long  surcoat,  mounted  on  the 
back  of  a  lion  or  other  animal,  and  that  at  the  west  being 
a  sagittary,  the  bow  and  arrow  of  which  are  now  gone, 
having  served  as  a  mark  for  rifle  shooters  some  years  since, 
and  by  that  means  been  destroyed. 




The  direct  passage  from  Southampton  to  the  coast  of 
Normandy  rendered  it,  so  long  as  our  sovereigns  retained 
their  French  domains,  the  most  convenient  port  for  their 
embarkation,  while  its  favourable  geographical  position,  ap- 
preciated in  early  times  by  the  Romans,  made  it  the  chief 
resort  of  merchants  from  southern  Europe.  Its  vicinity  to 
the  opulent  city  of  Winchester,  long  celebrated  for  its  an- 
nual fair  on  St.  Giles's  hill,  was  another  attraction  for 
medieval  traders,  who  were  thus  enabled  to  dispose  of 
their  cargoes  without  incurring  the  cost  and  peril  of  a 
voyage,  or  land-journey,  to  London.  Prom  Southampton 
our  first  Richard  sailed  on  his  memorable  crusade,  and  an- 
cient accounts  tell  us  how  the  sheriff  supplied  him  ten 
thousand  horse-shoes  with  double  sets  of  nails  for  his 
chivalry,  and  eight  hundred  Hampshire  hogs  for  the  pro- 
vision of  his  fleeta.  Thither  came,  in  the  infancy  of  English 
commerce,  those  "  great  ships  from  Bayonne,"  laden  with 
Eastern  products,  the  arrival  of  one  of  which  was,  even  so 
late  as  the  thirteenth  century,  an  event  anxiously  expected 
by  royalty ;  and  it  was  there  that  the  merchants  of  Bour- 
deaux  landed  their  cargoes  of  wine,  the  prisage  of  which, 
two  tuns  from  each  ship,  was  long  an  important  item  of 
the  crown  revenue. 

It  is  obvious  that  during  the  times  this  port  was  so 
frequently  used  by  English  sovereigns,  there  must  have 
been  some  place  for  their  accommodation  while  waiting  to 
embark,  or  on  landing.  Accordingly  it  appears  that  there 
was  anciently  a  "  king's  house"  in  Southamptonb ;  and  by 
the  joint  aid  of  tradition  and  early  records  we  are  enabled 
to  identify  its  site  and  probable  remains.    At  the  back  of 

a  Rot.  Pip.  2  Ric.  I.  Portsmouth  which  had  a  hall  attached 

1  There  was  an  edifice  so  called  at     to  it. 



the  present  custom-house,  on  a  parallel  line  with  the  quay, 
there  is  yet  remaining  an  extensive  ancient  frontage,  now 
in  a  very  mutilated  state,  which  bears  marks  of  having 
formed  part  of  a  building  of  some  importance  in  the  twelfth 
century.  This  edifice  is  popularly  known  as  "  the  king's 
house."  We  have  no  means  of  ascertaining  the  precise 
date  of  its  erection,  but  it  may  be  reasonably  ascribed  to 
the  long  and  energetic  reign  of  Henry  the  Second ;  there  is 
some  evidence  against  the  supposition  that  it  might  have 
been  built  by  King  John,  to  whom  so  many  castles  and 
palaces  are  traditionally  given,  since  early  in  his  reign  the 
hall  which  it  contained  was  decayed,  and  the  keeper  of 
Knutwood  forest  supplied  twenty  rafters  (cheverones)  for 
the  repairs  of  its  roofc.  The  next  references  to  this  build- 
ing are  important,  as  they  demonstrate  that  it  was  situated 
by  the  water  side,  on  a  quay.  By  writs  dated  respectively 
in  the  fifth  and  sixth  years  of  Henry  the  Third d,  the  bailiffs 
of  Southampton  were  directed  to  repair  the  quay  before  the 
king's  house.  These  commands  appear  to  have  been  neg- 
lected or  imperfectly  fulfilled ;  for  by  another  writ  dated 
Nov.  21,  in  the  seventh  year  of  the  same  reign,  they  were 
ordered  "  to  repair  the  quay  this  winter,  lest  the  king's 
house  should  be  damaged  thereby,  and,  at  an  opportune 
time,  to  cause  it  to  be  well  built e."  In  the  following  year 
the  bailiffs  had  directions  to  mend  the  gutters  of  the  king's 
chamber f. 

Now  if  the  present  custom-house  were  removed,  this 
ruinous  frontage  in  its  rear,  which  we  believe  to  have  been 
the  "king's  house,"  would,  in  point  of  fact,  be  situated  on 
the  quay,  although  the  vacant  space  before  it  might  be 
rather  large  :  there  is  every  reason,  however,  to  suppose 
that  anciently  this  building  was  more  extensive ;  it  was 

c  Rot.  Claus.  9  Joh.  m.  12.  e  Rot.  Claus.  7  Hen.  III.  m.  26. 

d  Rot.  Claus.  5  and  6  Hen.  III.  mm.        f  Rot.  Claus.  8  Hen  III.  m.  3. 
4.  17. 



probably  quadrangular,  and  in  some  measure  fortified,  or 
at  least  thoroughly  enclosed,  and  isolated  from  surrounding 
edifices ;  a  fact  which  seems  to  be  indicated  by  a  direction 
to  the  bailiffs,  in  1223,  to  make  a  "gateway  to  the  court- 
yard of  the  king's  houseg."  Reiterated  orders  during  the 
years  1224  and  1225,  for  the  repair  of  the  house  and  quay, 
shew  that  either  the  bailiffs  had  failed  to  obey  previous  di- 
rections, or  that  the  works  had  been  imperfectly  executed11. 
In  the  latter  year  the  bishop  of  Winchester  had  the  custody 
of  the  house,  at  an  annual  fee  of  fifteen  shillings1. 

Besides  containing  a  hall,  a  chapelk,  and  the  several 
apartments  necessary  for  royal  use,  it  is  probable  that  this 
building  included  a  cellar  in  which  the  prisage  butts  were 
stored1.  The  various  operations  connected  with  the  proper 
care  of  a  large  stock  of  wine,  required  space  for  their  exer- 
cise, and  thus  an  extensive  quay  was  adapted  not  only  to 
the  personal  convenience  of  the  king,  but  to  the  landing  of 
his  wines,  and  to  the  accommodation  of  the  coopers,  guagers, 
sealers,  carters,  and  boatmen,  who  were  employed  about 
the  royal  stores  in  those  times  when  our  princes  were  ac- 
customed to  dispose  of  their  superfluous  stock. 

It  may  be  necessary  to  remark  that  the  "  king's  house" 
was  certainly  a  building  distinct  from  the  castle  of  South- 
ampton ;  this  is  proved  by  the  document  already  cited, 
which  shews  that  the  former  might  be  injured  by  the  dila- 
pidated state  of  the  quay  on  which  it  stood ;  therefore  it 
could  not  have  been  much  above  high  water  mark  ;  whereas 

g  Rot.  Claus.  8  Hen.  III.  p.  1.  m.  10.  tioned    as  containing  a   hundred  and 

h  Rot.  Claus.  9  Hen.  III.  p.  2.  m.  1,3.  twenty  tuns  of  wine:  but  so  large  was 

5  Ibid.,  m.  13.  the  stock  accumulated  at  times,  that  the 

k  "  Et  in  reparatione  capelle  Regis  de  sheriff,  or  butler,  was  obliged  to  rent 

Suhamton',  et  domorum  Regis  ibidem  et  cellars.   See  the  Pipe  Roll  already  cited. 

gutterarum  earundem,  lxiij.s.  vj.d.  ob." —  It  is  hardly  necessary  to  observe  that  in 

Rot.  Pip.  14  Hen.  III.  medieval  days  cellars  were  not  always 

1  The  king's  cellar  at  Southampton  under  ground. 

was  of  ample  dimensions ;   it  is  men- 


I  ..  .  ,  1  ,  ,  ,  ,\">  \20  \3oFtct 


A.  Passage  in  the  wall 

B.  Fire  place. 

C  C  C.  Windows 

D    Doorway  of  the  smaller  house 






"  the  elevated  position  of  the  castle  must  have  effectually 
secured  it  from  all  risk  of  having  even  its  base  washed  by 
the  most  violent  waves  which  a  storm  could  raise  in  the 
land-locked  harbour  which  it  overlooked™."  The  "king's 
houses  in  the  castle"  are  frequently  mentioned  in  early 
records,  and  to  readers  who  are  not  conversant  with  those 
authorities,  it  might  appear  that  the  edifices  were  identical. 
But  it  is  well  known  that  the  term  "  clomus"  was  applied 
to  various  structures,  generally,  with  the  exception  of  the 
keep,  of  an  unsubstantial  character,  raised  within  the  en- 
ceinte of  a  medieval  fortress,  often  mere  pent-houses  of 
wood  and  plaster,  always  in  need  of  repair. 

The  preceding  observations  may  possibly  induce  local 
antiquaries  to  pursue  still  further  the  history  of  this  ancient 
building,  the  identification  of  which  is  thus  attempted,  and 
it  is  hoped  they  may  also  contribute  to  its  preservation  as 
an  interesting  relic  of  early  times.  The  few  architectural 
features  it  now  offers,  belong  to  the  latter  part  of  the  twelfth 
century,  and  of  these  the  most  prominent  is  a  window  in  a 
tolerably  perfect  state ;  it  has  a  segmental  arch  and  a  drip- 
stone over  it,  with  the  usual  Norman  abacus  moulding  at 
the  imposts ;  this  is  continued  as  a  string  along  the  wall, 
though  broken  in  places  by  later  insertions.  Interiorly  it 
is  ornamented  with  shafts  in  the  jambs,  sunk  in  a  square 
recess  in  the  angle,  having  capitals  sculptured  with  foliage 
of  a  peculiar  but  late  Norman  character ;  the  bases  approach- 
ing to  Early  English.  This  window  is  altogether  remark- 
able and  of  an  unusual  design.  It  is  now  closed  by  wooden 
shutters,  and  in  all  likelihood  was  never  glazed. 

The  peculiar  construction  of  the  west  wall  of  Southamp- 

111  "  Sketches  of  Hampshire,"  by  the  and  written  in  a  remarkably  agreeable 

late  John  Duthy,  Esq.,  p.  145.    I  gladly  style.     The    notice    of  Southampton, 

take  this  opportunity  of  calling  attention  supplied  after  Mr.  Duthy's  decease,  is 

to  a  provincial  work  exhibiting  consider-  scarcely  equal  to  the  rest  of  the  volume, 
able  research,  much  ingenious  conjecture, 


ton  is  familiar  to  antiquaries ;  an  accurate  measurement  of 
the  arches  was  taken  by  Sir  Henry  Englefield  in  1801"; 
and  the  reader  may  be  referred  to  his  essay  for  a  minute 
description  of  this  early  work  which,  being  of  transition 
Norman  character,  is  possibly  a  remnant  of  the  walls  built 
by  the  men  of  Southampton  early  in  the  reign  of  John ; 
that  monarch  having  allowed  them  two  hundred  pounds 
out  of  their  fee-farm  rent  for  the  enclosure  of  the  town0. 
Adjoining  to  a  postern  gate  in  this  wall,  are  the  remains  of 
two  houses  of  ancient  date.  One  of  these  has  preserved 
scarcely  any  original  features,  excepting  a  Norman  door- 
way ;  the  other  house  is  of  about  double  the  size,  and  situ- 
ated on  the  opposite  side  of  a  narrow  lane  which  leads  to 
the  gateway.  It  is  nearly  perfect,  except  the  roof,  and  is 
probably  one  of  the  oldest  houses  remaining  in  England  ; 
being  of  rather  earlier  character  than  either  the  Jew's 
house  at  Lincoln,  or  the  other  house  in  the  same  street, 
or  those  at  Christ  Church,  in  Hampshire,  Boothby  Pagnel, 
Lincolnshire,  or  Minster,  in  the  Isle  of  Thanet,  all  well 
known  instances  of  the  domestic  architecture  of  England 
in  the  twelfth  century,  many  of  them  belonging  to  the 
latter  part,  whilst  the  present  example  may  perhaps  be 
safely  referred  to  the  earlier  half  of  that  century.  Like 
most  other  examples,  the  principal  dwelling  rooms  appear 
to  have  been  on  the  first  floor,  and  the  fire-place  remains, 
with  Norman  shafts  in  the  jambs ;  the  chimney  is  carried 
up  to  the  top  of  the  wall,  and  may  have  risen  above  it,  with 
an  external  projection,  like  a  flat  Norman  buttress,  sup- 
ported on  plain  corbels  hanging  over  the  lane.  The  door- 
way is  on  the  ground  floor,  and  not  as  in  the  early  houses 
in  the  north  of  England,  on  the  first  floor  only :  no  remains 

"  "  A  Walk  through  Southampton,"        0  Rot.  Pip.  4  Johan.  tit.  Hamtona. 
4to.  1801.  p.  23. 


of  a  staircase  exist,  but  it  was  probably  internal  and  of 
wood,  and  may  have  been  carried  on  the  projections  oppo- 
site to  the  door.  There  are  no  windows  in  the  ground 
floor,  but  several  on  the  first  story ;  those  which  are  per- 
fect are  of  two  lights,  divided  by  a  shaft,  with  capital  and 
base.  Several  of  these  windows  open  to  the  outside  of  the 
city  wall,  which  in  this  part  consists  of  a  series  of  arches 
carrying  the  parapet  wall  and  alure  ;  the  piers  are  connected 
with  the  wall  of  the  house,  but  the  spaces  behind  the  arches 
left  open,  forming  a  succession  of  wide  machicolations. 

On  the  first  floor  also  there  is  a  passage  formed  in  the 
thickness  of  the  wall,  as  was  usual  in  fortifications  of  the 
period,  and  this  probably  communicated  with  the  town 
wall,  though  the  passage  is  now  partly  blocked  up. 

Prom  the  circumstance  that  the  arches  of  the  town  wall 
are  built  partly  over  the  windows  of  the  house,  it  is  clear 
that  they  were  erected  subsequently,  the  masonry  is  also 
different.  Although  the  arches  at  this  part  are  round- 
headed,  those  adjoining  to  them  are  pointed,  and  evidently 
of  the  same  period. 


At  Minster,  in  the  Isle  of  Thanet,  is  a  house  of  this 
elate,  one  front  of  which  is  tolerably  perfect :  its  character 
is  not  very  early  Norman,  but  it  may  probably  have  been 
built  late  in  the  twelfth  century.  The  house  is  still  in- 
habited, but  the  interior  is  entirely  modernized  :  the  walls 
are  in  great  part  original,  although  the  back  has  been 
so  far  altered  as  to  destroy  its  original  character.  It  is 
of  moderate  size  and  of  simple  oblong  plan ;  enough 
remains  at  one  end  to  shew  that  it  did  not  extend  any 
farther  in  that  direction,  the  other  end  is  not  quite  so 
clear,  but  it  would  appear  that  other  buildings  formerly 
joined  it.    There  was  a  small  nunnery  here,  founded  in 


Saxon  times,  destroyed  by  the  Danes,  and  refounded  by 
Archbishop  Corboil  in  1130 ;  about  the  year  1200  it  was 
appropriated  to  St.  Augustine's  abbey  at  Canterbury. 
The  present  building  was  the  grange  of  the  monastery1". 
At  all  events  its  character  is  strictly  that  of  a  domestic 
building,  and  there  is  nothing  of  peculiar  monastic  charac- 
ter about  it.  The  grant  of  the  church  of  Minster  to  the 
abbey  of  St.  Augustine,  was  confirmed  by  Pope  Alexander 
III.,  between  1160  and  1180. 


At  Christ  Church,  in  Hampshire,  is  the  ruin  of  a 
Norman  house,  rather  late  in  the  style,  with  good  windows 
of  two  lights,  and  a  round  chimney-shaft.  The  plan  as 
before  is  a  simple  oblong,  the  principal  room  appears  to 
have  been  on  the  first  floor.  It  is  situated  on  the  bank  of 
the  river,  near  to  the  church,  and  still  more  close  to  the 
mound,  which  is  said  to  have  been  the  keep  of  the  castle ; 
being  between  that  and  the  river,  it  could  not  wrell  have 
been  placed  in  a  situation  of  greater  security.  Whether 
it  formed  part  of  another  series  of  buildings  or  not,  it 
was  a  perfect  house  in  itself,  and  its  character  is  strictly 
domestic.  It  is  about  seventy  feet  long,  and  twenty-four 
broad,  its  walls,  like  those  of  the  keep,  being  exceedingly 
thick.  On  the  ground  floor  are  a  number  of  loopholes,  the 
ascent  to  the  upper  story  was  by  a  stone  staircase,  part  of 
which  remains,  the  ground  floor  was  divided  by  a  wall,  but 
the  upper  story  appears  to  have  been  all  one  room,  lighted 
by  three  double  windows  on  each  side ;  near  the  centre  of 
the  east  wall,  next  the  river,  is  a  large  fire-place,  to  which 
the  round  chimney  before  mentioned  belongs.  At  the  north 
end  there  appears  to  have  been  a  large  and  handsome  win- 
dow, of  which  part  of  the  arch  and  shafts  remain,  and  there 

p  See  an  account  of  this  building  and  Lewis's  History  of  the  Isle  of  Tenet, 
a  plan  of  it  as  it  existed  in  1736,  in     p.  102. 



is  a  small  circular  window  in  the  south  gable.  "  From 
what  remains  of  the  ornamental  part  of  this  building,  it 
appears  to  have  been  elegantly  finished,  and  cased  with 
squared  stones,  most  of  which  are  however  now  taken 
away.  There  is  a  small  projecting  tower,  calculated  for 
a  flank,  under  which  the  water  runs ;  it  has  loopholes  both 
on  the  north  and  east  fronts,  these  walls  are  extremely 
thick.  By  the  ruins  of  several  walls,  there  were  some 
ancient  buildings  at  right  angles  to  this  hall,  stretching 
away  towards  the  keepq."  This  was  probably  part  of  the 
residence  of  Baldwin  de  Redvers,  earl  of  Devon ;  to 
whom  the  manor  of  Christ  Church  belonged  about  the 
middle  of  the  twelfth  century. 


The  manor-house  at  Appleton,  Berkshire,  belongs  to  the 
end  of  this  century ;  it  stands  within  a  moat,  and  the  walls, 
or  at  least  the  foundations,  are  probably  original ;  it  is  of 
moderate  size  and  simple  oblong  plan  ;  but  the  only  parts 
which  retain  any  of  the  original  character  are  three  door- 
ways, the  best  of  which  is  the  entrance,  which  is  round- 
headed,  but  the  mouldings  are  rather  Early  English  than 
Norman,  and  the  shafts  in  the  jambs  have  round  capitals 
with  foliage  approaching  to  what  is  technically  called  stiff- 
leaf.  The  other  two  doorways  are  very  plain,  they  have 
evidently  been  the  entrances  to  the  offices  from  the  passage 
at  the  end  of  the  hall,  behind  the  screens ;  there  is  said  to 
have  been  another  doorway  of  similar  character  at  the  en- 
trance at  the  opposite  end  of  this  passage. 


At  Sutton  Courtney,  Berkshire,  is  a  small  house  of  the 
latter  part  of  this  century ;  the  walls  are  very  substantial ; 

<i  Grose's  Antiquitit's,  vol.  ii.  p.  178. 


in  plan  it  is  a  simple  oblong,  with  a  doorway  in  the  centre  of 
the  principal  front;  the  doorway  is  round-headed,  with  good 
mouldings  of  transition  Norman  character,  and  the  tooth- 
ornament  ;  there  is  also  a  small  lancet  window ;  the  rest 
of  the  windows  and  the  interior  of  the  house  are  modern- 
ized. It  appears  to  have  had  a  moat  round  it,  which  is 
now  filled  up. 

st.  mauy's  guild — jew's  house,  Lincoln. 

The  hall  of  St.  Mary's  Guild,  or  the  Merchants'  Guild, 
at  Lincoln,  is  popularly  called  John  of  Gamut's  stables,  pos- 
sibly from  its  having  been  at  one  period  so  used,  his  palace 
having  stood  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  street ;  just  as  it  is 
now  often  called  the  Sweep's  house,  and  the  Malt  house, 
from  the  uses  to  which  different  parts  of  it  are  applied. 
This  remarkable  structure  is  probably  the  most  valuable 
and  extensive  range  of  building  of  the  twelfth  century 
that  we  have  remaining  in  England;  it  is  now  divided 
into  several  tenements  :  the  roof  is  modern,  and  one  half 
of  the  walls  of  the  upper  story  were  taken  down  at  the 
time  this  roof  was  put  on,  but  the  lower  parts  of  the 
walls,  including  the  whole  of  the  lower  story,  are  nearly 
perfect.  The  principal  front  is  towards  the  street,  and  has 
a  remarkably  rich  cornice  of  sculptured  foliage,  and  good 
flat  buttresses ;  the  entrance  archway  is  of  transition  work, 
with  a  peculiar  kind  of  tooth-ornament  in  a  shallow  hollow 
moulding,  and  small  sunk  flowers  in  the  dripstone ;  the 
imposts  are  of  pure  Norman  character,  supported  by  rude 
heads,  one  of  which  is  a  bishop.  In  the  lower  story  is  a 
good  Norman  loop,  but  the  upper  windows  have  Early 
English  shafts  in  the  jambs  within.  At  the  back  of  this 
range  of  building  is  a  second  range  at  right  angles  to 
it,  as  if  to  form  two  sides  of  a  quadrangle;  but  as  it  is 
at  the  corner  of  the  street,  and  there  is  no  appearance 




of  other  buildings  having  joined  on,  this  may  not  have 
been  the  case.  In  this  part  of  the  building  are  good  Nor- 
man windows  of  two  lights,  one  of  them  perfect,  having  a 
cap  and  base  of  transition  character ;  in  the  interior  these 
windows  have  zigzags  cut  in  the  angles  of  the  jambs ;  be- 
tween these  windows  are  plain  flat  buttresses,  and  a  small 
doorway,  the  head  of  which  is  of  the  form  called  a  square- 
headed  trefoil.  In  the  upper  story  is  a  plain  Norman  fire- 
place with  a  straight  head,  the  back  curved  and  formed  of 
the  usual  thin  flat  bricks  placed  edgeways.  The  walls  in 
this  part  of  the  building  have  not  been  lowered.  The  part 
immediately  adjoining  to  the  churchyard  of  St.  Peter's  at 
Gowt's,  is  said  always  to  have  been  a  separate  house,  and 
to  have  been  the  parsonage  of  that  parish ;  in  this  portion 
is  a  Norman  window,  of  two  lights,  with  a  kind  of  long 
and  short  work  in  the  jambs.  There  are  several  other 
houses  or  parts  of  houses  of  this  period  in  Lincoln.  One 
near  St.  Benedict's  church ;  the  only  parts  perfect  are  three 
doorways,  one  the  entrance,  which  is  of  Norman  character, 
though  late,  and  the  two  small  ones  which  were  at  the  end 
of  the  hall,  behind  the  screen ;  these  are  of  transition  cha- 

The  house  called  the  Jew's  house,  at  Lincoln,  is  perhaps 
one  of  the  most  celebrated  and  best  known  of  the  remains 
of  this  period ;  it  is  situated  on  the  steep  hill,  and  has  the 
front  to  the  street  tolerably  perfect :  the  most  remarkable 
feature  is  the  doorway,  which  is  enriched  with  ornaments 
closely  corresponding  with  Bishop  Alexander's  work  in  the 
cathedral ;  the  head  of  the  doorway  also  forms  an  arch 
to  carry  the  fire-place  and  chimney  above.  There  are 
no  marks  of  an  original  fire-place  on  the  ground  floor, 
and  the  principal  room  appears  to  have  been  up  stairs. 
Some  of  the  windows  are  good  Norman  of  two  lights  with 
a  shaft  between.    The  house  is  small,  and  seems  to  have 



consisted  of  two  rooms  only,  one  on  the  ground  floor,  and 
one  above  :  these  may,  however,  have  been  originally  di- 
vided by  partitions  :  the  interior  has  entirely  lost  all  original 

A  little  higher  up  the  hill,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
street,  is  another  house,  of  about  the  same  period,  but 
plainer  and  not  so  perfect ;  the  same  arrangement  of  the 
arch  of  the  doorway  carrying  the  fire-place  is  found  here 
also ;  the  Norman  ornamented  string  on  a  level  with  the 
floor  may  be  traced  along  two  sides  of  this  house,  which 
stands  at  a  corner,  and  some  windows  may  be  distin- 
guished, but  less  perfect  than  those  of  the  Jew's  house. 


The  staircase  at  Canterbury  is  situated  near  the  principal 
entrance  of  the  monastery,  and  led  to  the  Stranger's  hall, 
now  destroyed ;  the  staircase  itself  is  very  perfect,  and  is 
rich  late  Norman  work ;  it  consists  of  a  straight  flight  of 
steps  with  a  landing  at  the  top,  and  a  covered  way  over 
it,  supported  by  an  open  arcade  on  each  side.  This  is  a 
very  remarkable  specimen,  being  the  only  staircase  of  this 
period  known  to  be  in  existence.  There  are  considerable 
remains  of  the  other  Domestic  buildings  of  the  monastery, 
but  so  much  mixed  up  with  modern  work,  being  still  in- 
habited as  the  prebendal  houses,  that  considerable  skill 
and  pains  are  required  to  disentangle  them. 


The  ruins  of  the  manor-house  of  the  St.  John  family, 
popularly  called  King  John's  house,  at  Warnford  in  Hamp- 
shire, consist  of  little  more  than  the  foundations,  but  there 
is  enough  to  shew  that  the  hall  was  divided  by  two  rows 
of  very  tall  pillars  which  carried  the  principal  timbers  of 
the  roof  without  any  arches ;  the  bases  and  capitals  are  of 




Commonly  known  as  King  John's  House 

fountain's  abbey. 


late  Norman  character.  A  contemporary  inscription  re- 
cords the  rebuilding  of  the  church,  which  is  closely  ad- 
joining to  it,  and  of  the  same  character,  by  Adam  de 
Port,  in  the  time  of  King  John. 

fountain's  abbey. 

The  remains  of  the  Domestic  buildings  of  Fountain's 
abbey,  Yorkshire,  are  very  extensive  and  valuable,  and 
belong  chiefly  to  this  period.  The  kitchen  is  nearly  per- 
fect, with  two  large  fire-places,  and  there  are  several  other 
fire-places  and  chimneys ;  the  walls  of  the  refectory,  the 
dormitory,  the  cloister,  and  several  other  parts  of  the  build- 
ings, are  more  or  less  perfect,  but  these  belong  rather  to  the 
class  of  Monastic  than  of  strictly  Domestic  buildings.  The 
arrangements  of  a  large  monastery  were  necessarily  very 
different  from  those  of  an  ordinary  dwelling-house,  and 
though  we  may  fairly  make  use  of  one  to  illustrate  the 
other,  they  do  not  belong  properly  to  the  subject  of  this 


The  priory  of  St.  Martin,  at  Dover1",  was  refounded  by 
Archbishop  Corboil  in  31st  Henry  L,  A.D.  1131,  on  a 
new  site  outside  the  walls  of  the  town.  After  some  dis- 
putes a  society  of  Benedictine  monks  from  the  convent 
of  Christ  Church,  Canterbury,  was  finally  established  in 
the  new  buildings  by  Archbishop  Theobald,  in  1139,  4th 
Stephen.  The  portions  which  remain  of  these  original 
buildings  have  their  date  thus  fixed  with  unusual  accuracy. 
The  church  is  entirely  destroyed. 

The  refectory,  though  now  used  as  a  barn,  still  remains 
in  a  tolerably  perfect  state.  The  masonry  is  of  flint  laid 
in  alternate  courses  with  ashlar  for  the  buttresses,  quoins, 

r  Mon.  Ang.,  vol.  iv.  p.  528. 


and  heads  and  jambs  to  the  windows.  It  measures  exter- 
nally 107  feet  by  34  feet,  and  the  walls  are  3  feet  6  inches 
in  thickness. 

Its  direction  is  east  and  west.  It  has  eight  windows 
and  six  buttresses  on  the  north,  and  seven  on  the  south 
side.  The  windows  are  plainly  recessed  without  hood- 
mouldings,  and  rest  on  a  stringcourse,  which  is  a  plain 
square  with  the  upper  angle  chamfered  off.  The  but- 
tresses are  of  slight  projection,  and  are  carried  up  to  the 
roof  without  set-offs  except  the  string. 

The  two  sides  have  been  alike,  except  that  at  the  west 
end  of  the  south  side  was  the  original  entrance,  which  is 
now  blocked  up  on  the  outside,  and  there  are  also  on  this 
side  the  remains  of  an  Early  English  entrance,  which  has 
been  inserted,  but  is  now  also  walled  up. 

The  interior  measures  100  feet  by  27  feet,  and  the  walls 
to  the  springing  of  the  roof  are  26  feet  high,  and  are 
plastered.  It  has  evidently  never  been  divided  by  a  floor, 
but  has  always  been  open  from  the  floor  to  the  roof  as  at 
present.  The  lower  part  of  the  wall  to  the  height  of  12  feet 
6  inches  is  entirely  blank,  and  appears  never  to  have  had 
any  opening  through  it,  except  the  doorway  at  the  south- 
west angle,  already  mentioned,  the  interior  arch  of  which 
still  remains,  and  another  doorway  at  the  west  end  (now 
blocked  up)  which  communicated  with  the  offices  which 
adjoined  the  refectory  at  that  part.  Above  the  blank  por- 
tion of  the  wall  just  mentioned,  is  a  lofty  arcade  reaching 
up  to  the  springing  of  the  roof,  and  which  is  carried  en- 
tirely round  the  apartment.  The  arches,  which  are  quite 
plain  and  simply  recessed,  are  supported  by  shafts  with 
plainly  moulded  capitals  and  bases.  Of  this  arcade  the 
two  arches  next  the  east  end  on  each  side  are  pierced  for 
windows  for  lighting  the  high  table,  and  after  that  every 
alternate  arch  is  pierced  in  the  same  manner.    These  win- 



dows  are  all  alike,  recessed  and  deeply  splayed  inside. 
The  arches  on  the  east  and  west  are  not  pierced,  as  there 
were  other  buildings  adjoining  at  both  ends.  There  were 
two  small  windows  in  the  gable  at  the  west  end. 

At  the  east  end  where  the  high  table  would  be  placed, 
and  immediately  under  the  arcade,  has  been  a  representa- 
tion of  the  Last  Supper,  and  till  within  a  few  years  the 
figures  might  have  been  made  out.  The  only  parts  now 
distinguishable  are  the  nimbi  which  surrounded  the  heads 
of  the  Saviour  and  the  Apostles,  the  lines  which  marked 
the  table,  and  some  indistinct  folds  of  drapery.  The  nimbi 
are  impressed  on  the  plaster  in  the  same  manner  as  par- 
getting was  performed  at  a  later  period,  and  each  is  sur- 
rounded, and  the  rays  divided,  by  red  lines ;  the  beards 
and  other  parts  appear  to  have  been  indicated  with  the 
same  colour,  and  there  is  a  back-ground  behind  the  heads 
of  a  bluish  grey  colour. 

In  the  south  wall  near  this  end  are  the  remains  of  a 
large  locker. 

The  gables  appear  never  to  have  been  altered,  and  the 
pitch  of  the  roof  is  therefore  original,  but  the  roof  itself  is 
not ;  one  bay  in  the  centre  is,  probably,  of  fifteenth  century 
date,  but  the  rest  is  modern. 

The  whole  of  the  work  about  the  buildings  is  very  good, 
but  of  the  very  plainest  description ;  the  capitals  consist 
only  of  an  abacus  and  neck-mould,  with  a  single  moulding 
in  the  bell,  and  the  bases,  though  very  characteristic,  are 
of  the  simplest  kind. 

There  is  not  the  slightest  attempt  at  ornamental  detail 
in  any  part  of  the  building,  but  from  its  great  length,  its 
continuous  arcade,  and  its  alternate  window-openings,  and 
consequent  variety  of  light  and  shade,  the  effect  of  this 
apartment  is  very  fine. 



Moyses'  hall  at  Bury  St.  Edmund's  is  also  called  the 
Jew's  house,  or  the  Jews'  synagogue.  It  is  late  Norman 
work,  partly  of  transition  character,  the  lower  story  is 
vaulted :  the  arch  ribs  are  pointed.  It  appears  originally 
to  have  had  no  windows  on  the  ground  floor.  On  the 
upper  floor  are  two  good  transition  Norman  windows,  each 
of  two  lights,  square-headed  and  plain,  under  a  round 
arch  with  mouldings  and  shafts  in  the  jambs,  having 
capitals  of  almost  Early  English  character.  There  are  at 
present  two  of  these  windows,  but  the  other  part  of  the 
house  has  a  Perpendicular  window  which  may  have  re- 
placed a  Norman  one.  The  vaulting  is  continued  in  the 
same  character  under  both  divisions  of  the  house ;  the 
upper  part  has  been  too  much  altered  to  enable  us  to  make 
out  exactly  what  it  originally  was ;  it  may  have  been  a 
tower  of  which  the  upper  part  is  destroyed,  or  it  may  have 
contained  a  doorway.  The  fire-place  is  in  the  wall  of  par- 
tition on  the  first  floor,  and  not  towards  the  street,  but  this 
fire-place  is  not  part  of  the  original  work,  though  it  pro- 
bably replaced  an  older  one. 

That  tradition  should  have  assigned  the  name  of  the 
"  Jew's  house"  to  this  building,  and  also  to  the  two  tene- 
ments of  the  Norman  period  at  Lincoln,  is  a  fact  not  with- 
out significance,  and  worthy  of  attention.  Erom  Saxon 
times  until  the  close  of  the  twelfth  century  the  Jews  were 
allowed  full  liberty  to  trade  in  this  country,  and  were  com- 
paratively unmolested  in  the  possession  and  enjoyment  of 
their  gains.  Being  the  wealthiest  members  of  the  com- 
munity, it  is  not  unlikely  they  constructed  substantial 
habitations  as  much  for  the  security  of  their  persons 
and  property  as  from  any  other  motive.  It  is  certain 
that  in  all  early  deeds  relative  to  the  transfer  of  tenements 




bury  st.  edmund's.  47 

once  held  by  Jews,  those  tenements  are  usually  described 
as  built  of  stone.  It  was  not  till  the  thirteenth  century 
that  the  Israelites  were  subjected  to  that  long-continued 
system  of  oppression  and  exaction  which  terminated  in 
their  expulsion  from  the  country,  by  Edward  the  First,  in 
the  year  1290.  That  expulsion  was  accomplished  in  a 
manner  so  sudden  and  violent,  that  the  memory  of  it  was 
likely  to  be  strongly  impressed  on  the  popular  mind,  and, 
indeed,  to  remain  so  impressed  in  any  place  where  sub- 
stantial monuments  of  their  former  residence  still  sur- 

The  Jews  of  Bury  St.  Edmund's  were  driven  from  that 
town  in  the  year  1190,  by  Abbot  Samson,  in  the  time  of 
whose  predecessor  they  appear  to  have  had  many  illegal 
transactions  with  the  subordinate  officers  of  the  monastery, 
some  notices  of  which  occur  in  the  interesting  chronicle  of 
Jocelin  of  Brakelonde3.  In  1183,  Sancto  the  Jew  of  St. 
Edmundsbury  was  fined  five  marks,  that  he  might  not  be 
punished  for  taking  in  pledge  certain  sacred  vessels. 


This  curious  relic  was  unfortunately  removed  in  1830 
in  order  to  improve  the  approach  to  London  Bridge; 
before  it  was  levelled  accurate  drawings  of  the  building 
were  made  by  Mr.  J.  C.  Buckler,  and  the  late  John 
Gage  Rokewode,  Esq.,  communicated 4  a  notice  of  its 
history  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  which  is  printed  in 
the  twenty-third  volume  of  the  Archseologia.  The  following 
description  is  taken  from  Mr.  Rokewode' s  paper. 

s  See  "Cronica  Jocelini  de  Brake-     p.  106. 
londa,"  published  by  the  Camden  So-        1  In  a  letter  to  the  late  Henry  Petrie, 
ciety,  1840,  pp.  2 — 4;   and  the  notes,     Esq.,  keeper  of  the  records  in  the  Tower. 



The  church  of  St.  Olave,  Southwark,  was  confirmed"  to 
the  prior  and  convent  of  St.  Pancras  of  Lewes,  in  Sussex, 
by  William,  second  earl  of  Warren  and  Surrey,  son  of  their 
founder,  and  in  face  of  the  church  on  the  south  side  the 
way,  now  called  Tooley  Street,  contiguous  with  Carter  Lane, 
they  built,  or  became  possessed  of,  a  hostelry  for  the  con- 
venience of  the  prior  and  monks  coming  to  London,  and 
for  the  reception  of  strangers.  It  does  not  appear  how  they 
acquired  this  property;  the  charter  of  confirmation  does 
not  comprise  any  lands  in  Southwark.  Earl  William  died 
in  1138 x,  and  there  are  sufficient  grounds  for  assuming 
that  the  prior  had  no  lodgings  in  St.  Olave's  until  a  later 

Osbert,  prior  of  St.  Pancras y,  gave  to  John,  son  of  Ed- 
mund, and  his  heirs,  a  tenement,  in  London,  belonging  to 
the  convent,  that  is  to  say,  the  dwelling  and  houses  of 
Wibert  de  Araz,  and  lands  holden  of  the  monks  of  West- 
minster2, and  Robert  the  Chamberlain  to  hold  at  a  rent  of 
fourteen  shillings,  and  by  this  service,  that  as  often  as  the  prior 
of  Lewes,  or  his  monks,  or  the  monks  of  the  cells  belonging 
to  St.  Pancras,  came  to  London,  that  John  and  his  succes- 
sors should  give  them  fit  lodging,  and  find  them  fire,  and 
water,  and  salt,  and  sufficient  vessels  for  their  use.  Among 
the  witnesses  to  this  charter  are  the  Countess  Isabel  and 
her  brother  Philip,  being  the  Countess  Warren  and  Surrey, 
daughter  and  heir  of  William  the  third  earl,  and  her  half- 
brother  Philip  de  Evreuxa. 

Osbert  was  prior  of  Lewesb  between  the  years  1170  and 

u  Regist.  chart.  Monasterii  de  Lewes.  two  pieces  of  land  which  Wibert  de  Araz 

Mus.  Brit.  Cotton.  MS.  Vespasian,  F-  held  of  him  in  London.  Ibid.  Gervase 

xv.  fo.  12  b.  governed  the  monastery  of  Westminster 

x  Ibid.,  fo.  105  b.  from  the  year  1140  to  1160.  Dugdale, 

•v  Ibid.,  fo.  196  b.  Monast. 

2  Gervase  abbot  of  Westminster,  con-  a  Watson's  Memoirs  of  the  House  of 

firmed  the  gift  of  John,  son  of  Ralph,  to  Warren  and  Surrey, 

the  church  of  St.  Pancras  of  Lewes,  of  b  Dugdale,  Monast. 


1186;  the  Countess  Isabel  died  in  1199°.  Mr.  Rokewode 
therefore  concluded  that  the  hostelry  of  the  prior  of  Lewes,  in 
South wark,  was  not  in  his  occupation  until  the  latter  years 
of  the  twelfth  century.  It  is  certain  that  the  monks  of  St. 
Pancras  had  a  hostelry  here  at  a  remote  period ;  for  in  a 
release d  from  William  de  Wyntringham,  carpenter,  to  the 
prior  of  Lewes,  in  the  44th  Edw.  III.  anno  1370,  it  is  espe- 
cially set  forth  that  the  prior  and  his  predecessors,  in  right  of 
their  church  of  St.  Pancras,  were  seised  from  time  imme- 
morial, of  a  piece  of  ground  nigh  the  gate  of  their  hostelry 
in  Southwark,  and  a  building  agreement6  between  the  same 
parties  in  the  47th  Edw.  III.,  speaks  of  the  ancient  north- 
east gate  of  their  hostelry,  which  was  standing  in  the  time 
of  the  historian  Stowe. 

Peter,  bishop  of  Winchester^  who  governed  that  see  in 
1205s,  appropriated  the  church  of  St.  Olave  to  the  prior 
and  convent  of  St.  Pancras  of  Lewes,  for  the  purpose  of 

In  Michaelmas  term,  29  Henry  VIII. ,  Robert,  late  prior 
of  St.  Pancras  of  Lewes,  levied  a  fine  to  the  king  of  all  the 
possessions  of  the  priory,  in  which  fine  the  church  of  St. 
Olave,  and  messuages,  gardens,  lands,  and  rents  in  South- 
wark, Kater  Lane,  (Carter  Lane,)  comprehending  the  site 
of  the  hostelry,  are  particularly  specified.  On  the  sixteenth 
of  the  month  of  February  following,  his  majesty  conferred 
these  possessions  on  Thomas,  Lord  Cromwell,  afterwards 
earl  of  Essex,  in  feeh :  the  hostelry  being  valued1  in  the 
king's  survey  at  eight  pounds  yearly. 

After  the  attainder  of  the  earl  of  Essex,  the  hostelry 
seems  to  have  been  parcelled  out  by  the  crown.    Stowe,  in 

c  Regist.  chart,  de  Lewes,  fo.  107,  b.         h  Pat.  29  Hen.  VIII.  pars  ii. 

d  Ibid.,  fo.  182  b.  *  Southwark,  redditus  hospitii  D'ni  in 

e  Ibid.,  fo.  183  b.  Guttr-lane  ibidem,  per  ann.  viij.  Valor 

f  Godwin  de  Prsesul.  Eccl.  26  Hen.  VIII. 

s  Regist.  chart,  de  Lewes,  fo.  189  b. 



his  description  of  St.  Olave's,  Southwark,  says,  "over  against 
the  parish  church,  on  the  south  side  of  the  streete,  was 
sometime  one  great  house  builded  of  stone  with  arched 
gates,  which  pertained  to  the  prior  of  Lewes  in  Sussex,  and 
was  his  lodging  when  he  came  to  London  :  it  is  now  a 
common  hostelry  for  travellers,  and  hath  to  sign  the  Walnut 
TreeV  Cuthbert  Beeston,  citizen  and  girdler  of  London, 
died  seised1,  in  the  24th  Elizabeth,  of  the  Walnut  inn, 
together  with  the  garden  thereto,  and  fifteen  messuages  in 
Walnut-tree-lane,  otherwise  Carter-lane, in  St.01ave's,South- 
wark,  held  of  the  queen  in  chief,  worth  yearly  five  pounds, 
six  shillings  and  eight  pence.  It  appears  that  the  Walnut- 
tree  inn  occupied  the  east  side  of  the  hostelry ;  the  west 
wing  was  purchased  m  by  the  parish  for  the  use  of  the  gram- 
mar-school of  St.  Olave's11,  founded  in  the  13th  Elizabeth. 

The  plain  unmixed  character  of  the  circular  style  in 
these  remains  led  Mr.  Rokewode  to  conclude  that  this 
part  of  the  hostelry  was  built  before  the  time  of  Osbert,  the 
prior,  a  date  which  it  is  difficult  to  reconcile  with  his 
charter  if,  as  we  may  presume,  the  building  was  erected 
by  the  monks  of  St.  Pancras.  Mr.  Rokewode  thought  the 
general  features  of  this  portion  of  the  hostelry  resembled 
those  of  the  manor-house  at  Boothby  Pagnell,  Moyses'  hall 
at  St.  Edmundsbury,  and  Pythagoras'  school  at  Cam- 

The  porch  extended  19  ft.,  and  appeared  to  have  been 
longer;  its  width  was  11  ft.  9  in.  At  the  distance  of  6  ft. 
9  in.  from  the  inner  door  there  was  a  flight  of  steps  to  the 
chamber,  the  floor  of  which  was  nearly  3^  ft.  lower ;  this 

k  Stowe's  Survey  of  London,  4to.  1598,  rev- 

pp.  340,  341.  n  ^ne  r°yal  charter  gives  licence  to 

1  Esc.  24  Eliz.  n.  70.    In  the  19th  purchase  lands  of  a  limited  value. 

James  I.,  the  Walnut  Tree  escheated  to  0  Pythagoras'  school  is  a  building  of 

the  crown  and  was  leased  out.  the  end  of  the  twelfth,  or  commencement 

m  Manning  and  Bray's  History  of  Sur-  of  the  thirteenth  century. 


being  about  the  level  of  the  water,  shewed  the  precautionary 
arrangement  of  the  porch,  and  on  the  same  account,  all  the 
windows  of  the  chamber  were  carried  up  close  to  the  crown 
of  the  vault.    The  porch  was  without  windows. 

The  vaulted  chamber  formed  a  parallelogram  of  40  ft. 
3  in.,  by  16  ft.  6  in.,  and  14  ft.  3  in.  high,  the  vaulted 
roof  being  supported  by  arches  springing  from  six  semi- 
circular pillars  attached  to  the  side  walls ;  these  pillars  were 
5  ft.  10  in.  high,  including  the  capitals  and  base.  The  en- 
trance was  by  an  elliptical  arch,  and  possibly  there  had  been 
a  door  also  on  the  opposite  side.  On  the  south  there  were 
two  windows,  as  well  as  on  the  west,  and  there  was  one  on 
the  north.  On  the  removal  of  the  earth  which  had  accu- 
mulated in  the  chamber,  no  remains  were  found  of  an  an- 
cient floor  or  pavement.    The  walls  were  3  ft.  3  in.  thick. 

The  pillars  and  arches  were  of  wrought  stone,  a  mixture 
of  fire-stone  and  Kentish  rag ;  the  vault  was  entirely  chalk, 
9  in.  thick :  the  rest  of  the  lower  building  rubble.  The 
entrance  to  the  hall  was  on  the  side  of  the  porch,  and  must 
have  been  approached  by  a  flight  of  steps,  as  is  the  case  in 
the  Norman  house  at  Boothby  Pagnell ;  the  face  of  the  hall 
door,  internally,  was  perfectly  plain  •  externally  it  had  been 
entirely  destroyed.  Caen  stone  was  used  in  this  door,  and 
in  other  parts  of  the  upper  chamber. 

The  entrance  arch  had  on  its  external  angle  a  bead-mould- 
ing springing  from  a  slender  pillar  with  a  capital,  indicating 
a  slight  difference  between  the  character  of  the  vault  and 
that  of  the  vaulted  chamber ;  at  the  same  time  these  did 
not,  on  close  examination,  appear  to  have  been  built  at 
different  times ;  and  their  coeval  erection  seemed  to  be  con- 
firmed by  the  harmony  of  the  general  arrangement.  The 
dressings  of  the  south  windows  were  of  wrought  stone, 
while  all  the  others  were  plain. 

The  capitals  were  of  various  design,  and  a  fragment  of 


highly  finished  sculpture  was  found  among  the  ruins.  The 
sculpture  appeared  to  be  part  of  a  frieze,  of  which  there 
were  other  relics,  and  among  them  grotesque  animals  with 

On  the  north-west  some  ancient  foundations  were  visible, 
but  in  the  direction  of  Carter-lane,  where  the  site  of  the 
Walnut-tree  had  been  built  upon  in  modern  times,  there 
was  no  vestige  of  the  original  building.  It  may  be  conjec- 
tured, from  the  situation  of  the  vaulted  chamber  immediately 
under  the  hall,  with  the  porch  leading  into  it,  and  from  the 
number  of  windows,  and  the  finished  architecture,  that  this 
apartment  was  used  as  an  inferior  hall  to  the  hostelry. 


This  house  was  formerly  the  seat  of  a  family  named 
Boothby,  the  heiress  of  which  married  a  Paynell.  Sir 
John  Paynell  was  buried  in  the  church  there  in  1420  p. 
Leland  gives  an  account  of  the  Paynells,  and  particulars 
relating  to  the  descent  of  the  estate  ;  he  says  "  though  the 
Paynelles  were  Lordes  of  the  Castelle  of  Newport  Painel  in 
Buckinghamshire,  yet  they  had  a  great  mynde  to  ly  at 
Boutheby ;  wher  they  had  a  praty  Stone  House  withy n  a 
Mote  V    Traces  of  the  mote  are  still  discernible. 


This  ancient  manor-house  was  taken  down  about  the 
year  1830.  Mr.  Gough  observed,  "  Bernak  abounds  with 
antient  reliefs,  and  windows  in  almost  every  house r. 
From  the  ruined  manor  house,  which  belongs  to  the 
earl  of  Exeter,  he  has  taken  much  painted  glass  :  it  is 
going  to  be  pulled  down  and  rebuilt. "     Barnack,  as 

p  See  Gough's  Camden,  vol.  ii.  p.  Itinerary,  vol.  i.  fo.  27,  28. 

250.  r  Gough's  Camden,  vol.  ii.  p.  187. 



already  mentioned,  was  an  example  of  a  Norman  manor- 
house  having  a  hall  on  the  ground  floor,  which  went 
the  whole  height  of  the  house,  divided  into  three  parts 
by  columns  and  arches.  The  remains  of  the  arches  are 
shewn  in  the  engraving. 


The  building  called  Merton  Hall,  or  Pythagoras'  school 
at  Cambridge,  is  a  grange  of  the  end  of  the  twelfth  or  be- 
ginning of  the  thirteenth  century,  but  so  much  spoiled  by 
modern  alterations,  that  very  little  of  the  original  character 
remains  ;  one  or  two  of  the  windows  on  the  first  floor  are 
good  specimens  of  transition  Norman  work.  It  has  had  an 
external  staircase,  and  the  ground  room  has  been  vaulted, 
but  scarcely  a  vestige  of  either  remains.  It  has  always 
been  used  for  farm  purposes  since  it  was  purchased  by 
Walter  de  Merton,  and  given  to  his  college,  about  1270; 
and  there  is  no  reason  to  suppose  that  it  was  ever  applied 
to  any  other  use.  The  tradition  of  its  having  served 
as  an  academical  lecture  room  appears  to  be  entirely  un- 

The  existing  remains  of  medieval  domestic  architecture 
in  France,  are  sufficiently  numerous  to  call  for  a  work  es- 
pecially devoted  to  an  account  of  them.  It  is  worthy  of 
remark,  however,  that  the  provinces  which  anciently  be- 
longed to  the  English  crown,  are  those  which  afford  the 
fewest  examples  of  houses  of  early  elate  ;  that  is  to  say,  of 
the  twelfth  and  thirteenth  century.  The  following  notes 
on  this  subject,  obligingly  communicated  by  M.  Viollet  le 
Due,  the  distinguished  architect  of  Paris,  refer  to  the  most 



observable  of  the  ancient  domestic  buildings  now  existing 
in  France. 

"  There  are  houses  of  the  twelfth  and  thirteenth  centuries 
in  many  parts  of  France.  At  Cluny  in  Burgundy,  are  a 
dozen.  Cluny  is  a  little  town  near  Macon,  once  famous  for 
its  great  abbey,  now  destroyed.  Daly  in  his  Revue  de 
P Architecture,  (vol.  8,)  has  engraved  two  of  these  houses  • 
they  are  very  fine,  and  almost  all  constructed  on  the  same 
model.  It  is  the  richest  town  in  France  for  buildings  of 
this  kind ;  there  is  an  entire  street  preserved.  These 
houses  are  tolerably  rich  in  sculpture  and  built  of  strong 

At  Semur  in  Burgundy  there  is  a  house  of  the  thirteenth 
century,  adjoining  the  town  gate. 

In  the  village  of  Rougemont,  near  Montbard,  there  are 
several  cottagers'  houses  of  the  beginning  of  the  thirteenth 
century.  At  Flavigny,  in  the  same  province,  where  there 
was  formerly  a  large  abbey,  there  are  two  or  three  houses 
of  the  thirteenth  century  in  good  preservation,  and  a 
great  number  of  curious  fragments,  as  windows,  doors, 
chimneys,  &c. 

Opposite  the  cathedral  at  Nismes  is  a  house  of  the 
twelfth  century  with  sculptures,  in  fair  preservation. 

At  Riom,  near  Clermont  (Auvergne),  is  a  fine  house  of 
the  thirteenth  century ;  and  at  Mont  Ferrand,  near  the 
same  place,  are  several  houses  of  the  twelfth  and  thirteenth 

At  St.  Gilles,  near  Nismes,  there  is  a  romanesque  house 
of  the  twelfth  century,  of  the  greatest  interest ;  it  is  now 
the  presbytery. 

At  Cordes,  between  Alby  and  St.  Antoines,  department 
of  the  Tarn,  there  is  an  entire  street  of  houses  of  the 
thirteenth  and  fourteenth  centuries.  At  St.  Antoines,  de- 
partment of  the  Tarn  and  Garonne,  there  is  a  small  hotel- 


de-ville  of  the  twelfth  century,  much  ornamented,  and  well 
preserved,  which  is  reasonably  considered  to  be  the  most 
complete  monument  of  the  kind  which  we  possess.  In  the 
same  town  there  are  houses  of  the  twelfth  and  thirteenth 
century,  of  four  stories,  in  good  preservation. 

There  is  a  house  of  the  thirteenth  century  at  Perigueux, 
in  good  preservation  ;  and  one  also  at  St.  Yriez. 

At  Carcassonne  in  the  lower  town  are  the  remains  of  an 
immense  house  of  the  thirteenth  century,  the  ground  floor 
and  one  story  alone  remain.  At  Perpignan  are  two  houses 
of  the  thirteenth  century  in  the  Catalan  style  which  are 
very  curious. 

There  are  many  remains  at  Cahors  of  the  civil  architec- 
ture of  the  thirteenth  century  in  the  old  castle.  At  Bran- 
tome  near  Perigueux  is  a  house  of  the  thirteenth  century, 
and  a  very  curious  chimney. 

At  Caussade,  near  Montauban,  M.  de  Maleville  possesses 
a  brick  house  of  the  thirteenth  century.  At  Quineville  there 
is  a  chimney  in  the  style  of  that  at  Eontevrault ;  and  there 
was  one  like  it  also  in  the  old  abbey  of  St.  Croix  de  St.  L6, 
in  Normandy :  it  has  been  pulled  down  but  the  fragments 
have  been  preserved. 

At  Gernon,  near  Rambouillet,  there  is  a  house  called  "  le 
Pressoir,"  with  three  aisles.  At  Epernon  are  many  remains 
of  houses  of  the  thirteenth  century  ;  at  Provins  there  are 
several  of  the  same  date,  very  fine  and  well  preserved. 
Daly  has  engraved  two  of  them  in  his  "  Revue  de  T Archi- 

At  Vezelay  near  Avalon  are  remains  of  houses  of  the 
twelfth  century,  and  even  of  the  eleventh.  At  Reims  is  the 
building  called  the  Musicians'  house,  which  is  very  fine,  and 
decorated  with  nine  sitting  statues  of  the  natural  size ;  it 
is  of  the  thirteenth  century,  and  one  of  the  best  examples 
in  France. 



In  the  department  of  L'Oise  there  is  a  considerable 
number  of  rural  edifices  of  the  twelfth  and  thirteenth  cen- 
turies, such  as  barns,  farm-houses,  presses,  &c,  all  in  a  good 
style  and  well  preserved.  Daly  has  published  one  of  these 
buildings,  the  farm-house  of  Meslay  near  Tours8." 

At  Dol,  in  Bretagne,  are  two  houses  of  the  twelfth  cen- 
tury, one  of  decided  Norman,  the  other  of  Transition 
character ;  the  fronts  have  been  somewhat  altered,  but  may 
be  clearly  made  out. 

There  are  a  number  of  houses  in  the  high-street  of  this 
town  standing  upon  stone  arcades,  which  look  at  first  sight 
like  Transition  Norman  work,  and  are  probably  in  imitation 
of  others  of  that  period  which  formerly  stood  there ;  but 
with  the  exception  of  the  two  above  mentioned,  the  work 
is  all  of  later  character ;  chiefly  of  the  period  of  the  Renais- 
sance, although  the  nature  of  the  material,  granite,  gives 
it  a  very  rude  and  early  appearance. 

Revue  Generale  de  1'  Architecture,  vol.  8. 



It  is  more  than  probable  that  no  remains,  excepting  the 
Hall  at  Winchester,  exist  at  present  of  domestic  buildings 
erected  in  the  first  half  of  the  thirteenth  century.  The 
short  and  unsettled  reign  of  John  was  in  every  respect  un- 
favourable to  the  progress  of  art :  the  little  documentary 
evidence  of  his  time  which  has  been  preserved  relates 
chieflv  to  the  fortification  of  castles,  or  the  construction 
of  chambers  and  kitchens,  at  various  royal  manors,  which 
appear  to  have  been  of  a  merely  temporary  nature.  One  ex- 
isting domestic  structure  which  is  known  to  have  been 
repaired  during  his  reign  is  entirely  Norman  in  character 
and  detail \ 

The  reign  of  Henry  the  Third,  extending  over  more 
than  half  a  century,  was,  notwithstanding  the  troubles 
caused  by  the  civil  wars,  greatly  distinguished  by  the 
progress  of  architecture,  of  which  science  that  monarch 
was  an  eminent  patron  and  student.  It  is,  therefore,  to 
that  period,  or  to  the  early  part  of  the  reign  of  Edward 
the  Eirst,  that  all  remains  of  domestic  architecture  of  the 
thirteenth  century  must  be  referred ;  with  the  exception  of 
the  buildings  of  that  nature  attached  to  monasteries,  of 
which  there  are  fine  examples  at  Fountains  and  Rievaulx,  in 

a  The  "King's  House"  at  Southampton:  see  p.  33  ante. 


Yorkshire.  It  lias  been  already  observed15  that  it  was 
during  this  century  that  manor-houses  appear  to  have  in- 
creased in  number,  and  it  was  during  this  century  also  that 
castles  assumed  a  more  domestic  character :  the  donjon  or 
keep  was  abandoned  for  a  hall  and  chambers  constructed 
in  the  inner  enclosure  or  bailey,  and,  as  necessity  required, 
buildings  of  wood  and  plaster,  adapted  to  the  various 
wants  of  a  large  establishment,  were  reared  within  the 
enceinte  of  the  walls.  It  is  owing  to  this  change  that 
in  almost  all  surveys  of  castles  made  in  the  times  of 
Henry  the  Third  and  Edward  the  First,  the  great  towers, 
or  keeps,  are  described  to  be  in  a  ruinous  condition  and 
generally  roofless  :  they  had  been  abandoned  as  incon- 
venient for  habitation,  though  from  the  great  strength  of 
their  construction  they  were  still  capable,  with  some  re- 
pairs, of  being  used  in  time  of  war.  Hence  it  is  that 
in  drawings  of  castles,  in  manuscripts  of  this  date,  they 
are  usually  represented  as  collections  of  buildings,  of  dif- 
ferent elevations,  among  which  the  hall  is  always  to  be  dis- 
tinguished, surrounded  by  embattled  walls  and  towers. 
Writs  directing  the  repairs  of  the  king's  "  houses"  in  various 
castles  are  very  numerous  during  this  century,  and  serve 
to  confirm  the  evidence  of  contemporary  illuminations, 
authorities  which  are  not,  in  all  particulars,  to  be  greatly 
relied  upon,  as  before  remarked0.  It  must  be  understood, 
however,  that  these  observations  are  not  applicable  to  what 
are  termed  Edwardian  castles,  edifices  originally  built  by 

b  Introduction,  pp.  xxiii.,  xxiv. 

c  When  the  bishop  of  Laodicea  came 
on  a  visit  to  Henry  the  Third  an  apart- 
ment, with  a  chimney,  of  plaster,  was 
built  for  him  against  one  of  the  towers  in 
Windsor  Castle  :  it  is  evident  from  the 
king's  directions  that  it  was  a  lean-to ; 
see  Chap.  V.  The  best  proofs  of  these 
remarks  on  castles  of  the  thirteenth  cen- 

tury will  be  found  in  the  account  of  the 
works  at  Windsor  Castle  during  the  reign 
of  Henry,  in  the"  Illustrations  of  Windsor 
Castle,"  edited  by  Henry  Ashton,  Archi- 
tect, fol.  1841.  The  Letter  Press  by  Am- 
brose Poynter,  Esq.,  to  whom  the  original 
documents  relating  to  the  thirteenth  cen- 
tury, were  communicated  by  the  writer 
of  this  work. 


Edward  the  First,  in  which  numerous  apartments  designed 
for  various  uses  were  combined  in  a.  general  plan  ;  but 
simply  to  castles  of  Norman  date  rendered  domestic  in  cha- 
racter by  later  additions ;  though  it  is  clear  that  even  in 
Edwardian  castles  there  were  many  buildings,  as  great  halls 
for  example,  which,  owing  to  their  being  detached,  and  con- 
structed of  less  permanent  materials  than  the  main  edifice, 
fell  entirely  into  decay,  and  have  left  no  traces  of  their 

The  directions  for  the  repairs  and  additions  to  royal 
manor-houses  issued  by  Henry  the  Third  prove  that  no 
systematic  plan  was  adopted  with  reference  to  those  build- 
ings. Where  a  large  extent  of  ground  was  enclosed,  form- 
ing that  which  was  called  a  court  (curia),  the  original 
building  in  which  was  of  small  extent,  it  was  the  custom 
to  enlarge  the  accommodation,  as  required,  by  the  erection 
from  time  to  time  of  new  edifices,  as  chambers,  chapels, 
kitchens,  which  in  the  first  instance  were  isolated  from 
each  other,  in  fact  dotted  here  and  there  within  the  en- 
closure ;  when  a  number  of  separate  buildings  had  been 
thus  created  they  were  gradually  connected  by  covered 
passages  (aleice),  built  of  wood,  sometimes  open  at  the 
sides,  but  more  frequently  made  quite  weather-proof,  so 
that  the  queen  might  walk  from  her  chamber  to  chapel 
"  with  a  dry  foot  d." 

Private  manor-houses  erected  during  the  thirteenth 
century  were  in  general  built  on  the  same  plan  which 
had  prevailed  in  the  twelfth.  The  hall  was  still  the  chief 
feature,  with  one  or  more  adjacent  chambers  ;  which  were 
sometimes  so  arranged  as  to  form  three  sides  of  a  quad- 
rangle, as  at  Charney  in  Berkshire,  where  the  south  wing 
consisted  of  two  habitable  stories ;  but  it  is  probable  the 

Liberate  Roll  23  Hen.  III.  See  rendon,  Kennington,  Woodstock,  and 
the  numerous  precepts  relating  to  Cla-      other  places  in  Chapter  V. 


lower  floor  was  in  ordinary  cases  a  cellar,  as  in  earlier 
times,  such  being  the  name  usually  given  to  it,  whatever 
might  be  its  real  destination,  At  Charney,  which  seems 
to  have  been  a  residence  of  the  Bassets e,  a  family  of  great 
consequence  in  the  thirteenth  century,  a  chapel  or  oratory 
adjoins  the  solar,  or  upper  chamber,  in  the  south  wing. 
That  country-houses,  however,  were  built  on  the  earlier 
and  simpler  plan  down  to  the  close  of  this  century  is 
proved  by  an  account  still  existing  of  the  cost  of  erecting 
a  house  for  Edward  the  First,  in  1285,  at  Woolmer  in 
Hampshire f.  This  building  consisted  of  an  upper  chamber 
{camera  ad  estagiam)  seventy-two  feet  long  and  twenty- 
eight  feet  wide,  with  two  chimneys,  a  small  chapel  and  two 
wardrobes,  of  masonry,  which  cost  eleven  pounds  in  work- 
man's wages.    There  were  six  glass  windows  or  lights  in 

e  The  abbots  of  Abingdon  had  con- 
siderable property  in  tbe  chapelry,  so 
that  this  building  may  have  been  a 
monastic  grange. 

f  "  Compotus  Ade  Gurdun  de  receptis 
suis  et  expensis  factis  per  preceptum 
Regis  in  quibusdam  domibus  in  foresta 
Regis  de  Wlfmere  in  comitatu  Suth- 
amton. — Et  pro  cementaria  cujusdam 
earner e  ad  estagiam  ad  opus  Regis  et 
Regine,  longitudinis  lxxij.  ped'  et  lati- 
tudinis  xxviij.  ped',  cum  ij  caminis,  una 
parva  capella  et  ij.  garderobis,  ad  tas- 
chiam  facienda,  xj.  lib.  Et  in  m.  lxij. 
magnis  petris  ad  predictam  cameram 
emptis,  et  calce  facienda  ad  dictas  domos, 
una  cum  cariagio  eorundem,  xiij.  s. 
Et  in  sex  verrinis  emptis  ad  capellam  et 
garderobas,  vj.  s.  Et  in  Carpentaria  cu- 
jusdam aide  et  predictarum  domorum, 
ad  tascham,  xiij.  li.  vj.  s.  viij.  d.  Et  in 
cariagio  maeremii  ad  dictas  domos,  sabu- 
lone  ad  operam,  feno  ad  plausturam  aule 
et  camere  emptis  et  domibus  mundandis, 
vj.  libri,  x.  s.  vj.  d.  Et  in  lxiij.  mill.  dc. 
cendul.  faciendis  ad  dictas  domos  ad  tas- 

cham, vj.  li.  vij.  s.  Et  in  cariagio  ejus- 
dem  cendul.,  lv.  s.  iiij.  d.  Et  in  domi- 
bus predictis  ad  tascham  cooperiendis} 

ix.  li.  iij.s.  Et  in  xvj.  mill,  lath',  dcc» 
vj.  bordis  faciendis  ad  tascham,  una  cum 
cariagio  eorundem,  xlix.  s.  vj.d.  Et  in 
m.  m.  m.  magnorum  clavorum,  ad  cendul. 

x.  mill,  ad  lath',  vj.  mill,  ad  hostia  fenes- 
trarum  &  bord'  empt',  vj.  lib.  vj.  d.  Et 
in  plumbo  empto  ad  gutteras  dictarum 
domorum,  Ixx.  s.  vij.  d.  Et  in  quadam 
coquina  ibidem  facienda  cum  clavis  ad 
eandem,  et  feno  empto  ad  eandem  coqui- 
nam  plastrandam,  liiij.  s.  x.  d.  Et  in 
parietibus  aule  et  quibusdam  parietibus 
predicte  camere  et  garderob.  plaustrand' 
ad  tascham,  1.  s.  Et  in  pictura  dicte 
aule  et  camere  ad  tascham,  xviij.  s.  Et 
in  ferro,  ferruris  et  cramponis  ad  cami- 
nos  emptis,  lvj.  9.  Et  in  maeremium  in 
bosco  custodiendo,  xvij.  s.  viij.  d.  Et  in 
quodam  herbagio  ad  opus  Regine  faci- 
endo,  vj.  s.  ij.  d. — Summa,  lxxxviij.  li. 
iiij.  s.  ix.  d." — Rot.  Pip.  13  Edw.  I.,  rot. 



the  chapel  and  wardrobes.  Beside  the  chamber  and  chapel 
there  was  a  hall  wholly  constructed  of  wood  plastered  over. 
The  windows  of  the  chamber  and  hall  had  plain  wooden 
shutters  (hostia);  a  kitchen,  built  of  wood  and  plastered, 
completed  the  house,  wdiichwas  provided  writh  leaden  gutters, 
and  roofed  with  wooden  shingles,  of  which  the  enormous 
quantity  of  sixty-three  thousand  six  hundred  was  used,  be- 
sides sixteen  thousand  laths.  The  interior  of  the  hall  was 
plastered  and  painted,  as  was  also  that  of  the  chamber  ;  the 
floors  appear  to  have  been  boarded.  A  small  grass-plot  or 
garden  was  made  for  the  queen's  use.  The  upper  chamber 
of  stone  in  this  building  was,  in  all  likelihood,  built  over  a 
vaulted  basement  story  which  may  have  served  as  a  stable. 
As  the  dimensions  of  the  hall,  which  are  not  given,  were 
probably  fully  as  great  as  those  of  the  chamber,  the  latter 
with  the  hall  and  kitchen  may  have  formed  three  sides  of  a 
quadrangle,  in  the  centre  of  which  was  the  grass-plot  for 
the  queen's  recreation  :  but  whatever  the  disposition  of  the 
several  buildings  with  respect  to  each  other,  we  have  in 
this  account  at  the  close  of  the  thirteenth  century,  a  house 
built  precisely  on  the  same  plan  which  was  in  fashion  at  the 
beginning  of  the  twelfth  century.  Indeed  according  to  the 
custom  of  the  times  no  further  accommodation  was  needed  ; 
and  innumerable  passages  might  be  quoted  from  contem- 
porary romances  to  prove  that  the  hall  and  stables  were 
used  as  dormitories  by  guests  and  servants.  At  the  same 
time  it  is  almost  certain  that  when  the  private  chamber  was 
of  considerable  dimensions  it  was  divided  into  compart- 
ments by  wooden  partitions g ;  some  arrangement  of  this 
kind  seems  requisite  to  explain  the  account  given  by 
Matthew  Paris  of  the  attempt  to  assassinate  Henry  the 
Third  in  his  chamber  at  Woodstock,  in  1238. 

It  may  be  said,  it  is  true,  that  the  preceding  descrip- 

£  See  examples  in  Chapter  V.;  they  were  termed  "  interclusoria." 


tion  applies  only  to  a  mere  hunting-lodge,  as  the  house 
was  built  in  Woolmer  forest ;  but  all  things  considered  the 
hunting-lodge  of  a  king  in  the  thirteenth  century  was 
probably  as  extensive  in  its  accommodation  as  the  gene- 
rality of  manor-houses.  The  largest  domestic  building 
which  had  been  erected  in  that  age  by  a  subject  seems, 
from  the  notice  of  it  by  Matthew  Paris,  to  have  been  the 
residence  of  Paulin  Peyvre,  a  favourite  of  Henry  the  Third, 
at  Toddington  in  Bedfordshire ;  where  he  so  adorned  his 
manor  "  with  a  palace,  chapel,  bed-chambers  and  other 
stone  houses,  covered  with  lead,  with  orchards  and  fish- 
ponds, as  to  provoke  the  wonder  of  beholders  :  for  during 
many  years  the  artificers  of  his  buildings  are  said  to  have 
received  weekly  in  wages  one  hundred  shillings,  and  very 
often  ten  marks11."  As  the  chronicler  was  a  neighbour  of 
the  builder  he  probably  intended  to  describe  something 
that  was  remarkable  even  to  himself;  yet  it  may  be  appre- 
hended that  nothing  more  than  a  hall  is  signified  by  the 
word  palatum  \  No  traces  of  these  buildings  are  now 

At  Longthorpe,  near  Peterborough,  the  private  chambers 
are  in  a  tower  adjacent  to  the  hall  of  which  only  a  portion 
remains,  incorporated  with  later  work.  This  arrangement 
added  much  to  the  security,  and  gave  also  a  more  im- 
posing character  to  the  elevation  of  the  building.  Stoke- 
Say  castle,  near  Ludlow  in  Shropshire,  a  well  preserved 
building  of  this  date,  is  a  fine  specimen  of  a  house  on  the 
same  plan :  Grose  justly  remarked  that  it  "  was  rather  a 
castellated  mansion  than  a  castle  of  strength." 

h  "  Et  ut  de  aliis  sileamus,  unum  [ma-  rum,  qualibet  septimana  centum  solidos, 

nerium],   videlicet    Tudintunam,   adeo  et  pluries  decern  marcas,  recepisse  pro 

palatio,  capella,  thalamis,  et  aliis  domi-  stipendiis  asseruntur."     M.   Paris,  p. 

bus  lapideis,  et  plumbo  coopertis,  pomas-  821,  ed.  1640. 

riis  et  vivariis  communivit,  ut  intuenti-  It   sometimes  bore  tbat  meaning, 

bus  admirationem  parturiret.    Operarii  See  Ducange,  v.  Palatia. 
namque  pluribus  annis  aedificiorum  suo- 


There  is  a  good  example  of  a  house  of  two  stories,  in  the 
form  of  a  parallelogram,  at  West  Deane  in  Sussex ;  it  is 
rather  late  in  the  century,  and  has  been  in  some  respects 
modernised ;  but  it  retains  the  original  winding  staircase. 

Aydon  Castle,  in  Northumberland,  is  a  building  of  the 
latter  end  of  this  century,  its  date  being  probably  about 
1280;  though  now  called  a  castle  it  was  at  the  period  of 
its  construction,  and  long  after,  termed  a  <c  Hall,"  being  in 
reality  "merely  a  house  built  with  some  attention  to 
security."  The  general  plan  of  that  edifice  is  a  long  irre- 
gular line  of  buildings,  with  a  small  inner  court,  and  two 
other  extensive  enclosures  or  courts  formed  by  walls.  Little 
Wenham  Hall,  in  Suffolk,  is  another  example  of  a  fortified 
house  of  this  century,  its  date  being  about  the  same  period 
as  Aydon.  This  building  is  a  parallelogram  with  a  tower 
and  stair-turret  at  one  of  the  angles ;  the  chief  entrance 
appears  to  have  been  by  a  flight  of  steps  on  the  exterior, 
which  was  the  case  also  at  Aydon,  where  the  staircase, 
once  roofed,  still  remains.  Little  Wenham  is  remarkable 
as  affording  an  early  instance  of  the  use  of  bricks,  of  which 
nearly  the  whole  of  the  mansion  is  built. 

The  most  perfect  halls  of  this  period  now  remaining  are 
undoubtedly  those  at  Winchester  and  at  Stoke-Say.  The 
former  was  certainly  completed  before  the  year  1240  ;  it  is 
now  greatly  deformed  by  the  wooden  partitions  which  form 
the  county  courts.  In  plan  it  may  be  classed  with  similar 
buildings  of  the  twelfth  century,  being  divided  by  clustered 
piers  into  aisles ;  the  internal  details  of  the  windows  re- 
semble in  one  respect  those  in  Moyses'  hall  at  Bury 
St.  Edmund's ;  the  masonry  is  not  carried  up  to  a  level 
with  the  sill  of  the  window,  and  thus  a  bench  of  stone  is 
formed  on  each  side  of  it  \    The  roof,  which  is  of  wood, 

k  This  is  the  usual  character  of  dis-     windows  are  huilt  on  this  plan  at  all 
tinction  between  a  domestic  window  and  dates, 
a  church  window.    Almost  all  domestic 


appears  to  be  of  the  time  of  Edward  the  Fourth.  Scarcely 
any  alteration  has  been  made  in  the  hall  at  Stoke-Say 
since  the  period  of  its  construction,  by  the  baronial  family 
of  Say,  or  Ludlow,  in  1291  ;  the  windows  have  stone 
benches,  as  at  Winchester:  the  chimney  shafts,  which 
shew  a  bold  elevation  above  the  roof  of  the  tower,  are  good 
and  perfect  specimens  of  this  date  ;  and  compared  with 
other  contemporary  examples  the  fire-places  are  singularly 
light  in  design1. 

Capacious  as  these  apartments  generally  were,  the  pro- 
fuse charity  and  hospitality  of  the  age  often  required 
further  accommodation.  At  Westminster  and  at  Windsor 
Castle  respectively  there  were,  in  this  century,  two  halls,  a 
greater  and  a  lesser.  It  was  the  frequent  practice  of  John 
and  Henry  the  Third  to  order  both  the  halls  at  Westminster 
to  be  filled  with  poor  people,  who  were  feasted  at  the  royal 
expense ;  and  when  a  parliament  was  assembled,  or  when 
the  king  held  a  cour  pleniere,  and  wore  his  crown,  as  at 
Christmas  or  Whitsuntide,  extensive  temporary  accommo- 
dation was  provided  for  the  concourse  of  guests.  There 
was  in  that  age  less  difference  between  the  style  of  house- 
keeping and  expenditure  of  the  sovereign  and  that  of  his 
more  opulent  subjects  than  is  generally  supposed  ;  and 
therefore  illustrations  of  domestic  economy,  as  well  as  of 
the  nature  and  extent  of  domestic  buildings,  may  be  taken 
without  impropriety  from  the  description  of  royal  enter- 
tainments transmitted  to  us  by  contemporary  writers.  One 
of  this  class,  who  was  probably  town-clerk  of  London  at 
the  end  of  the  thirteenth  century,  thus  details  the  pre- 
parations made  in  the  palace  at  Westminster  for  the  coro- 
nation of  Edward  the  First,  in  1273  m. 

1  These  and  other  remaining  examples  m  "  Liber  de  Antiquis  Legibus,"  edited 

of  tbe  Domestic  Architecture  of  this  by  T.  Stapleton  ;  printed  for  the  Camden 

century  are  more  particularly  described  Society,  p.  172. 
in  the  next  chapter. 





All  the  vacant  ground  within  the  enclosure  of  the  palace 
at  Westminster,  was  entirely  covered  with  houses  and  other 
offices.  There  were  several  halls  built  on  the  south  side  of 
the  old  palace,  "  as  many  as  could  be  built  there,"  in  which 
tables,  "  firmly  fixed  in  the  ground,  were  set  up,  whereon 
the  magnates  and  princes  and  nobles  were  to  be  feasted  on 
the  day  of  the  coronation,  and  during  fifteen  days  there- 
after;" so  that  all,  as  well  poor  as  rich,  coming  to  the 
solemnity  were  to  be  gratuitously  received,  and  none  driven 
away.  "  And  innumerable  kitchens  also  were  built  within 
the  said  enclosure,  for  the  preparation  of  viands  against  the 
same  solemnity.  And  lest  those  kitchens  should  not  be 
sufficient,  there  were  numberless  leaden  cauldrons  placed 
outside  them,  for  the  cooking  of  meats.  And  it  is  to  be 
remembered  that  the  great  kitchen  in  which  fowls,  and 
other  things  were  to  be  cooked,  was  wholly  uncovered  at 
the  top,  so  that  all  manner  of  smoke  might  escape.  No 
one  can  describe  the  other  utensils  necessary  for  the  sus- 
tentation  of  so  great  a  court :  no  one  can  tell  the  number 
of  barrels  of  wine  which  were  prepared  for  it"/'  The 

n  By  referring  to  the  original  accounts  king  and  queen,  clad  in  their  regalia, 

of  the  expenses  incurred  on  this  occa-  walked  through  a  wooden  passage  or 

sion,    we   are   enabled   to   supply   an  "  alley,"  as  it  is  called,  which  was  built 

amount  of  information  on  some  of  these  from  the  door  of  the  smaller  hall  to  the 

points  which  was  not  perhaps  obtainable  church.    In  the  precise  and  business- 

by  the  writer.    Three  hundred  barrels  like  language  of   Master  Robert,  the 

of  wine  were  purchased,  which,  with  the  "halls"  of  the  chronicler  above  quoted 

charge  of  carriage  to  Westminster,  cost  are  described  as  "  lodges"  or  sheds  ;  he 

£643. 15s.  4d. ;  of  these  one  hundred  and  speaks  of  kitchens,  but  does  not  say 

sixteen  were  drank  out  on  the  coronation  how  many  were  built :  the  choir  of  the 

day ;  at  the  same  time  it  must  be  noted,  abbey  was  covered  with  a  temporary 

it  was  chiefly  Bordeaux,  or  vin  ordinaire.  wooden  floor,  and  "  the  new  tower  be- 

Leaden  cauldrons  for  boiling  meat,  are  yond  the  choir  was  roofed  with  boards." 

enumerated  in  the  account  of  Master  The  amount  of  this  architectural  bill  is 

Robert  of  Beverley,  who  was  clerk  of  the  £1100.  Is.  4d.,  and  another  small  ac- 

works  at  the  time,  as  are  also  certain  count  for  general  expenses,  including 

ovens  "  and  divers  other  works."     A  wine  but  not  provisions,  presents  a  total 

great  temporary  stable  was  built  in  the  of  £2865.  Is.  Id. — Rot.  Pip.  2  Edw.  I., 

churchyard   of   St.  Margaret's.      The  rot.    compot. — These    records    are  so 



writer,  after  a  burst  of  enthusiasm,  in  which  he  declares 
that  such  plenty  and  luxury  had  never  been  witnessed  in 
times  past,  adds,  "  the  great  and  the  small  hall  were  newly 
whitewashed  and  painted, — and  if  any  thing  within  the  en- 
closure of  the  palace  of  the  lord  the  king  was  broken  or 
impaired  by  age,  or  in  any  other  manner,  it  was  put  in 
good  condition." 

It  is  hardly  necessary  to  observe  that  the  "  great  hall " 
mentioned  in  the  preceding  narrative  was  that  built  by 
William  Rufus  ;  which  underwent  many  alterations  during 
this  century,  and  still  exists,  though  again  altered  in  the 
time  of  Richard  the  Second,  and  more  recently  by  the 
successive  efforts  of  Soane,  Smirke  and  Barry. 

The  extensive  preparations  and  large  hospitality  at  the 
coronation  of  Edward  formed  in  some  degree  an  exceptional 
case  ;  but  on  a  careful  examination  of  contemporary  autho- 
rities it  will  be  found  that  the  greater  English  nobles  often 
vied  with  the  crown  in  ordinary  expenditure;  and  dis- 
pensed hospitality  on  a  scale  of  magnificence  which  re- 
quired domestic  buildings  of  an  approximate  character,  so 
far  as  space  for  public  receptions  was  concerned,  and  also 
that  which  was  scarcely  of  less  importance,  stabling.  For 
example,  in  the  year  1265  Simon  de  Mont  fort,  earl  of 
Leicester,  travelled  with  a  train  of  one  hundred  and  sixty- 
two  horses  to  visit  his  countess  at  Wallingford  Castle  ;  on 
his  arrival  there  the  number  of  horses  in  the  stable 
amounted  to  three  hundred  and  thirty-four ;  in  that 
troublous  year  they  could  not  have  been  safely  picketed 
without  the  castle  walls.  About  the  same  time,  a  few 
days  after  Easter,  the  countess  of  Leicester  entertained,  or 
gave  food  at  Wallingford,  to  eight  hundred  paupers ;  it 

minute  in  their  details  that  they  give  and  seats.  By  multiplying  the  sums 
the  price  of  the  parchment  and  cords  named  by  fifteen  the  amount  in  modern 
used  to  measure  the  two  halls  for  tables     currency  is  obtained. 


may  be  said  that  these  guests,  having  had  their  meal  dis- 
tributed to  them,  carried  it  away ;  and  it  might  have  been 
so  arranged :  but  a  little  later  in  the  same  year  we  find  her 
giving  a  dinner  at  Dover,  to  the  burgesses  of  Sandwich, 
when  it  is  expressly  stated  that  the  company  dined  in  "  two 
places;"  and  not  long  afterwards,  being  still  at  Dover,  she 
feasted  the  same  burgesses,  together  with  the  men  of  Win- 
chelsea0.  As  it  was  her  object  to  secure  the  fidelity  of 
those  ports  to  her  husband's  cause,  it  is  more  than  probable 
that  the  countess  entertained  the  greater  part  of  the 
commons  of  each  place,  not  deputations  onlyp.  It  would 
be  an  unnecessary  waste  of  space  to  cite  the  numerous 
examples  of  this  description  which  are  to  be  found  in  the 
chronicles  of  the  times,  and  indeed  many  will  readily  occur 
to  the  reader's  memory. 

We  have  no  satisfactory  information  respecting  the  usual 
position  of  the  kitchen  relatively  to  the  hall ;  but  it  was 
situated  at  no  great  distance,  and  often  connected  with  it 
by  a  covered  passage.  In  royal  establishments  it  was 
usual  to  have  a  kitchen  for  the  king's  table,  another  for 
the  queen,  and  a  third  for  the  household.  In  the  early  part 
of  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Third  there  were  two  kitchens 
at  Windsor,  near  the  great  hall,  surrounded  by  a  strong 
palisaded  It  would  seem  also  that  these  offices  were  in 
general  of  very  slight  construction,  and  that  mere  tempo- 
rary buildings  were  erected  as  occasion  required  at  the 
several  royal  manors.  In  the  seventeenth  year  of  Henry 
the  Third  the  royal  kitchens  at  Oxford  were  blown  down 
by  a  strong  wind,  as  appears  by  a  precept  of  that  date 

0  "  Household  Manners  and  Expenses  were  far  more  populous  and  important 

of  England  in  the  thirteenth  and  fifteenth  than  at  present. 

Centuries,"  printed  for  the  Roxburgh         i  Rot.  Pip.  18  Hen.  III.  comp.  pro 

Club:  4to.  1841.  operat.  apud  Windesores.    See  the  nu- 

p  It  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  in  merous  directions  relative  to  the  con- 

the  thirteenth  century  the  Cinque  Ports  struction  of  kitchens  in  Chapter  V. 


ordering  their  restoration1".  There  were  two  other  depart- 
ments connected  with  every  large  establishment  of  this 
period,  which  remain  to  be  noticed ;  the  sewery  and  but- 
lery.  In  the  former  were  kept  provisions  for  the  house- 
hold8, linen  and  other  table  furniture,  and  in  the  latter,  as 
its  name  implies,  all  the  apparatus  required  for  the  service 
of  wine  and  beer.  There  was  sometimes  also  a  brewery. 
In  household  rolls  of  the  thirteenth  century  the  daily 
expenditure  is  almost  always  classed  under  the  following 
heads;  1.  The  amount  of  bread,  wine  and  beer  supplied 
from  the  sewery  and  butlery;  2.  The  cost  and  quantity  of 
the  provisions  furnished  from  the  kitchen  ;  3.  The  expenses 
of  the  stables,  including  farriers'  work ;  and  in  some  ac- 
counts there  is  a  fourth  item  relating  to  the  brewery t. 

To  the  king's  houses  there  were  always  attached  apart- 
ments called  "wardrobes;"  where  the  heavy  and  costly 
cloths  and  stuffs  required  for  the  apparel  of  the  sovereign 
and  his  household  were  kept,  and  where  also  the  royal 
tailors  worked.  When  it  is  remembered  that  the  attend- 
ants of  the  court  had  their  summer  and  winter  dresses  at 
the  expense  of  the  king,  and  that  at  this  early  period  it 
was  difficult  to  purchase  any  large  quantity  of  the  cloths 
and  furs,  necessary  for  the  clothing  of  a  numerous  retinue, 
except  at  the  great  periodical  fairs,  it  must  be  obvious  that 
the  "wardrobe"  needed  ample  room.  In  the  wardrobe 
also  were  kept  the  still  rarer  productions  of  the  East,  which 
then  found  their  way  to  England  ;  as  almonds,  ginger,  the 
rosy  and  violet  coloured  sugars  of  Alexandria,  and  other 
"  stomatica "  as  they  were  termed.    It  may  be  noticed, 

*  Liberate  Roll,  17  Hen.  III. 

8  There  is  a  writ  of  Henry  III,  ordering 
a  granary  to  be  made  "  in  dispensa  aule 
nostre  Oxoniis,"  to  hold  bread. — Lib.  11. 
Hen.  III. 

*  See  as  an  example  of  this  kind,  the 

household  roll  of  the  countess  of  Lei- 
cester in  "  Household  Manners  and  Ex- 
penses of  the  13th  and  1 5th  centuries," 
pp.  3 — 85.  In  royal  accounts  the 
salsary  is  usually  included. 



though  rather  for  the  sake  of  an  anecdote  illustrative  of  the 
manners  of  the  times  than  for  its  special  importance,  that 
a  large  wood-cellar  was,  as  might  be  imagined,  an  indis- 
pensable adjunct  of  an  extensive  residence.  On  one  occa- 
sion Henry  the  Third  ordered  the  wood -cellar  at  Clarendon 
to  be  fitted  up  as  a  chamber  for  the  knights  in  attendance 
on  his  personu. 

It  will  appear  from  the  preceding  remarks,  and  the 
authorities  by  which  they  are  supported,  that  the  general 
plan  of  domestic  buildings  of  the  thirteenth  century  strictly 
resembled  the  arrangements  which  were  usual  in  the  pre- 
vious age.  The  new  style  of  architecture  called  the  Gothic, 
or  Early  English,  gave  of  course  an  entirely  novel  and  dis- 
tinctive character  to  the  details  of  secular,  as  well  as  ecclesi- 
astical edifices,  but  it  did  not  generate  any  change  in  the 
ordinary  features  of  either ;  and  for  the  plain  reason  that 
those  religious  forms  and  social  usages  which  had  originated 
the  structural  peculiarities  of  sacred  and  civil  architecture 
still  continued  in  full  force.  Indeed  it  is  a  fact  that  must 
not  be  lost  sight  of,  that  the  feudal  system  itself  exerted  a 
direct  and  readily  perceptible  influence  on  the  character  of 
Domestic  Architecture.  The  ample  jurisdiction,  not  unfre- 
quently  including  royalties,  granted  by  the  crown  to  its 
great  tenants  rendered  every  baronial  seat,  and,  in  its 
degree,  every  manorial  house,  a  miniature  regal  establish- 
ment. As  the  sovereign  entertained  his  court,  and  the 
judges  of  the  realm  held  pleas,  in  the  hall  at  Westminster, 
so  the  lords  of  honours  and  manors,  aided  by  assessors, 
held  their  royalty  courts  and  courts-baron  at  their  chief 
seats x,  administered  justice,  and  entertained  and  received 

u  See  the  illustrations  in  Chapter  V.  Grand  Khan.    See  Marsden's  edition. 
The  royal  wardrobes  of  England  in  the         x  The  lord's  residence   was  called 

thirteenth  century  bore  some  analogy  to  "caput  baronize;"   an  ordinary  manor- 

the  large  wardrobes  which  Marco  Polo  house  "  mesuagium  capilale." 
describes  as  attached  to  the  palaces  of  the 


suit  and  service  of  their  dependents.  Then  the  large 
manorial  hall  was  rendered  necessary  for  other  purposes 
than  the  exercise  of  hospitality ;  in  those  times  there  was 
no  village  inn  at  which  the  lord's  agent  could  receive  the 
suitors ;  the  readiest,  and  perhaps  the  only  substitute  for 
the  hall  would  have  been  the  shade  of  the  first  broad  oak 
within  the  lord's  demesne ;  a  place  of  adjournment  suited 
only  to  a  summer's  day.  Thus  the  hall  was  essentially 
feudal,  in  origin  and  purpose,  and  continued  to  be  the  chief 
feature  of  every  mansion  until  the  decay  of  that  social 
system  in  which  it  had  its  origin. 

We  may  now  proceed  to  examine  the  constructive  and 
ornamental  details  of  houses  of  this  period. 

There  can  be  no  doubt,  from  the  evidence  of  contempo- 
rary records,  that  the  number  of  houses  built  wholly  of 
stone,  was  small  compared  with  those  of  which  wood  formed 
the  chief,  and  often  the  sole  material y.  In  the  sixteenth 
century,  Harrison  in  his  "  Description  of  England2,"  ob- 
served that,  with  the  exception  of  mansions  belonging  to 
the  nobility,  and  the  more  wealthy  gentry,  buildings  were 
generally  constructed  of  timber.  While  there  was  a  great 
abundance  of  a  material  so  easily  convertible,  it  was  natu- 
rally preferred  to  stone,  the  use  of  which,  even  where 
quarries  were  near  at  hand,  involved  considerable  expense 
for  any  sort  of  work  but  that  of  the  rudest  nature.  There 
were  at  the  same  time  many  domestic  buildings  in  which 
the  two  materials  were  combined,  as  in  the  house  of 
Edward  the  Eirst,  in  Woolmer  forest.  Not  much  is  known 
respecting  the  use  of  bricks  in  the  thirteenth  century ;  and 
probably  Little  Wenham  Hall,  which  has  been  already 

y  See  the  numerous  grants  of  timber  son,  "  ad  se  hospitandum." 

from  the  royal  forests,  for  building  pur-  *  Holinshed's  Chronicles.  Although 

poses,  on  the  Liberate  and  Close  Rolls,  not  always  to  be  trusted  implicitly,  he 

of  the  time  of  Henry  the  Third :  thus  may,  in  this  particular,  be  received  as 

so  many  oaks  would  be  granted  to  a  per-  good  evidence. 



noticed,  is  the  only  entire  brick  building  that  can  be 
assigned  to  that  period.  In  districts  where  life  and  pro- 
perty were  always  in  peril,  as  on  the  Scottish  and  Welsh 
Marshes a,  and  more  especially  on  the  former,  buildings 
were  made  as  secure  as  possible  and  little  timber  was  used 
in  their  construction.  There  is  a  curious  representation  of 
a  small  manor-house  on  a  personal  _^jfMi 
seal  of  this  period,  which  was  ori- 
ginally engraved  for  the  "  Arch- 
aeological Journal^"  and  is  here 
reproduced ;  the  date  of  it  is  about 
1273.  With  the  exception  of  its 
cylindrical  chimney  shaft,  the  build- 
ing is  apparently  of  wood  ;  the 
frame-timbers  being  clearly  de- 
fined :  the  windows  are  placed  so  ^ 
high  that  the  habitable  chamber  would  seem  to  be  on  the 
upper  story,  according  to  the  ordinary  plan,  and  the  door- 
way is  on  the  ground-floor ;  implying  the  existence  of  an 
internal  staircase.  In  houses  of  this  description  the  inter- 
stices of  the  wooden  frame- work  were  usually  filled  with  a 
composition,  or  plaster,  of  lime  and  mud,  mixed  with  straw, 
and  laid  upon  laths0. 

The  practice  of  plastering  and  whitewashing  buildings, 
whether  of  wood,  or  stone,  or  rubble,  was  universal,  and 
that  both  externally  and  internally d ;  and  this  process  so 
vehemently  denounced  by  modern  antiquaries  was  liberally 

a  Thus  Edward  the  First,  in  1294, 
granted  to  Hugh  de  Frene,  that  he  might 
fortify  and  crenellate  his  dwelling  at 
"  Mockes,"  co.  Hereford,  with  a  wall  of 
stone  and  lime,  without  tower  or  turret, 
so  that  the  wall  under  the  crenellation 
should  be  ten  feet  high.  Rot.  Pat.  21, 
Edw.  I. 

Vol.  i.  p.  219,  communicated  by  the 

Rev.  Lambert  B.  Larking. 

c  "  Et  in  feno  ad  plausturam  aule," 
&c.    See  note  f,  p.  60  ante. 

d  H  Et  in  stipendiis  illorum  qui  deal- 
baverunt  exterius  turrim  de  Blunvill', 
aulam,  et  magnam  cameram,  xiiij.  li. 
iiij.  s.  x.  d."  Comp.  de  operat.  domo- 
rum  in  Turri  Lond.,  Rot.  Pip.  19  Hen 
III.;  circa  1234. 


applied  also  to  ecclesiastical  edifices.  It  appears  from  early 
accounts  of  this  period,  that  it  was  very  common  to  build 
of  chalk,  flint  and  rag-stone,  the  quoins  and  reveals  of  the 
windows  being  of  dressed  masonry,  or  "  talestone,"  as  it 
was  called  (pierre  de  taille*). 

Roofs  (cumuli)  of  the  thirteenth  century  had  a  considera- 
ble pitch,  and  their  ridges  were  not  unfrequently  decorated 
with  a  running  ornamentation  called  a  crest,  either  of 
metal,  stone  or  tile ;  they  were  invariably  constructed  of 
wood,  and  covered  with  shingles  of  wood  or  stone,  tiles, 
and  sometimes,  though  rarely,  with  slate.  The  open 
timber-framing  of  the  interior  was  generally  plain,  though 
a  few  instances  do  occur  of  directions  to  paint  the  wood- 
works Thatching  was  not  unfrequently  used  in  buildings 
even  of  the  better  class ;  the  roof  of  the  chapel  at  the  royal 
manor  of  Kennington  having  been  destroyed  by  fire,  about 
the  year  1236,  was  replaced  by  "a  certain  light  roof"  of 
laths,  covered  with  "thatch"  or  strawg.  Towers  of  this 
date  are  so  often  represented,  in  contemporary  manuscripts, 
with  high  ridged,  and  sometimes  with  pyramidal  roofs,  that 
it  seems  reasonable  to  infer  that  flat-roofs  were  not  in 
general  use ;  the  embattled  gate-houses  of  some  old  conti- 

e  The  established  technical  terms  for 
architectural  details  occur  early  in  this 
century,  as  tablamenta  for  string-courses  » 
voussoirs,  crenelles,  "  ashlarcoines," 
corbells,  nowels,  "  scu-ashlars,"  "  par- 
pencoines,"  sills  (solea),  crests,  curb- 
stones ;  the  mullion  dividing  a  window 
of  two  lights  was  generally  named  a 
"  column ; "  the  piers  supporting  a  hall 
"postes,"  even  when  of  stone: — "  pre- 
cipimus  tibi  quod  apud  Gildeford'  postes 
aule  nostre  qui  deficiunt  ibidem  emen- 
dari  et  de  bonis  lapidibus  de  Reygate 
sublevari  faciatis."  Writ  to  the  Sheriff 
of  Surrey,  35  Hen.  III. ;  Misc.  in  Turr. 
Lond.,  no.  444.    This  confirms  the  pro- 

priety of  Mr.  Rickman's  adoption  of  the 
word  pier  for  column. 

f  The  chapel  built  by  Henry  the 
Third  at  Windsor  had  a  wooden  roof, 
coloured  in  imitation  of  one  of  stone  at 
Lichfield.  The  practice  of  ceiling  was 
not  unknown  at  this  time  ;  thus  the 
cellars  beneath  the  royal  chamber  and 
wardrobe  at  Rochester  were  ordered  to 
be  ceiled  in  the  17th  Hen.  III.  Liberate 
roll  of  that  year.    See  Chap.  V. 

s  "  Et  quodam  levi  cumulo  faciendo 
et  levando  super  capellam  Regis,  que 
combusta  fuit  ibidem,  et  eo  cumulo  lat- 
tando  et  stramine  cooperiendo."  Rot. 
Pip.  20  Hen.  III. 



nental  towns,  as  Aix-la-Chapelle  and  Basle,  still  preserve 
roofs  of  this  kind.  Leaden  gutters  with  projecting  spouts, 
which  at  a  later  time  were  replaced  by  carved  gurgoyles, 
were  ordinarily  used  at  this  period ;  as  they  were  in  the 
preceding  century. 

Windows  in  domestic  buildings  of  this  age  have  the 
genera]  character  of  the  Early  English  style ;  they  were 
ordinarily  of  two  lights  divided  by  a  shaft  or  mullion,  with 
a  drip  moulding,  as  at  Aydon  Castle :  they  had  either 
simple  pointed  or  trefoiled  heads ;  of  the  latter  sort  there 
are  good  specimens  at  Coggs,  in  Oxfordshire,  and  at  Little 
Wenham  Hall ;  at  Stoke  Say  the  windows  of  the  hall  have 
stone  transoms  with  plain  tracery  in  the  head :  they  are 
sometimes  square-headed,  as  at  Aydon.  In  this  century 
we  first  find  mention  of  oriel  windows,  of  which  the  precise 
character  is  not  known  ;  no  example  remaining  of  the  period 
at  all  like  that  which  is  now  called  an  oriel.  There  are 
numerous  writs  of  the  time  of  Henry  the  Third,  directing 
the  construction  of  oriels  at  Woodstock  and  other  royal 
seats.  Circular  windows  were  frequently  used  in  the 
gables  of  halls,  as  it  appears  from  contemporary  building 

Glass  was  first  applied  to  the  windows  of  domestic 
buildings  in  this  century,  at  least  no  trace,  of  the  use  of  it 
for  any  other  than  ecclesiastical  structures,  has  yet  been 
discovered  of  an  earlier  date.  Still  it  must  not  be  sup- 
posed, that  glazed-windows  were  to  be  found  in  every 
house  :  they  were  a  luxury  barely  known  to  royalty  and 

h  "In  cassis  faciendis  ad  rotundas  '  Glass  drinking  vessels  were  so  rare 
fenestras  in  aula,  pro  vitro  imponendo."  in  England  at  this  time,  that  Henry  the 
Accounts  of  the  bailiff  of  the  earl  of  Third  had  but  one  glass  cup,  which  was 
Lincoln,  circa  1295;  by  cassis  we  must  presented  to  him  by  Guy  de  Roussillon. 
understand  frames  or  casements  for  The  king  sent  it  to  Edward  of  West- 
glazing.  Numerous  references  to  the  minster,  the  famous  goldsmith,  with  di- 
round  windows  of  gables  are  given  in  rections  to  take  off  the  glass  foot,  and  to 
Chapter  V.  mount  it  on  one  of  silver  gilt;  to  make 



the  wealthiest  persons11,  and  even  in  palaces  windows 
of  glass  and  wood  were  intermixed  ;  the  latter  being  dis- 
tinguished by  the  various  names  of  fenestrate,  lattices,  win- 
dow-shutters, or  literally,  "window-doors,"  and  "wooden- 
windows."  The  presumed  reason  of  this  fact  is,  strange 
as  the  assertion  may  appear,  that  no  kind  of  glass  was 
manufactured  in  this  country  until  a  comparatively  late 
period,  and  the  fragility  of  the  material  prevented  any  very 
regular  or  extensive  importation  of  it  from  the  continent  in 
the  early  times  of  British  commerce.  A  short  digression 
on  this  point  may  be  here  permitted,  as  not  irrelevant  to 
the  subject  under  consideration ;  more  especially  since  the 
antiquity  of  the  glass  manufacture  in  England  has  never 
yet  been  satisfactorily  investigated. 

The  perfection  to  which  the  Romans  brought  the  art  of 
glass-making  is  well  known,  but  it  was  long  uncertain 
whether  they  used  glazed  windows ;  the  discovery  of  por- 
tions of  glass  so  applied  at  Herculaneum  and  at  Pompeii 
has  satisfactorily  proved  that  they  did.  Glass-making  was 
one  among  the  many  arts  which  survived  the  destruction 
of  the  Empire,  and  were  exercised  in  Italy  in  the  earliest 
medieval  times.  The  island  of  Murano,  near  Venice,  still 
distinguished  by  the  production  of  elaborate  works  in  this 
material,  is  the  most  ancient  seat,  as  it  was  long  the 
greatest,  of  the  glass  manufactory  in  modern  Europe.  We 
find  glazing  applied  to  church  windows,  in  Italy,  in  the 
seventh  and  eighth  centuries1.  Germany  and  Erance 
derived  the  art  from  Italy :   Nuremburg  and  Paris  had 

a  certain  handle  to  it,  answering  to  the 
foot,  and  to  surround  it  with  silver  gilt 
hoops  :  he  was  to  do  this  with  all  haste, 
and  then  to  present  it  to  the  queen  on 
the  king's  behalf.  Rot.  Claus.  29  Hen. 
III.,  m.  18. 

k  See  the  curious  remarks  of  Mr.Two- 

peny,  on  the  ancient  law  relating  to 
glass  windows,  as  forming  a  part  of  the 
personal  estate  of  the  owner,  quoted 
in  the  Glossary  of  Architecture,  art. 

1  Muratori  Antiq.  Italicae,  vol.  ii.  col. 


glass-houses  some  centuries  before  auy  establishment  of 
the  kind  was  formed  in  England;  and  in  the  fourteenth 
century,  the  "  rue  de  la  verrerie  "  was  the  name  given  to 
that  quarter  of  the  French  capital  in  which  the  glass- 
makers  exercised  their  craft 111 . 

It  has  been  attempted  to  claim  a  knowledge  of  glass- 
making  for  the  ancient  Britons  ;  and  it  is  said  that  before 
the  landing  of  Caesar  they  had  works  in  which  they  manu- 
factured those  peculiar  enamelled  beads  often  found  in 
tumuli n,  but  which  are  now  believed,  with  good  reason,  to 
be  of  foreign  origin,  and  to  have  been  brought  to  this 
island  by  foreign  traders,  for  the  same  commercial  object 
that  we  at  the  present  time  ship  like  wares  to  the  west 
coast  of  Africa.  This  assumption,  for  it  is  nothing  more> 
in  favour  of  the  civilization  of  the  Britons,  is  fully  as  absurd 
as  that  theory  which  attributes  to  them  a  national  coinage 
ascending  to  an  antiquity  of  many  centuries  before  the 
Roman  invasion.  But  supposing  that  the  Britons  really 
did  make  their  own  glass  beads  and  every  kind  of  glass,  it 
is  nevertheless  quite  certain,  on  the  testimony  of  Bede°, 
that  glass  was  not  made  in  England  in  the  seventh  century; 
therefore  the  art  was  soon  lost,  if  it  had  ever  been  pre- 
viously known.  The  plain  truth,  however,  is,  that  there 
is  not  a  particle  of  evidence  to  prove  that  any  descrip- 
tion of  glass  was  manufactured  in  this  country  before  the 
fifteenth  century ;  proof  to  the  contrary  may  yet  be  dis- 
covered, but  until  it  shall  appear,  that  is  the  earliest  period 
to  which  the  introduction  of  this  fabric  can  be  assigned, 
and  it  was  not  produced  in  any  considerable  quantity 
until  towards  the  middle  of  the  following  century. 

This  is  not  the  place  to  examine  how  far  these  facts  may 

m  Ducange;  sab  voce  Vitreria. 
n  See  the  first  edition  of  the  Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica,  art.  Glass. 

°  Vita  S.  Benedicti  inter  opera  historic* 

minora  Ven.  Bedae,  Lond.  1841,  p.  45. 
Benedict  brought  glass  and  glaziers 
from  Gaul* 


affect  the  theories  which  have  been  propounded  respecting 
the  remains  of  painted  glass  in  England  :  the  art  of  colour- 
ing and  enamelling  glass  may  have  been  well  known 
and  generally  exercised  here  long  before  the  manufacture 
of  that  substance  itself  was  established ;  but  it  is  indis- 
putable that  the  long  and  valuable  series  of  our  national 
records  does  not  supply  one  single  notice  of  glass-making 
anterior  to  the  period  above  mentioned.  Among  the 
witnesses  to  numerous  existing  deeds  and  conveyances  of 
property  in  the  thirteenth  and  fourteenth  centuries  we  fail 
to  detect  the  calling  of  a  glass-maker,  and  that  of  a  glazier 
occurs  but  rarely  p. 

Window-glass  was  one  among  the  many  commodities 
which  we  obtained  in  the  middle  ages  from  the  Flemings 
in  exchange  for  our  staple  production,  wool.  Some  was 
imported  also  from  Normandy,  where  the  manufacture  of 
it  appears  to  have  been  of  considerable  antiquity ;  but 
those  parts  of  the  continent  in  which  it  was  most  exten- 
sively produced  were  the  Low  Countries,  the  district  of 
the  Vosges  in  Lorraine q,  and  Venice ;  down  to  the  close 
of  the  seventeenth  century  the  drinking-glasses  ordinarily 

P  Edward  the  king's  glazier  (vitre- 
arius)  at  Windsor  had  an  annual  pen- 
sion from  Henry  the  Third.  See  Chap- 
ter V.  A  master  glazier  was  attached  to 
the  royal  household  in  the  time  of  Henry 
the  Sixth,  who  granted  to  John  Prudde 
"  the  office  of  Glaserye  of  oure  werkes," 
to  hold  as  "  Rogier  Gloucestre"  had 
held  it,  "  with  a  shedde  called  the  Gla- 
zier's logge  standing  upon  the  west  side 
withynne  oure  paloys  of  Westm." — 
Privy  Seal,  19  Henry  VI.  He  was  the 
same  John  Prudde  who  covenanted  to  paint 
the  windows  of  the  Beauchamp  Chapel 
at  Warwick,  in  1439  :  he  was  to  use  no 
"glasse  of  England;"  this,  which  is  the 
earliest  specific  mention  of  English  glass, 

shews  that  it  Was  not  much  esteemed. — ■ 
See  Dugdale's  Warwickshire,  p.  355. 

<1  "  At  what  tyme  that  trouhles  began 
in  Fraunce  and  the  lowe  countryes,  so 
that  glasse  could  not  conveniently  be 
brought  from  Loraine  into  England, 
certain  glass-makers  did  covenant  with 
Anthony  Dollyne  and  Jno.  Carye  mer- 
chantes  of  the  said  low  countryes  to 
come  and  make  glass  in  England." 
Petition  of  George  Longe  to  Lord  Burgh- 
ley,  about  1589 :  Lansdown  MS.  No.  59, 
art.  72.  Dollyne  and  Carye  obtained  a 
patent  for  making  glass  in  England,  in 
September,  1567,  on  condition  of  teaching 
the  art  to  Englishmen,  and  of  paying 
certain  customs  to  the  Crown.  Ibid. 



sold  in  England  were  made  at  the  latter  place  from  pat- 
terns sent  ont  by  our  glass-dealers  r. 

Although  glazed-windows  both  plain  and  coloured  had 
been  long  previously  introduced  into  ecclesiastical  buildings 
in  England,  it  was  not,  as  already  observed,  until  the  thir- 
teenth and  fourteenth  centuries  that  they  were  inserted  in 
domestic  residences,  and  even  then  they  were  not  common. 
It  would  appear  that  there  was  no  very  abundant  supply  of 
window-glass  to  be  had  in  those  times.  In  the  year  1386 
we  find  a  writ  of  Richard  the  Second,  empowering  one 
Nicholas  Hoppewell  to  take  as  much  glass  as  he  could  find, 
or  might  be  needful,  in  the  counties  of  Norfolk,  North- 
ampton, Leicester  and  Lincoln,  "  as  well  within  liberties 
as  without,  saving  the  fee  of  the  Church, "  for  the  repair  of 
the  windows  of  the  chapel  founded  at  Stamford  in  honour 
of  the  king's  mother,  Joan,  princess  of  Wales :  he  had  also 
authority  to  impress  as  many  glaziers  as  should  be  requi- 
site for  the  work8.  The  obvious  inference  is  that,  when 
it  was  necessary  to  search  four  counties  for  glass  to  restore 
a  few  windows,  there  could  have  been  no  great  quantity  of 
that  material  in  the  country.  Yet  the  cost  of  glass,  as  com- 
pared with  other  objects,  was  not  remarkably  high,  even  in 
the  reign  of  Edward  the  First ;  it  was  three-pence  halfpenny 
a  foot  including  the  cost  of  glazing  or  about  four  shillings 
and  four-pence  modern  currency. 

r  See  a  curious  collection  of  patterns 
for  beer  and  other  glasses,  with  copies  of 
letters,  sent  by  a  London  dealer  to  his 
agent  at  Venice,  in  1667,  in  the  Addi- 
tional MS.  855.  (Brit.  Mus.) 

s  Fcedera,  vol.  vii.  p.  527. 

t  "  Et  xxj.  s.  x.  d.  ob.  in  sexaginta 
quindecim  pedibus  vitri  emptispro  dictis 
fenestris  cum  stipendio  facientis  et  im- 
ponentis."  Account  of  the  bailiff  of 
the  earl  of  Lincoln,  circa  1295.  It  is 
apprehended  that  "  facientis"  means  the 

cutter  or  glazier,  not  the  maker.  This 
was  about  the  usual  price  :  in  the  "  Me- 
moriale"  of  Prior  Henry  of  Canterbury, 
written  early  in  the  fourteenth  century, 
we  find  as  follows  :  "  Of  the  weight  and 
measure  of  glass. — And  memorandum, 
that  of  one  poise  of  glass  which  contains 
five  small  pounds  may  be  made  one 
glass-window  two  feet  and  a  half  long, 
and  one  foot  wide.  That  is  of  two  small 
pounds  and  a  half  of  glass  may  be  made 
one  foot  and  a  quarter  of  a  glass-window 


It  is  not  known  how  early  in  the  fifteenth  century  the 
art  of  glass-making  was  practised  in  England  :  but  the  great 
favour  extended  by  Henry  the  Sixth  to  alchemical  experi- 
ments, brought  many  professors  of  the  "  occult"  sciences 
to  his  court ;  and  the  introduction  of  manganese  as  a  flux 
in  the  manufacture  of  glass  is  generally  ascribed  to  the 
searchers  for  the  grand  secret  of  the  transmutation  of 
metals  u.  However  this  may  have  been,  it  is  not  until  the 
year  1439  that  we  find  any  precise  mention  of  English 
glass,  and  that  occurs  in  the  contract  for  glazing  the  Beau- 
champ  chapel  at  Warwick  ;  it  is  named  also  in  the  accounts 
of  the  works  done  at  the  mansion  of  Cold  Harbour,  in 
London,  in  1485,  where  it  appears  in  the  glazier's  bills 
with  Dutch,  Normandy,  and  Venice  glass  x.  The  same  va- 
rieties of  glass  continued  in  use  during  the  reign  of  Henry 
the  Eighth,  and,  indeed,  till  the  seventeenth  century. 

The  manufactory  of  glass  established  in  this  country  by 
the  patent  of  Elizabeth,  referred  to  in  a  previous  note, 
appears  to  have  met  with  some  degree  of  success.  In  the 
memorial  of  George  Longe,  already  quoted,  it  is  stated 
that  in  the  year  1589  there  were  fifteen  glass-houses  in 
England ;  these,  or  at  least  the  greater  number  of  them, 
had  been  erected  under  the  monopoly y  conceded  to  Dollyn 

in  length  and  width.  And  the  foot  is 
worth  two- pence,  without  the  wages  of 
the  glazier.  And  memorandum,  that  to 
every  poise  of  glass  there  should  be  had 
two  small  pounds  of  lead.  That  is  to 
every  foot  of  a  glass-window  one  small 
pound  of  lead  mixt  with  tin." — Cotton 
MS.  Galba  E.  iv.  fo.  28  b. 

u  Beckmann's  History  of  Inventions, 
art.  manganese. 

x  These  accounts  are  at  the  Chapter- 
house, Westminster.  The  prices  of  the 
several  kinds  of  glass  were,  Dutch,  4 id. 
a  foot ;  Venice,  5d.  ;  Normandy,  6d.  a 
foot ;  English,  1  d.  a  quarrel ;  it  seems 

probable  that  English  glass  was  made  of 
small  dimensions.  Normandy  glass  was 
imported  in  cases,  each  costing  in  the 
time  of  Henry  VIII.  sixteen  shillings, 
at  the  highest  price  :  a  case  contained 
140  feet.  "  The  reporte  of  John  Bote 
glassyer  ;"  Lansd.  MS.  No.  21,  art.  68. 

y  The  foreigners  who  contracted  with 
Dollyne  and  Carye  to  make  glass  in 
England  were  "  Thomas  and  Balth.  zar 
de  Hamezel,  esquires,  dwelling  at  the 
glass-houses  of  Vosges  in  the  coUntrie  of 
Lorrayne,"  and  their  partners.  Con- 
temporary transl.  of  the  partnership  deed 
in  the  Lansdown  MS*  No.  59,  art.  76. 



and  Carye  of  Antwerp,  in  ]  567.  The  object  of  Longe's 
petition  to  Lord  Bnrghley,  was  to  obtain  a  new  patent  for 
himself,  that  of  the  Antwerp  traders  having  expired.  He 
proposed  to  reduce  the  number  of  glass-houses  in  England 
to  two,  and  to  erect  others  in  Ireland,  whereby  the  woods 
in  England  would  be  preserved z,  and  the  superfluous 
woods  of  Ireland  wasted,  "  than  which  in  tyme  of  rebellion 
her  majestie  hath  no  greater  enemye  there ;"  the  country, 
he  added,  would  be  much  cc  strengthened,"  every  glass- 
house being  equal  to  a  garrison  of  twenty  men,  and  it 
would  also  be  sooner  brought  to  "  civilyte,  for  many  poore 
folke  shalbe  sett  on  worke a."  The  result  of  his  petition  is 
unknown.  Whatever  may  have  been  the  retarding  causes, 
among  which  monopolies  must  be  reckoned,  it  is  certain 
that  very  little  extension,  or  improvement,  of  the  glass- 
manufacture  in  England  took  place  before  the  accession  of 
William  and  Mary. 

It  is  now  expedient  to  recur  to  the  thirteenth  century ; 
this  digression  having  extended  to  a  greater  length  than 
was  intended. 

The  glass  employed  in  domestic  buildings  was  ordinarily 
plain,  and  was  called  white  glass,  although  it  appears  from 
specimens  which  have  been  preserved  to  have  had  a  decided 
green  tinge.  Painted  glass  is  not  mentioned  so  often  as 
might  be  expected  in  documents  relating  to  the  royal 
houses.  Among  the  accounts  of  works  at  Windsor,  in 
the  time  of  Henry  the  Third,  there  is  a  notice  of  the  inser- 
tion of  a  glass-window,  in  the  gable  of  the  queen's  chamber, 
on  which  was  depicted  the  "  root  of  Jesse,"  a  favourite 

55  At  this  time  furnaces  of  every  de- 
scription were  established  in  forest  dis- 
tricts ;  very  little  coal  being  used  for  fuel ; 
thus  the  most  considerable  iron  manufac- 
tories were  in  the  forest  of  Dean  and  the 
woodlands  of  Sussex  ;  they  migrated,  as 

wood  became  scarce,  from  one  district  to 
another:  hence  in  the  thirteenth  century 
they  were  called  "  forgiae  itinerantes." 

a  He  states  that  he  had  already  tried 
the  experiment  of  glass-making  in  Ire- 


pictorial  subject  of  the  timeb;  it  was  provided  with  a 
wooden  shutter.  Armorial  bearings  were  seldom  repre- 
sented on  windows  during  the  thirteenth  century. 

Wooden  shutters  {fenestra  lignem)  were  however  far 
more  common  than  glass ;  examples,  probably  of  this  date, 
still  remain  at  Coggs  in  Oxfordshire ;  where  the  original 
mode  of  securing  them  is  shewn ;  the  mullion  dividing  the 
window-lights  being  internally  sculptured  with  projecting 
semi-circular  knobs,  perforated,  through  which  bars  of  iron 
were  passed  horizontally :  in  this  instance  the  shutters  are 
square-headed,  so  that  the  upper  parts  of  the  pointed  lights 
must  have  been  left  open0.  At  Little  Wenham  Hall,  in 
Suffolk,  the  two  lancet  lights  opening  from  the  chapel,  or 
oratory,  to  the  hall,  still  retain  their  original  shutters,  which 
are  pointed  like  the  window ;  the  masonry  being  recessed 
to  allow  them  to  close  evenly  with  the  surrounding  stone- 
work d. 

Double  glass-windows  appear  to  have  been  sometimes 
employed ;  a  writ  of  Henry  the  Third  directs  the  clerks  of 
the  works  at  Windsor  to  make,  at  each  gable  of  the  king's 
"  high  chamber"  one  glass  window  on  the  outside  of  the 
inner  window  of  each  gable,  "  so  that  when  the  inner 
windows  shall  be  closed,  the  glass  windows  may  be  seen 
outside e." 

There  is  some  difficulty  in  rightly  understanding  the 
precise  meaning  of  directions  contained  in  records  of  the 
thirteenth  century  respecting  windows,  from  the  wooden 
shutters  being  commonly  termed  fenestra ;  thus  we  have  a 
contemporary  account  for  "  making  a  certain  glass  window 

b  "  Et  in  alia  verina  ponenda  in  ga- 
bulo  ejusdem  camere  in  qua  depicta  sit 
radix  Jesse,  cum  fenestra  lignea;" — Rot. 
Comp.  Pip.  20  Hen.  III.  See  various 
orders  respecting  painted  glass  for  win- 
dows in  Chapter  V. 

c  Neither  of  these  windows  appears  to 
have  been  glazed. 

d  Unglazed  windows,  with  shutters  of 
this  kind,  may  still  be  noted  in  the 
poorer  districts  of  old  continental  towns. 

«  Rot..  Claus.  28  Hen.  III. 



{fenestra  vitrea),  and  another  of  wood,"  in  the  king's 
chapel  at  Windsor f;  here  a  doubt  may  be  entertained 
whether  a  second  window  is  signified,  or  merely  shutters 
for  the  glass  casement  first  mentioned.  Nor  is  it  always 
clear  that  fenestrate  meant  shutters,  as  in  another  bill,  of 
nearly  the  same  date,  there  is  a  charge  for  "  putting  two 
glass-lights,  like  unto  the  glass-lights  in  the  king's  chamber 
at  Windsor,  in  the  queen's  chamber  there,  towards  the 
king's  garden,  with  certain  fenestrals,  to  open  and  shutg;" 
in  this  instance  fenestrals  appear  to  signify  the  moveable 
portions  of  glazed  windows ;  the  queen  beholding  his 
majesty  taking  the  air  in  his  herbary  might  feel  disposed  to 
open  her  casement  and  hold  converse  with  him ;  according 
to  the  most  veracious  romances  of  those  times  ladies  fre- 
quently spoke  from  their  bower-windows.  Such  small 
casements  are  occasionally  pictured  in  manuscripts  of  this 
date.  It  is  nevertheless  certain  that  large  glass  windows 
were  sometimes  made  to  open  on  each  side  of  the  central 
mullion,  from  top  to  bottom  :  there  are  writs  of  Henry  the 
Third  directing  glass  casements  "  to  be  cut  down  the 
centre,"  so  that  they  might  be  opened  and  closed  at 

Though  glass  was  in  partial  use  at  this  time,  it  is  beyond 
all  doubt  that  wooden  lattices  and  shutters  were  still  the 
ordinary  apparatus  for  the  admission  of  light  and  air,  as 
well  as  for  protection  against  inclement  weather :  there  is 
some  reason  also  for  believing  that  canvas  was  at  times 
employed  as  an  adjunct11 ;  that  it  was  used  to  cover  in 

f  Rot.  Comp.  Pip.  18  Hen.  III.  Hen.  III.  Comp.  pro  Windsor.  See 

S  "  Et  in  duabus  ferinis  (sic  pro  veri-  Chapter  V. 

nis)  consimilibus  verinis  camere  Regis  h  Thus  in  the  accounts  of  the  ex- 

Windesor'  ponendis  in  fenestra  camere  ecutors  of  Eleanor,  consort  of  Edward  I., 

Regine  ibidem,  versus  herbarium  Regis,  we  find  an  entry,  "  pro  canabo  ad  fenes- 

cum  quibusdam  fenestraribus,  ad  aperi-  trellas  ad  scaccarium  regin<e,  apud  West- 

endum  et  claudendum." — Rot.  Pip.  20  monasterium,  iijd." 



church  windows  before  they  were  glazed,  is  shewn  by  the 
fabric  accounts  of  Westminster  abbey  and  other  churches 
of  this  time1.  Wooden  shutters,  however,  were  not  invari- 
ably fixed  internally ;  they  were  very  commonly  made  on 
the  outside  of  windows,  attached  to  the  head,  and  were 
pushed  up  and  kept  raised  by  a  prop  of  wood  or  iron,  as 
noticed  in  the  first  chapter;  this  is  the  kind  of  shutter 
most  frequently  represented  in  illuminations  of  the  thirteenth 
and  following  century-1'.  Even  when  fitted  with  the  great- 
est accuracy,  these  "  window-doors "  could  have  afforded 
little  defence  against  rough  weather ;  but  the  probability  is 
that  they  were  in  general  coarsely  made ;  a  charge  for 
(C  making  the  windows  shut  better  than  usual,"  is  not 
uncommon  in  accounts  of  this  time  k.  The  inconvenience 
of  draughts  of  cold  air  was  provided  against,  in  some 
degree,  by  placing  the  lights  nearer  the  roof  than  the  floor 
of  an  apartment,  especially  in  halls.  There  is  a  precept  of 
Henry  the  Third  directing  glass  to  be  substituted  for  wood 
in  a  window  in  the  queen's  wardrobe  at  the  Tower,  "  so 
that  that  chamber  might  not  be  so  windy." 

There  was  yet  another  method  in  early  times  of  filling 
windows,  which  remains  to  be  noticed.  It  was  not  unusual 
to  glaze  only  the  upper  lights  of  large  windows,  the  lower 
parts  being  fitted  with  wooden  shutters,  by  which  air  was 
admitted  or  excluded  at  pleasure.  The  lateral  windows  in 
the  hall  at  Winchester,  and  in  that  at  Stoke-Say,  are  pre- 
sumed to  have  been  finished  in  such  a  manner.  This 
fashion  appears  to  have  continued,  in  some  parts  of  the 
kingdom,  until  the  seventeenth  century1. 

1  See  Introduction,  p.  xxx. ;  and  note. 

j  Quaere :  were  these  the  "  fenestra 
culicice  "  so  often  mentioned  in  the  writs 
of  Henry  the  Third. 

k  "  Et  in  fenestris  melius  solito  clau- 
dendis."— .Account  of  the  manor  of  Ken- 

nington,  Rot.  Pip.  18  Hen.  III. 

1  See  a  quotation  from  Ray's  Itine- 
rary in  Scotland  in  Sir  John  Cullum's 
"  History  and  Antiquities  of  Hawsted," 
p.  209 ;  and  Mr.  Smirke's  paper  on  the  hall 
at  Winchester,  in  the  first  volume  of  the 





Fire-places  of  this  date  differ  very  slightly  in  form  from 
those  of  the  Norman  period,  but  they  are  less  massive  in 
construction.  Flues  were  ordinarily  cylindrical  shafts  of 
masonry,  carried  above  the  ridge  of  the  roof,  though  there 
is  an  example,  at  Aydon  castle,  of  a  chimney  terminating 
at  the  parapet-wall  in  a  conical  head,  which  is  pierced 
laterally  to  allow  the  smoke  to  escape;  the  commoner 
fashion,  however,  was  to  run  the  chimneys  considerably 
higher  than  the  roof,  and  they  are  invariably  so  represented 
in  contemporary  drawings.  Orders  to  raise  the  chimneys 
of  the  king's  houses  are  very  frequent  in  the  time  of 
Henry  the  Third. 

In  the  apartments  built  by  Henry  the  Third  at  his 
various  manors  the  mantels  of  fire-places  were  sometimes 
constructed  of  marble  and  elaborately  carved,  or  painted,  with 
such  designs  as  the  twelve  months  of  the  year,  probably  the 
signs  of  the  Zodiac,  the  wheel  of  Fortune,  and  the  root  of 
Jesse ;  he  ordered  a  mantel  to  be  painted  in  the  tower 
of  London,  the  subject  being  a  personification  of  Winter, 
with  a  sad  visage  and  miserable  contortions  of  the  bodym. 
It  appears  by  a  precept  of  the  same  monarch  that  one  flue 
was  sometimes  so  constructed  as  to  carry  off  the  smoke  of 
two  fire-places11.  But  flues  were  not  always  used  even  in 
the  royal  apartments ;  hearths0,  formed  of  stone  or  tile, 
which  appear  to  have  been  in  the  centre  of  the  room,  with 
louvers  on  the  roof  above,  were  still  employed;  and  such 
hearths  were  probably  in  general  use  in  many  buildings  of 
inferior  character.  It  should  be  remarked  that  there  may 
have  been  fire-places  and  flues  in  some  existing  buildings 

"Proceedings  of  the  Archaeological  In- 
stitute." Mr.  Jewitt  is  of  opinion  that 
only  the  parts  above  the  transoms  of  the 
windows  at  Stoke- Say  were  glazed. 

m  Liberate  24  Henry  III.  See  the 
collection  of  the  king's  orders  relative  to 

his  various  mansions  in  Chapter  V. 

D  See  Extract  relating  to  Clipston 
from  the  Liberate  Roll  35  Henry  IN.  in 
Chapter  V. 

0  "  Astra ;"  the  louver  is  termed  "  fu- 


of  this  period,  where  no  indications  of  them  are  now 
discernible ;  it  appears  to  have  been  very  common  to  build 
fire-places  and  chimneys  of  plaster  onlyp ;  they  must  have 
been  run  up  against  the  internal  wall,  and  from  the  nature 
of  the  material  employed  they  could  be  easily  destroyed, 
or,  which  is  the  same  thing,  they  would  fall  down,  and  in 
course  of  time  no  marks  of  their  having  existed  would 
remain.  In  kitchens,  which  were  usually  open  at  the  top, 
hearths  were  ordinarily  used,  and  they  were  likewise 
furnished  with  ovens,  though  in  royal  houses  the  oven  was 
sometimes  in  a  distinct  building. 

The  access  to  the  principal  entrance  of  manor-houses  at 
this  period,  as  in  the  preceding  century,  was  usually  by 
an  external  staircase,  carried  on  the  wall  and  protected 
from  the  weather  by  an  overhanging  shed  or  pent-house ; 
these  stairs  appear  to  have  been  ordinarily  of  wood.  Traces 
of  such  a  mode  of  entrance  remain  at  Charney  Basset,  and 
Stoke-Say ;  while  at  Aydon  the  original  external  flight  of 
stone  steps  yet  remains,  as  before  noticed.  The  principal 
entrance  to  Little  Wenham  Hall  was  by  an  outer  stair  of 
wood  or  stone.  From  the  precepts  of  Henry  the  Third  it 
appears  that  these  external  stairs  frequently  ended  in  a 
wooden  porch  erected  before  the  door  of  the  building q.  The 
same  plan  was  generally  adopted  for  communication  be- 
tween the  upper  and  lower  story  of  a  house  when  it  con- 
sisted of  two  floors  only ;  although  there  is  an  instance  at 
West-Deane  rectory-house,  of  internal  communication  by 
a  newel  stair  at  one  angle  of  the  building ;  but  this  sort 
of  stair  does  not  seem  to  have  been  very  commonly  used 
during  the  thirteenth  century.  There  was  also  another 
mode  of  communicating  with  the  upper  or  lower  story  of 
a  building,  and  that  was  by  a  trap-door ;  it  was  by  a  de- 

P  "  Et  in  uno  camino  de  plastro  faciendo  in  wardaroba  Regis  in  castro  de  Winde- 
sore,  vj.  li.  vj.  d.  ob."— Rot.  Pip.  20  Hen.  III.  q  Chapter  V.  passim. 







seen  ding-trap  {trap a  descendens)  that  Henry  the  Third 
passed  from  his  chamber  to  his  chapel  or  oratory  at  Cla- 
rendon1"; he  ordered  it  to  be  removed  and  a  spiral  stair 
(vicia;  vis,  Er.)  to  be  constructed  at  one  angle  instead :  on 
the  other  hand  the  only  communication  between  his  chamber 
and  the  chapel  above  it  in  Rochester  castle  being  by  an 
internal  stair,  the  king  ordered  an  outer  stair  to  be  con- 
structed that  he  might  not  be  inconvenienced  by  people  on 
their  way  to  chapel  passing  through  his  chamber3. 

As  regards  the  internal  decorations  and  fittings  of  or- 
dinary houses  in  the  thirteenth  century  we  have  scarcely 
any  information,  but  the  records  of  the  time  of  Henry  the 
Third  yield  the  fullest  and  most  interesting  details  with 
respect  to  the  interior  ornamentation  of  royal  castles  and 
manor-houses  that  can  be  desired. 

Necham,  writing  at  the  end  of  the  twelfth  century,  no- 
ticed, as  may  be  remembered4,  the  practice  of  smoothing 
and  polishing  the  internal  surface  of  walls  by  the  mason's 
trowel,  and  alluded  likewise  to  painting  as  a  means  of  de- 
coration ;  but  there  was  another  method  of  ornamenting, 
and  of  adding  at  the  same  time  to  the  comfort,  of  rooms, 
which,  although  it  appears  to  have  been  unknown  in  his 
time,  came  into  use  during  the  thirteenth  century ;  viz.  the 
fashion  of  wainscoting  rooms.  There  might  possibly  be 
some  doubt  as  to  the  exact  meaning  of  the  word  employed 
in  medieval  Latin  {lambruscaturd)  to  indicate  this  process, 
but  that  there  exists  ample  secondary  evidence  of  the  true 
signification  of  the  term.  When  we  find  numerous  orders 
for  the  purchase  of  boards  for  wainscoting  chambers,  it  is 
clear  that  it  could  not  have  implied  an  internal  lining  of 
plaster,  or  similar  material11. 

r  Liberate,  28  Hen.  III. 
8  Liberate,  Hen.  III. 
1  See  p.  15,  ante. 

u  Tbe  Fr.  word  lamhris  from  which  it 
is  derived  does  indeed  mean  an  internal 
lining  of  marble,  wood,  or  other  material ; 


There  is  no  evidence  to  shew  that  wainscoting  was  com- 
monly used  during  this  century,  probably  it  was  not ;  but 
as  it  was  generally  applied  to  the  royal  chambers  and 
chapels,  it  may  have  been  also  employed  in  the  domestic 
buildings  of  the  larger  and  wealthier  monasteries.  The 
wood  ordinarily  selected  was  fir,  possibly  because  it  was 
cheaper  and  more  easily  worked  than  oak ;  Norway  planks 
were  largely  imported  into  this  country  from  an  early 
period  of  the  century,  and,  perhaps,  although  it  is  not  quite 
so  clear,  at  a  still  earlier  time. 

Some  attempts  at  ornamental  patterns  in  wainscote  seem 
to  have  been  made  during  the  time  of  Henry  the  Third.  In 
the  twenty-first  year  of  his  reign  he  ordered  his  clerks  of 
the  works  at  Windsor  to  work  day  and  night  to  wainscote 
a  chamber  in  Windsor  castle  "  with  boards  radiated  and 
coloured,  so  that  nothing  might  be  found  reprehensible  in 
that  wainscotex  they  were  allowed  only  two  clear  days 
to  complete  the  work ;  this,  however,  is  the  only  instance 
of  the  kind  that  has  been  yet  discovered.  The  more  ordi- 
nary custom  was  to  paint  the  wainscoting  with  patterns  or 
subjects  taken  from  sacred  or  profane  story. 

From  the  allusion  by  Necham  to  painting  it  appears  suf- 
ficiently probable  that  some  kind  of  polychromatic  decora- 
ration  was  not  uncommon  in  England  as  early  as  the  close 
of  the  twelfth  century.  Indeed  it  would  be  strange  if  an 
art  extensively  practised  on  the  continent  about  the  year 
1200  had  not  been  soon  adopted  in  this  country,  especially 
by  a  prince  so  lavish  in  his  patronage  of  the  fine  arts  as 

but  that  only  in  its  modern  sense.  It 
has  been  supposed  that  "  lambruscare," 
signified  "  to  plaster,"  and  it  has  been 
often  so  translated.  See  the  last  French 
ed.  of  Du  Cange,  s.  v.  In  the  37th  Hen. 
III.  one  thousand  Norway  boards  were 
purchased  to  wainscote  certain  rooms  in 
Windsor  castle.    Liberate  37  Hen.  111. 

On  the  Liberate  Roll  26  Hen.  III.  m.  4, 
is  an  order  to  pay  William  Beufiz  51  s. 
6d.,  "pro  lambriscura  quam  fieri  fecit  in 
camera  navis  nostre  in  qua  transfretavi- 

x  See  the  order  under  Close  Roll  21 
Hen.  III.  in  Chapter  V. 



was  Henry  the  Third ;  whose  court  was  always  thronged 
with  Italian  priests  and  Italian  money-lenders.  As  soon  as 
the  Florentine  bankers,  the  ancestors  of  the  Medici  and 
Frescobaldi,  established  themselves  here  they  were  followed 
by  some  Italian  artists,  of  whom  William  the  Florentine 
was  the  most  distinguished.  If,  as  it  has  been  stated 
by  eminent  authorities,  a  predominant  green  tint  was  the 
characteristic  of  the  Greek,  or  Byzantine,  school  of  art, 
the  principles  of  which,  in  the  thirteenth  century,  were  in 
fashion  at  Florence;  then  may  be  it  was  owing  to  the 
taste  of  Master  William  that  almost  all  the  chambers  of 
Henry  the  Third  were  painted  of  a  green  colour,  scintil- 
lated or  starred  with  gold,  on  which  ground  subjects  were 
sometimes  painted  in  compartments  or  circles ;  as  the 
history  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament,  passages  from  the 
lives  of  the  saints,  figures  of  the  Evangelists,  and  occa- 
sionally scenes  taken  from  the  favourite  romances  of  the 
times.  Of  the  style  of  the  decoration  of  apartments  in 
which  the  history  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament  was 
painted  in  circles,  on  a  green  ground7,  starred  with  gold, 
some  idea  may  be  formed  by  an  examination  of  a  fine 
manuscript  of  the  Bible  of  this  date,  one  portion  of  which 
is  preserved  in  the  Bodleian  Library  and  another  in  the 
British  Museum ;  it  is  ornamented  with  circular  miniatures 
arranged  perpendicularly  on  blue  and  red  grounds z. 

In  opposition,  however,  to  the  generally  received  opinion 
that  all  pictorial,  and  it  may  be  said  sculptural  art,  as 
practised  in  this  country  during  the  period  under  con- 
sideration, was  of  Italian  origin,  it  should  be  remembered 
that  the  Greek  school  was  the  only  school  of  art  from  the 
eleventh  to  the  middle  of  the  thirteenth  century.  Its 

y  Green  was  the  favourite  tint  in  all      England  and  France  ;  a  faint  wash  only 
the  decorations  of  MSS.  executed  in  the     was  used, 
eleventh  and  twelfth  centuries  both  in         z  MS.  Harl.  1527. 


conventional  principles  had  an  influence  quite  as  early  on 
the  English,  French,  and  German,  as  on  the  Italian  taste. 
As  regards  England,  our  first  Plantagenet  sovereign,  Henry 
the  Second,  maintained  a  somewhat  close  intercourse  with 
the  capital  of  the  east  of  Europe,  and  even  with  the  Chris- 
tian princes  of  Armenia,  to  whom  he  sent  English  hounds 
in  return  for  presents  of  hunting  leopards ;  therefore  so  far 
as  the  Greek  type  is  concerned  we  had  it  doubtless  in 
common  with,  and  as  soon  as  any  other  nation  of  Europe ; 
and  it  was  not  first  introduced  by  the  Italian  artists  em- 
ployed by  Henry  the  Third ;  they  may  have  had  greater 
manipulative  skill,  probably  they  had,  but  still  there  was  a 
race  of  native  painters  who  answered  general  exigencies. 
Otherwise,  it  is  impossible  the  works  ordered  by  Henry 
at  his  residences  in  various  counties  could  have  been  carried 
on  at  one  and  the  same  time,  if  his  sheriffs  and  bailiffs,  to 
whom  the  execution  of  those  works  was  entrusted,  were  not 
able  to  obtain  such  artistic  aid  as  they  required  in  their 
respective  bailiwicks,  or  not  far  beyond  them ;  an  examina- 
tion of  the  authorities  in  Chapter  V.  will  prove  that  the 
king's  officers  had  often  short  time  allowed  them  for  the 
performance  of  the  royal  directions.  The  following  ob- 
servations written  by  the  author,  some  years  ago,  illustrate 
this  point  more  fully;  as  they  appeared  in  a  work  pri- 
vately printed z,  and  therefore  not  generally  accessible,  their 
reproduction  on  the  present  occasion  may  be  excused. 

On  examining  the  records  of  the  time  of  Henry  the 
Third,  we  find  but  two  artists  bearing  names  which  are 
certainly  foreign ;  John  of  St.  Omer,  and  Master  William 
the  Elorentine,  both  painters ;  the  latter  was  also  an  archi- 
tect, as  he  filled  the  post  of  master  of  the  works  at  Guild- 

z  "  Manners  and  Household  Expenses 
of  England  in  the  thirteenth  and  fifteenth 
centuries,"  4to.  1841 ;  presented  to  the 

Roxburgh  club  by  Beriah  Botfield,  Esq. 
Introduction,  pp.  lxxvii.-viii. 



ford.  To  these  instances  may  be  opposed  a  number  of 
names  undoubtedly  English.  The  architects  of  Westminster 
abbey  were  Otho  the  goldsmith,  and  Edward  his  son,  who 
went  by  the  names  of  Eitz-Otho,  and  Edward  of  West- 
minster. Walpole  supposed,  from  his  name,  that  Otho 
was  an  Italian ;  he  was  more  probably  a  German.  It  is 
believed,  however,  that  Otho  was  an  Englishman  by  birth, 
if  not  by  descent.  He  was  a  goldsmith,  and  in  those 
times,  and  in  that  particular  craft,  the  son  generally  suc- 
ceeded to  the  father.  Henry  the  Second  appointed  Otho 
the  Young,  or  le  Jeune,  to  make  dies  for  the  royal  minta,  and 
it  is  no  great  stretch  of  probability  to  suppose,  that  Otho, 
the  goldsmith  of  Henry  the  Third,  who  had  a  son  old 
enough  to  assist  him  in  building  the  abbey,  might  himself 
have  been  the  son  of  Otho  le  J eune,  the  money er  of  Henry 
the  Second.  To  proceed  with  the  list :  John  of  Glou- 
cester, a  mason  and  statuary ;  William  the  monk  of  West- 
minster, who  painted  the  "  gestes"  of  Antioch  for  Henry 
the  Third,  and  whom  Walpole  conjectured,  without  any 
reason,  to  have  been  the  person  elsewhere  called  William 
the  Florentine ;  Master  Walter  the  king's  painter ;  William 
of  Gloucester,  the  goldsmith  who  cast  the  brass  figure  for 
the  tomb  of  Catharine,  the  infant  daughter  of  Henry  the 
Third,  which  is  believed  to  have  been  the  first  of  the 
kind  done  in  England b ;  and  Walter  of  Colchester,  sa- 
cristan of  St.  Alban's,  whom  Matthew  Paris,  himself  a 
tolerable  draftsman,  terms  "  pictor  et  sculptor  incompara- 
bilisc,"  were  all  Englishmen,  and  generally  employed  by 

*  This  fact  is  recited  in  Pat.  47  Edw.  neos  Regis."     Rot.  Pip.  18  Edw.  I. 

III.  pt.  ii.  m.  15.   The  office  was  granted  Comp.  de  Exit.  Camb.  London, 

in  fee,  and  in  the  18th  of  Edward  I.  was  b  Gough's    Sepulchral  Monuments, 

held  by  John  Buteturte,  who  married  the  vol.  i.  pt.  i.  p.  50. 

daughter  and  heiress  of  Thomas  Fitz-  0  Vitse  Abb.  S.  Albani,  pp.  1054-6. 
Otho,  u  cujus  est  de  feodo  scindere  cu- 



Henry;  doubtless  many  more  names  might  be  found  on 
stricter  search. 

In  the  face  of  such  evidence  to  the  contrary,  it  is  im- 
possible to  attribute  much  influence  on  art  to  the  few 
Italians  who  may  have  painted  in  England  during  the  thir- 
teenth century,  more  especially  as  it  is  admitted  they  were 
themselves  trammeled  at  that  period  by  the  principles  of 
the  Byzantine  manner.  Our  native  artists  were  generally 
employed,  and  though  they  doubtless  worked  from  con- 
ventional models,  the  origin  of  which  is  to  be  traced  to 
the  Greek  school d,  their  foreign  rivals  were,  in  that  respect, 
in  no  degree  superior  to  them,  inasmuch  as  it  will  scarcely 
be  contended  that  the  Italians  acquired  any  peculiarly 
original  style  until  towards  the  year  1300.  But  enough 
perhaps  has  been  said  on  this  subject  for  the  present. 

The  wainscoting  ordered  by  Henry  the  Third  in  his 
precepts  relating  to  the  subject  was  always  painted,  and 
generally,  as  already  remarked,  of  a  green  colour,  very 
frequently  starred  with  gold,  but  sometimes  plain,  with 
borders  (listce)  of  a  different  pattern  ;  for  example,  in  his 
thirtieth  year  he  ordered  the  wainscote  of  his  lower 
chamber  at  Clarendon  to  be  painted  green,  with  borders 
containing  male  and  female  heads,  and  his  upper  chamber 
there  to  be  painted  of  the  same  colour,  but  scintillated  with 
gold,  on  which  again  male  and  female  heads  were  to  be 
depicted6.  The  style  of  wainscote  employed  does  not  ap- 
pear to  have  entirely  covered  the  walls,  as  subjects  were 
frequently  painted  above  it ;  often  a  "  curtain,"  or  some 
"  history ;"  and  it  was  probably  not  carried  higher  than 
five  or  six  feet,  as  was  the  fashion  in  much  later  times. 
The  chancels  of  the  royal  chapels  were  also  wainscoted 
in  many  instances,  and  the  space  occupied  by  the  dais  in 

d  See  Introd.,  p.  xv.  e  Liberate,  30  Hen.  III.  June  27.  See  Chapter  V. 



the  great  halls.  As  the  subjects  selected  by  Henry  for 
the  pictorial  decoration  of  his  apartments  are  so  fully  de- 
scribed in  his  original  precepts,  collected  and  translated 
in  a  succeeding  chapter,  and  they  tell  their  own  story  so 
well,  it  is  unnecessary  in  this  place  to  enter  into  any  fur- 
ther particulars  concerning  them. 

There  was  another  feature  of  the  internal  decoration  of 
the  royal  apartments  at  this  time,  which  requires  a  note, 
and  that  was  the  construction  of  a  wooden  spurf  on  the 
inner  side  of  a  door,  and  sometimes  against  the  wall  of  a 
chamber ;  in  the  latter  case  it  may  have  been  intended 
as  a  sort  of  a  canopy  over  the  principal  seat,  and  when 
over  the  doorway  it  was  probably  designed  to  carry  dra- 
pery, to  protect  the  room  from  draughts :  it  must  be 
confessed,  however,  that  the  real  destination  of  this  sort 
of  structure  is  unknown.  The  term  spur  is  now  applied 
to  the  carved  timber-work  of  the  doorways  of  ancient 
houses  supporting  projecting  upper  stories ;  of  which  there 
are  some  fine  examples,  of  the  fourteenth  century,  in  York, 
and  other  old  towns. 

Wooden  screens  (escrinia)  on  the  inner  side  of  doors, 
both  in  halls  and  chambers,  were  in  use  in  the  latter  part 
of  Henry's  reign. 

The  decoration  of  apartments  by  painting  was  not  con- 
fined only  to  subjects  and  patterns ;  wooden  and  stone 
piers  and  arches  were  painted  to  imitate  marble,  as  were 
those  of  the  halls  at  Guildford  and  Ludgershall 6 ;  and  the 
same  pattern,  green  and  gold,  employed  on  the  wainscote, 
was  frequently  applied  to  the  ceilings  of  rooms ;  which 
were  sometimes  also  decorated  with  historical  subjects,  and 
with  gilded  bosses. 

It  does  not  appear  that  hangings  or  tapestry  of  any 
description  were  employed  to  ornament,  or  add  to  the 

Sporum,  esperun.    See  Glossary  of  Architecture,  v.  Spur.        g  See  Chap.  V. 


comfort  of  rooms  in  the  time  of  Henry  the  Third  ;  at  least 
the  writer  has  sought  in  vain  for  mention  of  such  a  mode 
of  decoration.  Fine  cloths  and  tapestries  were  used  in 
abundance  to  deck  churches  on  solemn  festivals,  and  also 
to  set  off  the  exterior  of  houses  on  great  occasions,  when 
the  streets  are  described  by  the  old  writers  to  have  been 
well  curtained  {bene  cortinat^) ;  but  they  do  not  seem  to 
have  been  applied,  at  least  generally,  to  private  rooms ; 
except,  perhaps,  over  doorways,  when  curtains  of  ordi- 
nary material  were  used. 

It  is  a  matter  of  question  whether  the  "  arras"  so  often 
spoken  of  as  employed  for  hangings,  was  an  article  manu- 
factured in  the  thirteenth  century ;  but  more  will  be  said 
on  this  subject  when  we  come  to  speak  of  furniture. 

The  flooring  of  rooms  on  the  ground  story  was  sometimes 
boarded,  but  there  is  little  doubt  it  was  in  general  nothing 
more  than  the  natural  soil  well  rammed  down,  over  which 
litter  was  strewn.  There  is  a  writ  of  Henry  the  Third 
ordering  a  room  on  the  ground-floor  in  Windsor  castle  to 
be  "  boarded  like  a  ship."  Upper  rooms  were  in  general 
floored  with  wood.  It  was  not  until  the  middle  of  the 
reign  of  Henry  the  Third  that  paving  tiles  seem  to  have 
been  applied  to  domestic  buildings ;  and  even  then  they  do 
not  appear  to  have  been  of  a  decorated  character;  apart- 
ments in  the  royal  manor-houses  are  directed  to  be  paved 
with  flat-tile  {plana  teguld).  Towards  the  close  of  this 
reign  ornamental  tiles  are  first  mentioned  {tegulce  pictcz), 
but  they  were  not  extensively  used.  That  large  halls  were 
not  generally  provided  with  wooden  floors,  except  at  the 
dais,  is  sufficiently  clear  from  an  expression  which  some- 
times occurs  that  "the  tables  were  fixed  in  the  ground." 

h  As  on  the  occasion  of  the  entry  into  nobilissime  aturnata  et  acurtinata."  Li- 
London  of  Prince  Edward  and  his  con-  ber  de  Antiquis  Legibus,  p.  22.  The 
sort  Eleanor  of  Castile,  in  1255,  when  a  legal  reader  will  at  once  understand  the 
chronicler  says,  "  civitate  Londoniarum  meaning  of  "  aturnata." 



The  space  below  the  dais  was  sometimes  called  the 
"marsh"  of  the  hall1;  and  it  was,  doubtless,  often  damp 
and  dirty  enough  to  deserve  the  name.  An  idea  of  its 
condition,  even  in  a  royal  residence,  may  be  gathered  from 
an  order  to  widen  the  doorway  of  the  hall  at  Win- 
chester to  admit  the  entrance  of  carts.  On  all  points, 
however,  relating  to  the  internal  finish  of  ordinary  do- 
mestic habitations,  it  must  be  confessed  we  are  quite  in 
the  dark  ;  the  only  positive  information  now  accessible 
relating  exclusively  to  the  royal  dwellings ;  but  if,  as 
is  most  certain,  wainscoting  and  wooden  floors  were  com- 
monly used  in  them,  it  is  an  obvious  inference  that  such 
conveniencies  must  have  been  within  the  reach  of  the 
wealthier  classes  of  the  community. 

At  the  close  of  this  century  we  find  a  novel  appendage 
to  some  of  the  king's  houses,  viz.  baths.  Edward  the  First 
probably  brought  the  idea  of  them  from  the  East,  or  they 
were  a  luxury  which  might  have  been  introduced,  among 
other  novelties,  by  his  Castilian  consort.  There  were 
baths  at  Ledes  castle  in  Kentk,  and  at  the  royal  manor  of 
Geddington  in  Northamptonshire. 

In  concluding  these  notices  of  the  various  parts  and 
fittings  of  houses  during  this  period,  it  is  worthy  of  re- 
mark that  camera  private,  or  privy  chambers,  appear  to 
have  had  much  attention  paid  to  their  construction.  We 
have  seen1  that  they  were  a  subject  of  public  care  in  the 
preceding  century  j  and  it  is  agreeable  to  think  that  consi- 
derations of  comfort  and  decency  were  equally  regarded, 
and  indeed  more  so,  in  the  times  of  Henry  the  Third,  and 
his  son  and  successor.  It  was  during  Henry's  reign  also 
that  perhaps  the  first  attempt  at  underground  drainage  was 

"  Et  in  marisco  in  aula  j.  tabula  cum 
trestellis,  precii  xij.  d."  Rot.  de  terris 
Templariorum  (1.)  A.D.  1308-9. 

k  Accounts  of  the  executors  of  Elea- 

nor of  Castile ;  p.  97.    Baths  are  men- 
tioned in  the  household  roll  of  the  coun- 
tess of  Leicester,  p.  8. 
1  See  p.  27,  ante. 


made.  The  refuse  and  dirty  water  from  the  royal  kitchens 
had  long  been  carried  through  the  great  hall  at  West- 
minster, until,  according  to  the  language  of  the  king's 
writ,  the  foul  odours  arising  therefrom,  seriously  affected 
the  health  of  persons  congregating  at  court ;  to  remedy 
this  evil,  a  subterranean  conduit  was  devised,  which  con- 
veyed these  offensive  matters  into  the  Thames™.  Indeed 
if  a  complete  collection  were  made  of  all  the  sanitary  regu- 
lations and  provisions  issued  in  the  times  of  Henry  and 
Edward  the  First,  it  would  be  found  that  we  have  not 
made  any  great  advance  on  the  notions  then  prevalent 
respecting  public  nuisances. 

It  was  in  the  thirteenth  century  that  a  conduit  of  water 
was  first  established  in  London  ;  the  earliest  was  probably 
made  by  the  monks  of  Westminster,  and  the  precincts 
of  the  abbey  are  to  this  day  supplied  from  the  original 
sources.  The  next  was  constructed  by  the  citizens  of 
London.  Henry  had  water  conveyed,  under  ground,  to  his 
palace  at  Westminster,  especially  to  his  lavatory ;  his  con- 
duit may  have  communicated  with  that  of  the  monks.  The 
king  granted  as  an  especial  favour  to  Edward  Fitz-Otho, 
architect  of  the  abbey,  who  had  lodgings  in  the  palace  at 
Westminster,  that  he  might  have  a  pipe,  of  the  size  of 
a  quill,  to  convey  water  from  the  royal  conduit  to  his  own 
quarters.  Before,  and  after,  the  establishment  of  a  con- 
duit, water  was  hawked  about  the  streets  of  London,  as  it 
still  is,  in  some  suburban  districts,  by  "  water-carriers/ ' 
(aqua-portarii,)  who  appear  to  have  formed  a  considerable 
body  in  the  twelfth  century  ;  their  names  frequently  occur 
as  witnesses  of  deeds  in  the  thirteenth.  The  ordinary  re- 
sources of  the  citizens,  when  distant  from  the  river,  were 
wells.  The  few  Coroner's  Rolls  of  this  date  remaining  in 
the  possession  of  the  corporation  of  London,  shew  that 

m  See  the  document  in  Chapter  V. 



many  fatal  accidents  happened  in  attempting  to  cleanse 

Little  can  be  said  of  houses  in  towns  during  this 
century,  beyond  what  has  been  observed  at  the  end  of 
Chapter  I.  No  examples  are  known  to  remain  in  England 
to  assist  us  in  forming  an  opinion  of  their  character  n ;  but  it 
may  be  confidently  affirmed,  on  the  authority  of  many  con- 
temporary conveyances  and  agreements,  relating  to  house- 
property  in  London,  that  they  continued  to  bear  the  same 
features  which  distinguished  them  in  the  twelfth  century. 
That  they  were  still  of  low  elevation,  seldom,  if  ever, 
exceeding  two  stories,  including  the  basement,  is  clear  from 
the  words  of  Matthew  Paris,  who  describing  the  visit  of 
Henry  the  Third  to  Paris,  in  1254,  says  : 

"  And  when  the  Lord  King  of  England  had  passed 
through  the  street  which  is  named  La  Greve,  and  afterwards 
the  street  towards  St.  Germain  Antin,  and  then  the  great 
bridge,  he  observed  the  beauty  of  the  houses  which  are 
built  of  gypsum,  or  plaster,  in  the  city  of  Paris,  and  houses 
containing  three  chambers,  and  some  even  of  four  stories  or 
more,  from  the  windows  of  which  stretched  forth  a  count- 
less multitude  of  people  of  both  sexes0." 

From  this  it  is  apparent  that  Henry  admired  features 
in  the  street  architecture  of  Paris  which  were  wanting  in 
his  own  capital.  No  deeds  of  the  time  that  have  as  yet 
fallen  under  the  writer's  notice,  indicate  houses  of  a  greater 

n  There  is  a  fragment  of  a  house  of 
this  date  in  Newgate,  York,  which  will 
be  noticed  hereafter.  An  engraving  of  it 
is  given  among  the  illustrations. 

M.  Paris,  p.  900,  ed.  1640.  Cham- 
bres  d'estage,  {camera  ad  estagiam,)  it  is 
presumed,  must  be  understood  ;  that  is, 
houses  of  several  stories.  The  sense  of  the 
passage,  however,  will  be  best  under- 
stood by  quoting  the  language  of  the 
writer: — "Et  cum  pertransisset  domi- 

nus  Rex  Anglice  vicum,  qui  dicitur 
Greva,  et  postea  vicum  versus  S.  Ger- 
manum  Antissiodorensem,  postea  mag- 
num pontem,  consideravit  elegantiam 
domorum,  qua3  de  gipso,  videlicet  pla- 
stro,  hunt  in  civitate  Parisiaca,  et  man- 
si  ones  tricameratas,  et  quatuor  etiam 
stationum,  vel  amplius,  a  quorum  fe- 
nestris  projacebat  utriusque  sexus  ho- 
minum  infinita  multitudo." 


elevation  than  two  stories ;  shops  were  mere  covered  sheds 
projecting  in  front  of  the  dwellings1*,  though  sometimes 
there  were  solars  above  the  shops.  The  inferiority  of 
London  at  this  period  in  street  architecture  to  Paris,  and 
other  continental  towns,  is,  perhaps,  attributable  to  the 
fact  that  ground  was  more  valuable  in  foreign  cities ; 
where,  in  order  to  find  accommodation  for  the  inhabitants 
within  the  strictly  fortified  enceinte,  it  became  absolutely 
necessary  to  carry  houses  to  the  height  of  three  or  more 
stories ;  examples  of  several  of  this  date  are  yet  to  be 
seen  at  Cologne,  Coblentz,  Treves,  Nuremberg,  and  Ratis- 
bon.  On  the  other  hand,  we  have  no  proof  that  all  foreign 
street  architecture  was  on  an  equally  large  scale  with  the 
remains  alluded  to ;  indeed  the  probability  is  that  it  was 
not,  and  that  the  poorer  orders  in  continental  towns  were 
lodged  in  tenements  fully  as  humble  as  any  that  were  to 
be  found  in  London  at  the  same  time.  London,  however, 
in  the  thirteenth  century,  had  one  decided  superiority  over 
most  foreign  towns,  and  especially  over  Paris ;  its  streets 
were  partially  supplied  with  foot-pavements.  The  ordi- 
nances regulating  the  paviours  of  London  date  as  early  as 
the  time  of  Edward  the  First,  and  fix  the  prices  per  yard 
at  which  their  work  was  to  be  executed ;  and  not  many 
years  elapsed  before  it  was  rendered  compulsory  on  every 
householder  to  pave  the  space  before  his  own  door,  even 
as  far  as  Westminster. 

We  may  now  proceed  to  make  a  few  observations  on  the 
furniture  of  houses  during  the  period  under  consideration. 

The  furniture  of  a  hall  was  limited  to  tables,  either  fixed, 
or  dormant,  as  they  were  termed,  or  resting  on  trestles ; 

p  Thus  in  1236  the  executors  of  the 
will  of  a  citizen  of  London  demise  "  two 
shops  which  are  in  front  of  the  stone 
house  *  *  *  together  with  the  cellar 
under  the  same  stone  house  *  *  *  with 

the  free  light  of  the  same  cellar,  to- 
wards the  south,  through  the  iron-harred 
window,  without  any  obstruction  or  hin- 
derance  of  light." — Box  D.  London 
deeds.  Chapter  House,  Westm. 





BED  IN  A  'J  isiN  r. 
MS.  ARCH    A.  154.  BODL. 

MS  ARCH.  A.  154   BODL.  MS    CANONICI  BIBL.  LAT.  62. 



those  of  the  latter  description  being  removed  when  not 
in  use ;  hence  the  phrase,  <£  to  take  up  the  borde's  end," 
which  continued  in  use  until  a  comparatively  late  date. 

In  these  early  times  there  were  no  "  emporiums"  of  fur- 
niture ;  every  article  needed  was  made  on  the  spot  by  a 
carpenter.  Among  the  accounts  relative  to  the  king's  hall 
at  Portsmouth,  in  the  time  of  Richard  the  First,  are  pay- 
ments to  carpenters  for  sawing  trunks  of  trees,  and  shaping 
the  planks  into  tables p.  Sixty  years  later  no  improvement 
had  taken  place  in  the  mode  of  furnishing  the  royal  houses. 
In  1249  Henry  the  Third  sent  a  writ  to  one  of  his  bailiffs 
directing  him  to  obtain,  by  gift,  or  purchase,  a  great  beech 
tree,  to  be  converted  into  tables  for  the  king's  kitchens, 
at  Westminster,  against  Easter-tide.  It  was  to  be  sent 
immediately  by  water  to  London  q. 

The  seats  provided  were  benches  or  forms.  In  royal  halls 
the  king's  seat  {solium  regale)  was  often  of  stone,  elaborately 
decorated  with  painting  and  gilding,  and  was  in  the  centre 
of  a  stone  bench  which  extended  from  one  side  of  the  dais 
to  the  other ;  but  besides  this  seat  the  king  sometimes  had 
one  at  the  high  table,  which  would  appear  to  have  been 
moveable r,  though  that  is  not  quite  clear ;  beyond  these 
appliances  the  hall  seems  to  have  been  destitute  of  other 

In  the  writs  of  the  time  of  Henry  the  Third  ordering 
furniture  for  his  private  apartments,  we  find  that  forms, 
chairs,  and  tables  are  named ;  the  chairs  seem  in  gene- 
ral to  have  been  fixtures  ;  though  one  instance  occurs  of  a 
moveable  chair  being  mentioned  {cathedra  mobilis).  The 
forms  are  directed  to  be  placed  around  the  rooms.  It 
would  seem  from  these  documents  that  in  their  respective 
apartments  the  king  and  queen  sat  in  great  state  and  stiff- 

p  Rot  Pip.,  5  Ric.  I.  i  Liberate  Roll,  36  Hen.  III.    See  Chap.  V. 

*  Liberate,  34  Hen.  III.  in  Chapter  V. 



ness  with  their  attendants  arranged  on  low  benches.  One 
moveable  chair  of  the  latter  end  of  this  century  has  been 
preserved,  viz.  that  called  the  coronation  chair  in  West- 
minster abbey.  It  is  elaborately  carved  with  an  architec- 
tural design,  and  is  supported  on  four  lions,  which  seem 
to  be  late  additions.  The  panels  of  this  seat  were  once 
lined  with  a  ground  of  gypsum,  diapered  and  gilded, 
traces  of  which  are  still  discernible ;  an  engraving  of  it  is 
given  among  the  illustrations  of  this  volume. 

Carpets  were  first  introduced  into  England  in  this  cen- 
tury by  Eleanor  of  Castile  and  the  Spanish  ambassadors 
who  preceded  her  arrival.  Matthew  Paris  narrates  the  in- 
dignation of  the  Londoners  at  seeing  the  youthful  arch- 
bishop-elect of  Toledo  riding  in  state,  wearing  a  ring  on 
his  thumb,  and  bestowing  his  benediction  on  the  people ; 
"  they  remarked  that  the  manners  (of  the  Spaniards)  were 
utterly  at  variance  with  English  customs  and  habits ;  that 
while  the  walls  of  their  lodgings  in  the  Temple  were  hung 
with  silk  and  tapestry,  and  the  very  floors  covered  with 
costly  carpets,  their  retinue  was  vulgar  and  disorderly ; 
that  they  had  few  horses  and  many  mules s."  Again,  wrhen 
Eleanor  arrived  at  Westminster  she  found  her  apart ments 
adorned,  through  the  care  of  the  ambassadors  who  had 
preceded  her,  with  costly  hangings,  like  a  churchy  and  car- 
peted,  after  the  Spanish  fashion1. 

It  does  not  appear,  however,  that  carpets  were  generally 
used  even  in  royal  houses  before  the  fourteenth  century.  It 
should  be  remarked  that  some  sort  of  carpet- stuff  or  tapestry 
was  made  in  England  before  this  time ;  the  carpets  (tapetce)  of 
Ramsey  in  Huntingdonshire  were  long  in  request,  but  only, 
it  is  believed,  as  decorations  for  churches.  This  brings  us 
to  the  question — were  hangings  used  in  rooms  at  this  date  ? 
It  is  probable  they  were  not ;  at  least  no  evidence  of  the 

8  M.  Paris,  p.  782.  '  Ibid.,  p.  783. 






fact  is  to  be  gleaned  from  contemporary  records.  It  has 
been  much  the  fashion  to  talk  and  write  of  figured  "  arras" 
as  having  been  employed  at  an  early  time  for  the  decoration 
of  rooms ;  that  some  sort  of  drapery  was  used  even  in  the 
twelfth  century  we  know  from  the  allusion  of  Necham,  but 
it  was,  probably,  only  over  doorways,  or  for  the  purpose  of 
dividing  one  part  of  a  chamber  from  another;  it  seems 
very  improbable  that  both  wainscoting  and  tapestry  should 
have  been  combined.  At  all  events  they  are  decidedly  in 
error  who  suppose  that  "  arras,"  in  the  modern  acceptation 
of  the  term,  was  even  known  at  so  early  a  period.  The 
elaborately  wrought  tapestries  of  that  place  were  not  made 
until  the  fourteenth  century,  although  its  looms  were  famous 
for  the  production  of  cloths  fitted  for  wearing-apparel  and 
church  vestments  at  least  two  centuries  before.  The  most 
elaborate  embroideries  of  the  time  of  Henry  the  Third  were 
all  executed  by  the  needle,  and  it  does  not  appear  that  he 
ever  commanded  the  execution  of  any  such  works  except 
for  the  hangings  of  churches,  the  decoration  of  altars  and 
tombs,  and  for  sacerdotal  vestments.  For  these  purposes 
he  chiefly  employed  one  person,  a  certain  Mabel  of  Bury 
St.  Edmund's,  whose  skill  as  an  embroideress  seems  to 
have  been  remarkable,  and  many  interesting  records  of  her 
curious  performances  might  be  collected.  If  tapestry  or 
embroidered  cloths  were  ever  used  for  hangings  it  was 
probably  only  at  the  back  of  the  dais,  or  for  "  dorsers," 
as  they  were  called ;  but  even  this  is  very  doubtful,  as  we 
find  that  that  part  of  the  hall  was  generally  wainscoted 
and  painted. 

The  term  bed-chamber  is  not  often  used  in  the  precepts 
of  Henry  the  Third;  but  it  does  occur  sometimes.  As 
before  remarked  a  portion  of  the  private,  or  demesne 
chamber,  seems  to  have  been  partitioned  off  by  wains- 
coting, or  a  lath  and  plaster  wall,  for  the  reception  of 


the  bed :  the  wall  at  the  head  and  sides  of  the  bed  was 
usually  wainscoted.  Of  the  character  of  the  bed  itself  not 
much  is  known,  except  that  the  tester  {testier)  was  cer- 
tainly in  use  during  this  century ;  as  the  name  implies 
it  was  provided  with  a  canopy  for  the  protection  of  the 
head ;  the  substruction  on  which  the  mattress  lay  was  pro- 
bably little  more  than  a  bench". 

The  mattresses  of  this  period  were  often  of  a  very  ela- 
borate character;  covered  with  rich  stuffs  and  quilted. 
It  is  satisfactory  to  us  to  know,  not  for  the  importance 
of  the  fact  itself,  but  as  shewing  how  carefully  our  national 
records  have  been  preserved,  that  the  upholsterer,  or  mercer, 
who  made  mattresses  "becoming  a  king/'  for  Henry  the 
Third,  was  one  William  Joymer,  who  served  the  office  of 
Sheriff  of  London  in  1222  and  that  of  Mayor  in  1239x: 
he  was  directed  to  cover  the  king's  mattresses  with  silk, 
velvet,  and  other  costly  and  fitting  materials5".  Pillows 
(culcitra)  and  bolsters2  were  equally  rich  in  character. 

The  use  of  linen  sheets  (lint/ieamina)  was  common ;  as 
also  that  of  the  counterpane  {courtepointe) .  The  use  of 
sheets,  indeed,  was  not  peculiar  to  the  wealthy :  in  the  in- 
ventory of  the  effects  of  a  small  farmer  made  in  the  year 
1293  we  find  that  he  died  possessed  of  a  bolster  worth  2d. 
and  a  rug  and  two  sheets  value  10^.  The  curious  reader 
may  be  referred  to  the  assessment  of  a  1 5th  of  the  moveable 
goods  of  the  inhabitants  of  Colchester,  in  the  29th  of  Ed- 
ward the  First,  as  affording  proof  of  the  comparative 
abundance  of  linen  among  the  middling  and  lower  classes 
at  this  timea.  "While  on  the  subject  of  linen  it  may  be  re- 
marked that  enormous  quantities  of  it  were  used  in  this 
century  for  the  royal  "napery."    It  seems  to  have  been 

u  "Bancus  ad  lectum  Regis."  See 
Chap.  V. 

*  Liber  de  Antiquis  Legibus,  pp.  5 — 7. 

y  Liberate,  10  Hen.  III. 

z  Known  then  by  the  same  name. 

a  Rolls  of  Parliament,  vol.  i.  p.  243. 



manufactured  chiefly  in  the  south-western  counties.  Thus 
in  the  eleventh  year  of  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Third  the 
bailiffs  of  Wilton  were  ordered  to  purchase,  for  the  king's 
use,  five  hundred  ells  of  fine  linen  for  table-cloths,  and  the 
like  quantity  of  a  coarser  description  for  the  same  purpose, 
it  appears  that  they  bought  only  eight  hundred  ells,  which 
cost  £12.  bs.  lOd. ;  and  the  expense  of  conveying  it  to 
London  was  3s.  4>d. b  From  the  large  quantities  of  linen 
used  in  this  way  it  seems  more  than  probable  that  the 
royal  tables  were  covered  with  clean  cloths  even  when 
paupers  were  entertained  in  large  numbers. 

Although  a  chandlery  was  generally  attached  to  every 
royal  residence  at  this  time  the  apparatus  in  which  candles 
were  fixed  does  not  appear  to  have  been  of  an  expensive 
description.  Even  in  churches  the  wax-lights  were  some- 
times stuck  in  a  row  on  a  wooden  beam  (kercia)  fitted  with 
prickets,  also  of  wood.  There  are  several  writs  of  Henry 
directing  iron  branches  [candelabra)  to  be  attached  to  the 
piers  of  his  halls  at  Oxford,  Winchester,  and  other  places ; 
a  candlestick  for  his  private  chamber  cost  no  more  than 
Sd.  Although  large  quantities  of  plate  in  the  shape 
of  cups,  ewers,  basons,  and  dishes  were  heaped  up  in  the 
royal  wardrobe,  the  use  of  silver  candlesticks  does  not 
appear  to  have  prevailed  to  any  extent  even  in  the  royal 
apartments :  they  were  often  made  by  the  king's  direction 
in  order  to  be  presented  to  churches ;  but  so  far  as  the 
evidence  of  contemporary  records  goes  such  valuable  orna- 
ments were  rarely  used  for  secular  purposes. 

The  furniture  of  the  dining-table  in  this  century  was  of 
a  scanty  character :  the  huge  salt  was  the  chief  ornament 
of  the  board ;  and  on  the  royal  table  the  goblets  and  plates 
and  dishes  were  of  silver,  often  gilt  and  enamelled ;  though 
in  ordinary  houses  wooden  bowls  and  trenchers  only  were 

b  Liberate,  11  Hen.  III.  m.  4. 


used.  Earthenware,  although  certainly  made  in  this  cen- 
tury in  the  form  of  pitchers  and  jugs,  does  not  seem  to 
have  been  applied  to  the  fabrication  of  plates  or  dishes ; 
probably  the  earliest  instance  of  the  use  of  the  latter  may 
be  ascribed  to  the  reign  of  Edward  the  First,  when  certain 
dishes  and  plates  of  earthenware  were  purchased  from  the 
cargo  of  a  great  ship  which  came  from  Spain,  and  which 
among  other  novelties  brought  the  first  oranges  which  are 
known  to  have  been  introduced  into  England. 

Some  exotic  materials  also  were  used  at  this  period  for 
making  drinking  vessels.  The  cocoa-nut  of  the  East  (nux 
de  India)  had  already  been  imported  into  the  far  north  and 
was  a  favourite  substance  whereof  to  form  goblets  ;  Henry 
the  Third  had  three  cups  made  of  this  nut,  one  of  which 
was  valued  at  £2.  9s. c  He  had  also  a  gourd  mounted  in 
silver  and  set  with  precious  stones,  which  was  valued  at 
the  high  price  of  £10.  17s.  6d. ;  and  a  glass  cup  set  in 
silver,  another  of  crystal,  and  one  of  alabaster d;  drinking 
cups  were  also  made  of  what  was  called  marble,  probably 
agate.  In  the  inventory  of  the  property  of  Benedict,  a  Jew 
of  Bristol,  who  was  hanged,  for  clipping  one  "  ciphus  mar- 
moreus"  is  named6.  The  horns  of  the  buffalo  (babalus)  and 
teeth  of  the  walrus  were  likewise  in  use  for  potable  purposes. 

Notwithstanding  the  popular  belief  that  forks  were  first 
introduced  at  the  English  dinner  table  in  the  seventeenth 
century,  a  supposition  which  may  be  said  to  rest  on  no  bet- 
ter authority  than  Mr.  Thomas  Cory  at  "  his  crudities,"  it  is 
certain  they  were  in  use  at  the  royal  table  towards  the  close 
of  the  thirteenth  century.  Among  the  valuables  found  in 
the  wardrobe  of  Edward  the  First  after  his  death  at  Burgh- 
on-the-Sands  in  1307,  were  six  silver  forks  and  one  of 
goidf.    This  fact,  however,  proves  little  more  than  that 

c  Wardrobe  Account,  55  Hen.  III.  e  Rot.  Pip.,  7  Edw.  I. 

d  Ibid.  f  "Item,  vj.  furchetti  argentei  et  j. 



ARCH    A.    154.  BODL. 



forks  were  known  at  an  early  period ;  it  is  very  certain 
that  they  were  not  in  common  use.  The  fingers  and  knives 
of  folks  served  for  many  centuries  afterwards  to  enable 
them  to  eat  their  several  meals.  Meat  was  at  this  period 
often  brought  to  table  on  a  spit  and  served  round  by  the 
attendants  when  each  guest  as  he  pleased  cut  a  portion 
with  his  knife.  This  fashion  of  serving  is  shewn  on  the 
Bayeux  tapestry  and  in  numerous  illuminations  of  a  later 
date.  Among  princes  and  nobles  these  spits  were  usually 
formed  of  silver ;  Henry  the  Third  had  one  of  gold  in 
which  a  "serpent's  tongue"  (lingua  serpentina*)  was  set; 
in  other  words  a  shark's  tooth,  for  so  naturalists  have 
named  those  singular  fossils  which  for  many  centuries  were 
brought  by  pilgrims  from  Malta,  the  supposed  site  of  the 
shipwreck  of  St.  Paul,  under  the  belief  that  they  were  the 
petrified  tongues  of  vipers  and  possessed  of  talismanic  pro- 
perties. The  knives  used  at  meals  by  the  wealthier  classes 
at  this  time  had  frequently  handles  of  silver  enamelled,  or 
of  agate  or  crystal. 

Spoons  were  common  enough  and  must  have  often 
served  in  place  of  forks  ;  indeed  the  number  of  spoons, 
often  of  silver,  owned  by  persons  in  the  middle  rank 
of  life  at  this  time,  is  rather  extraordinary.  Benedict  the 
Bristol  Jew,  to  whose  effects  reference  has  been  already 
made,  possessed  one  hundred  and  forty-one  silver  spoons, 
valued  at  £70.  7  s.  l\d.    They  may  have  been  pawned. 

It  should  have  been  observed  when  remarking  on  the 
forms  on  which  people  sat  that  they  were  often  covered 
with  mats  (nata)  made  of  osiers ;  even  in  the  royal 
houses11 ;  and  in  the  royal  chapels  the  same  materials 
were  placed  under  the  feet  to  protect  them  from  the  cold 

furchettus  de  auro."  Proceedings  of  the  serpentina  ponderis  v.s."  Wardrobe 
Record  Commissioners,  p.  552.  Account,  55  Hen.  III. 

s  "  Et  de  una  brochia  auri  cum  lingua        h  See  Chap.  V. 


of  the  tile  pavement ;  the  origin  of  our  present  hassocks : 
at  a  later  period,  though  not  much  later,  these  mats  for 
forms  gave  way  to  a  cushion  (quissina). 

The  sort  of  furniture  which  we  have  been  describing  as 
common  in  the  thirteenth  century  was  common  only  to  the 
rich.  If  from  the  palaces  of  royalty  or  the  dwellings  of 
nobles  and  merchants  we  descend  to  the  hut  of  the  farmer 
or  labourer,  we  find  but  the  barest  necessaries;  his  bed 
was  in  all  probability  his  form  or  settle  during  the  day, 
and  an  iron  tripod  or  trivet  with  a  brass  dish,  formed  the 
ordinary  cooking  apparatus  of  the  peasant,  while  he  ate  from 
wooden  bowls  with  a  spoon  of  the  same  material.  His 
meat  was  cut  on  the  square  trencher  board,  not  yet  quite 
out  of  use  either  in  collegiate  hall  or  moorland  hovel :  the 
inventory  of  Reginald  Labbe  a  small  farmer  who  died  in 
1293,  affords  a  fair  illustration  of  the  "householde  stuffe" 
of  people  in  his  class  of  life1. 

Having  told  as  much  as  can  be  stated  with  any  degree 
of  certainty  respecting  the  internal  decoration  and  furniture 
of  houses  in  the  thirteenth  century ;  we  may  now  turn  to 
another  subject  without  some  elucidation  of  which  the 
present  chapter  would  be  obviously  imperfect.  The  general 
state  of  the  country  at  this  period,  as  in  earlier  and  later 
times,  directly  influenced  the  forms  and  details  of  Domestic 
Architecture ;  it  is  therefore  essential  that  a  few  observa- 
tions should  be  made  respecting  the  more  prominent  social 
statistics  of  England  in  the  thirteenth  century,  which  was 
essentially  a  period  of  transition,  and  indeed  of  progress. 
Had  this  work  been  limited  to  a  dry  technical  description 
of  the  remains  of  English  civil  architecture  in  early  times, 
such  a  digression  might  have  been  out  of  place,  but  as  it 
has  taken  a  somewhat  wider  range  of  enquiry,  the  follow- 
ing observations  naturally  form  part  of  the  subject. 

'  Archaeological  Journal,  vol.  iii.  p.  65. 



First  as  to  the  general  aspect  of  the  country.  Taking 
the  middle  of  the  century  as  a  starting  point,  there  can 
be  no  doubt  that  an  immense  portion  of  the  kingdom  was 
then  covered  by  wood.  The  forests  mentioned  in  Domes- 
day, exclusive  of  the  new  Forest,  are  only  four  in  number, 
viz.,  Windsor,  in  Berks ;  Gravelinges,  Wilts ;  Wimborne, 
Dorset ;  and  Which  wood,  Oxon.  It  is  possible,  however, 
that  there  were  numerous  woods,  scarcely  entitled  to  the 
designation  of  forests,  which  were  not  recorded  by  the 
Conqueror's  commissioners.  Except  on  this  supposition 
it  is  difficult  to  account  for  the  fact  that  in  the  year  1250 
the  forests  and  woods  in  England,  directly  or  indirectly 
under  the  control  of  the  crown,  amounted  to  more  than 
seventy k ;  while  there  were  numerous  other  woodlands 
in  private  hands.  Some  influence  on  the  increase  of  the 
crown  forests  may  be  justly  attributed  to  the  forest  and 
game  laws  introduced  under  the  Norman  rule,  but  those 
laws  seem  insufficient  to  account  for  so  great  a  dispro- 
portion between  the  number  of  forests  in  the  thirteenth 
as  compared  with  the  end  of  the  eleventh  century. 

There  was  one  or  more  of  these  forests  or  woods  in 
every  county  in  England ;  they  abounded  in  game  of  all 
descriptions,  and  wolves  were  by  no  means  uncommon. 
At  the  close  of  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Third  there  were 
wild  cattle  in  the  wood  of  Osterley  in  Middlesex,  then,  as 
in  after  times,  the  property  of  a  London  citizen \  To  these 
woods  resorted  moreover  all  lawless  men,  fugitive  villans, 
and  persons  of  the  like  description  who  preyed  at  will  on 
passing  travellers.  About  this  time  the  abbats  of  St.  Alban's 
retained  certain  armed  men  to  keep  the  road  between  that 

k  Spelman  gives  a  list  of  the  ancient  Patent  Rolls.    Many  haia,  or  small  en- 
English  forests,  in  his  Glossarium,  but  closed  woods,  are  named  in  Domesday, 
it  is  very  incomplete.    The  statement        1  It  then  belonged  to  the  family  of 
above  is  made  on  the  authority  of  a  Gizors,   eminent    London  merchants, 
careful  examination  of  the  Close  and  Placita  coram  Rege. 



town  and  the  metropolis,  which  lay  for  the  most  part 
through  woods  m.  The  great  high  roads  of  the  kingdom, 
mostly  following  the  direction  of  the  old  Roman  ways,  the 
Athelinge,  or  Watling-street,  and  others,  necessarily  passed 
in  places  through  the  midst  of  these  forests,  as  did  the 
highways  which  connected  one  market  town  with  another. 
Notwithstanding  the  obvious  insecurity  to  travellers  and 
traffic  arising  from  the  neighbourhood  of  woods  to  the 
main  roads  it  was  not  until  the  year  1285  that  strin- 
gent measures  were  adopted  to  remedy  the  evil.  It  was 
then  enacted,  by  statute,  that  the  highways  leading  from 
one  market  town  to  another  should  be  widened,  so  that 
there  might  be  no  bushes,  woods,  or  dikes  within  two 
hundred  feet  on  each  side  of  the  road ;  and  those  pro- 
prietors who  refused  to  cut  down  underwoods  abutting  on 
high-roads  were  to  be  held  responsible  for  all  felonies  that 
might  be  committed  by  persons  lurking  in  their  covert  i 
even  the  boundaries  of  parks  when  they  approached  too 
closely  to  high-roads  were  to  be  set  further  back11.  A 
good  illustration  of  the  insecurity  of  travelling  for  merchants 
in  the  early  part  of  this  century  is  given  by  Matthew  Paris, 
who  relates  the  punishment  inflicted  on  certain  retainers 
of  the  court  of  Henry  the  Third  for  robbing  traders  on 
their  way  to  the  great  fair  at  Winchester.  Indeed  Hamp- 
shire was  notorious  for  its  bands  of  free-booters,  and  in  the 
reign  of  John  the  legate  Pandulf  had  addressed  the 
bishop  of  Winchester  on  the  subject,  saying,  "  that  no  one 
could  travel  through  the  neighbourhood  of  Winchester 
without  being  captured  or  robbed,  and  what  was  most 
cruel,  robbery  was  not  considered  sufficient  but  people 
were  slain0/'    The  wooded  pass  of  Alton  on  the  borders 

m  M.  Paris. 

n  Statute  of  Winton,  13  Edward  I. 
0  "  Clamor  pauperum  et  mulierum 

vos,  et  specialiter  te  dornine  episcope, 
movere  deberet,  quod  nemo  potest  per 
partes  Wintoniae  pergere  quin  capiatur, 


of  Surrey  and  Hampshire,  which  was  not  dis-afforested 
until  the  end  of  Henry's  reign,  was  a  favourite  ambush  for 
outlaws,  who  there  awaited  the  merchants  and  their  trains 
of  sumpter-horses  travelling  to  or  from  Winchester  •  even 
in  the  fourteenth  century  the  wardens  of  the  great  fair  of 
St.  Giles  held  in  that  city  paid  five  mounted  sergeants  at 
arms,  to  keep  the  pass  of  Alton  during  the  continuance  of 
the  fair,  "  according  to  custom p."  The  cultivated  districts 
of  the  country  were  of  necessity  intersected  and  surrounded 
by  the  woodlands,  and  therefore  not  only  manors  but  farm 
houses  were  protected,  the  former  by  their  crenellated 
inclosure  walls,  and  the  latter  by  hedges  and  dikes,  or 
motes.  The  manor-house  of  the  thirteenth  century  was 
fortified  not  so  much  for  the  purpose  of  securing  the 
owner  against  his  neighbours  as  from  a  precaution  against 
roving  thieves. 

While  vast  districts  of  the  country  were  covered  with 
forests,  other  wide  parts  were  mere  fen  and  morass ; 
some  of  which,  as  the  district  of  Holland  in  Lincolnshire, 
had  become  so  within  the  memory  of  man.  Efforts  were 
made  at  an  early  time  by  the  several  ecclesiastical  corpora- 
tions, which  owned  the  greater  part  of  the  fen-districts,  to 
drain  off  the  waters  and  bring  the  land  under  tillage ;  and 
partial  improvements  in  this  respect  were  effected  by  the 
monks  of  Ely  in  Cambridgeshire,  and  by  the  brethren  of 
Croyland  in  Lincoln.  Still  but  little  general  effect  had 
been  produced  in  the  aspect  of  the  fen -countries,  which 
were  chiefly  valuable  for  the  supplies  they  yielded  of  eels 
and  water-fowl ;  of  the  latter  many  sorts  long  since  extinct 
in  England,  as  cranes  and  storks,  were  plentiful  in  the 

spolietur,  et,  quod  crudelissimum  est, 
bona  non  sufficiunt  nisi  persone  homi- 
num  occidantur."  PandulPs  Letters; 
in  the  Tower;  Misc.  No.  371. 

p  Comp.  Ferise  S.  Egidii  Winton ; 
17  Edw.  II.  Chapter  House,  West- 


marsh  lands  of  the  eastern  counties,  and  were  favourite 
articles  of  food  in  this  and  the  following  century. 

The  roads  throughout  the  country  appear  to  have  been 
kept  in  some  sort  of  order  by  the  respective  townships ; 
and  for  the  support  of  the  few  bridges  then  in  existence, 
a  duty  called  pontage  was  levied,  which  fell  heaviest 
upon  the  agriculturalists  and  merchants,  as  most  of  the 
clergy  and  their  tenants  were  exempt  from  pontage  and 
other  tolls  of  a  like  description.  It  does  not  appear, 
however,  that  any  compulsory  labour,  like  the  French 
corvee,  was  in  force  in  England  for  the  repair  of  roads  and 
bridges;  when  the  great  north  road  into  London,  which 
in  this  century  passed  through  Gray's  Inn  Lane,  was  found 
to  be  nearly  impassable  from  ruts  and  mud,  the  citizens  of 
London  were  authorized  to  levy  a  toll  on  the  traffic  along 
it  to  pay  the  expense  of  restoring  the  highway q ;  and 
such  appears  to  have  been  the  system  generally  adopted 
in  other  parts  of  the  kingdom. 

The  principal  towns  and  cities  of  England  at  this  period 
were  generally  protected  by  walls  and  gates,  the  latter 
being  closed  from  sunset  to  sunrise ;  during  which  time  a 
watch  was  kept,  the  number  of  which  was  in  proportion  to 
the  population  of  the  town.  No  persons  were  permitted 
to  lodge  in  the  suburbs  of  a  town  unless  they  could  find 
"  hosts"  who  would  be  security  for  their  good  conduct. 
It  may  be  observed,  however,  that  it  is  doubtful  whether 
many  English  towns  were  fortified  with  walls  at  an  earlier 
time  than  this  century ;  it  appears  probable  they  were  not, 
from  the  numerous  charters  to  corporations  to  enable  them 
to  levy  tolls  for  the  purpose  of  erecting  town  walls.  It  is 
certain  that  many  towns  were  not  entirely  surrounded  by 
walls  until  the  time  of  Edward  the  First.  In  the  begin- 
ning of  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Third  the  citizens  of  Here- 

«  Pat.  Edw.  I. 



forcl  had  a  grant  of  a  quantity  of  thorns  and  wood  from 
one  of  the  king's  forests,  to  be  applied  to  the  enclosure 
of  their  city,  where  walls  were  wanting1'.  As  it  was  one 
of  the  march  towns  liable  to  predatory  inroads  of  Welsh, 
this  seems  to  have  been  a  very  primitive  method  of  fortify- 
ing it ;  but  it  is  worthy  of  remark  that  many  of  the  border 
towns,  both  in  the  North  and  the  West,  were  imperfectly 
protected  by  fortifications  until  the  fourteenth  century. 

When,  however,  a  town  had  been  fairly  surrounded  with 
a  wall  it  appears  to  have  been  generally  kept  in  good 
repair,  and  jealously  protected  from  every  sort  of  encroach- 
ment on  its  integrity.  In  this  century  the  monks  of  Win- 
chester, whose  close  adjoined  the  town  wall  of  that  city, 
petitioned  for  license  to  make  a  tunnel  under  the  wall 
that  they  might  recreate  themselves  with  greater  conve- 
nience in  an  outlying  meadow.  The  Carmelite  brethren 
of  Northampton  having  applied  to  Edward  the  First  in 
1278  for  leave  to  enclose  a  portion  of  the  town  wall  in 
their  close  there,  and  to  block  up  its  crenelles,  a  jury  was 
impanelled  to  try  what  damage  would  ensue  if  such  li- 
cense were  granted.  As  the  verdict  returned  is  curious  it 
is  here  subjoined :  the  jurors  found  "  that  it  would  be  to 
the  damage  and  nuisance  of  the  town  of  Northampton  if 
the  wall  should  be  enclosed  and  its  crenelles  blocked  up, 
and  for  these  reasons ;  because  the  burgesses  of  the  town 
aforesaid,  and  especially  those  who  are  sick,  often  walking 
on  the  wall  from  one  gate  to  another  to  take  the  air,  would 
not  be  able  to  walk  about  as  they  were  accustomed ;  and 
that  in  the  winter  time  they  would  not  be  able  to  go  along 
the  walls  from  one  gate  to  another,  instead  of  in  the 
noisome  and  muddy  way  under  the  wall,  between  the  wall 
and  the  place  of  the  brethren  of  Mount  Carmel.  They 
also  say  that  there  is  another  cause  of  hindrance  because 
the  watchmen  who  watch  by  night  in  Northampton  go 

r  Rot.  Claus.  7  and  8  Hen.  III.,  m.  2  and  9. 


their  rounds  on  the  wall,  to  watch  through  the  crenelles 
for  malefactors  entering  into  or  going  forth  of  the  aforesaid 
town;  and  if  that  wall  should  be  enclosed  and  those 
crenelles  blocked  up  in  the  manner  specified  in  the  writ, 
no  one  could  in  that  part  watch  for  evil-doers,  or  prevent 
their  misdeeds  and  stratagems  as  should  be  done s."  In 
addition  to  the  precaution  of  setting  a  night  watch  in 
towns,  the  curfew  was  generally  rung  at  nine  in  the  even- 
ing, after  which  no  one  was  to  walk  abroad,  and  all  drink- 
ing houses  were  to  be  closed  \ 

The  road-way  of  the  streets  in  towns  was  kept  in  repair 
either  by  pavage  rates,  or  the  proceeds  of  a  toll  levied  at  the 
gates  on  all  wains  or  carts  ;  which  was  called  "  wainage" 
or  "  wheelage,"  a  toll  which  is  still  taken  under  one  or  the 
other  name  in  some  old  towns  in  England. 

The  most  considerable  cities  and  towns  of  England 
were,  after  the  metropolis,  Winchester,  York,  Lincoln,  and 
those  places  in  which  the  great  periodical  fairs  were  held,  as 
Boston,  St.  Ives,  Lynn,  and  Stamford.  Of  the  sea-ports 
then  of  importance  several  have  since  fallen  into  decay,  as 
the  Cinque-Ports,  Dunwich  and  others.  Southampton  was 
then,  as  now,  a  thriving  place,  and  the  harbour  most 
frequented  by  merchant  vessels  from  the  south  of  Europe11. 
At  this  time  many  towns  which  are  now  among  the  greatest 
in  England  were  just  rising  into  notice,  as  regards  trade ; 
Yarmouth  was  the  staple-market  of  the  herring  fishery ; 
and  the  burgesses  of  Newcastle-on-Tyne  were  beginning  to 
gain  some  advantages  from  the  great  coal  field  surrounding 
them.  The  population  of  even  the  most  considerable  towns 
was  very  scanty;  it  is  probable  that  that  of  London  was 
under  2 0,000 v,  and  all  others  in  proportion  :  in  the  four- 

8  Inquis.  6  Edward  I.  No.  79.  notes  to  the  History  of  the  Middle  Ages, 

Stat.  Civit.  London,  1285.  estimates  it  at  40,000,  but  the  author  is 

u  See  p.  32  ante.  reluctantly  obliged  to  differ  from  this 

Mr.  Hallam,  in  his  supplementary  statement. 


teenth  century  the  whole  number  of  the  inhabitants  of 
Lincoln  who  contributed  to  an  assessment  of  ninths  was 
less  than  80 0X.  The  close  of  the  thirteenth  century  wit- 
nessed the  expulsion  of  all  Jews  from  England7;  an  event 
which  must  have  very  considerably  reduced  the  population 
of  most  towns  in  England,  certainly  of  all  of  importance. 

The  best  method,  however,  of  forming  an  idea  of  the 
internal  condition  of  English  towns  at  this  period  will  be 
to  enquire  into  the  state  of  the  two  chief  cities,  London 
and  Winchester  ;  and  first,  in  order  as  in  place,  to  take 
the  capital. 

We  know  very  little  of  the  condition  or  franchises  of 
the  citizens  of  London  in  Saxon  times,  or  during  the  first 
century  after  the  Conquest ;  in  short  it  is  uncertain  whe- 
ther the  sheriffs  of  the  city  before  the  year  1188  were 
royal  bailiffs,  or  officers  elected  by  the  commonalty.  The 
earliest  evidences  of  the  privileges  possessed  by  the  mu- 
nicipality, are  to  be  found  in  the  charters  of  liberties  granted 
by  Henry  the  Eirst,  Richard  the  Eirst,  by  John,  and  by 
Henry  the  Third.  We  do  know,  at  the  same  time,  from 
records  of  the  thirteenth  century  still  remaining,  that  how- 
ever valuable  the  liberties  conceded  by  those  sovereigns 
may  have  been,  theoretically  considered,  they  were  rendered 
in  a  great  degree  useless  by  a  state  of  things  within  the 
walls  of  the  city,  the  origin  of  which  is  to  be  sought  in 
times  of  which  we  have  no  trustworthy  memorials. 

Whoever  will  take  the  trouble  to  examine  an  old  map  of 
London,  that  of  Aggas  for  example,  cannot  fail  to  remark 
how  small  a  space  was  included  by  the  walls  or  boundaries 
of  the  city  proper ;  from  Ludgate  to  Aldgate,  as  from  west  to 
east ;  and  from  London  Wall  to  the  Thames,  as  from  north 
to  south ;  of  course  there  were  outlying  liberties  within 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  city,  as  the  whole  of  Eleet  Street, 

Inquis.  Nonarum,  temp.  Edw.  III.  y  It  took  place  in  1290, 


which  in  the  thirteenth  century  was  tenanted  chiefly  by 
ale-wives  and  felt  hat  makers.  Yet  small  as  was  the  extent 
of  the  city  within  the  walls,  at  the  beginning  of  this  cen- 
tury it  was  divided  into  a  number  of  separate  jurisdic- 
tions called  sokes,  the  owners  of  which  possessed  powers 
independent  of  the  corporate  officers  ;  powers  which  ge- 
nerally extended  to  life  and  limb,  and  which  were  enjoyed 
by  virtue  of  grants  from  the  crown  or  by  immemorial 
usage.  By  the  charter  of  Henry  the  First,  the  earliest 
document  which  throws  any  light  on  the  privileges  of  the 
city,  the  possession  of  these  sokes  was  guaranteed  to  the 
several  owners  of  them  ;  they  were  to  hold  "  their  socs  in 
peace,  so  that  no  guest  tarrying  in  any  soc,  shall  pay 
custom  to  any  other  than  him  to  whom  the  soc  belongs." 
These  London  sokes  were  heritable  estates  and  could  be 
alienated  by  sale.  The  officers  of  the  corporation  could 
not  execute  any  process  within  their  limits,  the  boundaries 
of  which  were  jealously  maintained  by  their  respective 
owners,  and  unwillingly  respected  by  the  city  authorities. 
Such  as  were  tenants  of  these  sokes  performed  suit  and 
service  at  their  several  courts,  and  each  soke  had  its  reeve 
or  chief  bailiff.  Thus  the  whole  of  Cornhill  was  a  soke 
belonging  to  the  bishops  of  London  who  had  therein  a 
seignorial  oven  in  which  all  the  tenants  were  obliged 
to  bake  their  bread  and  pay  furnage  dues.  At  the 
beginning  of  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Third  there  were 
not  less  than  thirty  of  these  sokes  within  the  walls  of 
ancient  London ;  and  there  were  upwards  of  twenty  in  the 
time  of  Edward  the  First,  after  which  period  they  gradually 
declined  in  number,  till  by  the  end  of  the  fourteenth  cen- 
tury it  is  probable  that  none  remained  excepting  those 
which  were  the  property  of  the  Church. 

Regarding  the  sokes  as  distinct  from  the  wards  of  Lon- 
don, which  they  undoubtedly  were,  and  bearing  in  mind 




their  independent  character,  it  is  obvious  that  the  occasions 
on  which  the  rights  exercised  by  their  respective  lords 
would  trench  upon  the  franchise  collectively  enjoyed  by  the 
citizens  must  have  been  both  many  and  frequent.  The 
owner  of  a  soke  could  protect  fugitive  malefactors,  harbour 
foreign  traders,  who  were  alwTays  viewed  with  great  jealousy 
by  the  civic  merchants ;  and  the  criminal  jurisdiction  be- 
longing to  him,  involving  the  forfeitures  of  felons2,  a  most 
important  consideration  in  the  days  to  which  we  are  now 
referring,  was  directly  opposed  to  similar  functions  which 
had  been  conceded  to  the  body  corporate  by  the  charter  of 
Henry  the  First.  Superadded  to  this  antagonism  of  indi- 
vidual and  municipal  rights  was  another  remarkable  and 
anomalous  feature  :  as  no  other  qualification  than  residence 
as  a  householder  seems  to  have  been  required,  in  the  thir- 
teenth century,  to  confer  a  right  to  the  civic  franchise,  no 
qualification  whatever  being  mentioned  in  the  early  char- 
ters, it  followed  that  the  lords  and  tenants  of  these  sokes 
within  the  walls  and  liberties  were  nevertheless  free  citi- 
zens having  individually  a  voice  in  municipal  affairs,  al- 
though legally  and  territorially  exempt  from  municipal 

It  is  clear  that  betwreen  the  conflicting  jurisdictions  of 
the  corporation  and  the  several  soke-lords,  there  must  have 
been  great  difficulty  in  maintaining  any  kind  of  effective 
police  in  the  metropolis.  In  the  reign  of  Edward  the 
First  the  dean  and  chapter  of  St.  Paul's  obtained  a  license 
to  surround  their  church  and  precincts  with  a  stone  wall, 
to  protect  themselves  from  malefactors a,  while  about  the 
same  time  the  canons  of  St.  Martin  le  Grand,  not  daring 
to  cross  the  road  to  their  collegiate  church,  obtained  per- 

z  Placita  de  Quo  Warranto  ;  tit.  Lon-      printed  in  the  Archaeological  Journal, 
don.     This  subject  has  been  already      vol.  iv. 
noticed   by  the  author  in    an    article         a  Pat.  13  Edward  I. 



mission  to  build  a  wooden  gallery,  or  bridge,  to  connect 
their  lodgings  with  the  church  tower. 

Of  the  general  character  of  the  houses  in  London,  the 
reader  will  have  been  enabled  to  form  an  idea  from  pre- 
ceding remarks.  In  the  principal  thoroughfares,  it  is  evi- 
dent there  was  some  kind  of  foot-pavement,  though  the 
road-wayappears  to  have  been  frequently  left  to  its  chance ; 
and  the  streets  leading  down  to  the  river,  which  offered  the 
means  of  a  natural  drainage  from  the  upper  and  more  level 
parts  of  the  city,  had  usually  open  drains  flowing  through 
them ;  the  effect  of  which  was  to  maintain  them  in  a  con- 
tinual state  of  mud. 

We  have  already  incidently  referred  to  the  probable 
numbers  of  the  population  of  London  at  this  time,  stating 
that  it  was  under  20,000  ;  and  that  is  adopting  a  rather 
high  standard  ;  but  in  truth  the  materials  to  enable  us 
to  form  an  accurate  estimate  do  not  exist.  Were  we  to 
believe  the  rhetorical  nourishes  of  contemporary  annalists,  it 
would  appear  that  the  city  could  send  almost  that  number 
of  armed  men  into  the  field  :  in  those  times,  however, 
numbers  were  not  counted,  and  any  considerable  mob  was 
set  down  as  an  "  innumerable  host/'  We  do  know  pretty 
nearly  what  the  population  was  in  the  fifteenth  and  six- 
teenth centuries,  and  may  reasonably  infer  how  small  it 
must  have  been  at  earlier  periods.  In  the  year  1547  the 
population  of  the  large  parish  of  St.  Andrew,  Holborn,  the 
greatest  within  the  liberties  of  the  city,  was  only  1000b. 

The  followers  of  the  various  trades  exercised  in  London 
in  the  thirteenth  century  occupied  distinct  quarters  by 
themselves.  Thus  the  gold-smiths  lived  in  one  part  of 
Chepe,  the  smiths  in  another,  and  in  Ironmonger  lane, 
while  the  "  candle-wrichtes"  had  a  street  which  gave 

b  Madox's  Collections,  vol.  xlix.  Add,  MSS.  Brit.  Mus. 



name  to  the  ward  of  "  Candlewick."  This  custom  of  vari- 
ous crafts  confining  themselves  to  particular  quarters,  which 
appears  to  be  of  remote  antiquity,  and  is  not  yet  entirely 
abandoned  in  foreign  cities,  facilitated  the  formation  and 
government  of  trade-guilds,  which  were  established  for 
mutual  protection  at  a  very  early  time,  and  were  in  fact 
the  origin  of  the  modern  city  companies.  Merchants  and 
those  who  adventured  on  the  deep-sea,  or  "  oultre-mer" 
traffick,  lived  in  the  streets  immediately  adjacent  to  the 
river,  their  cogs  and  barques  lying  at  the  wharves  of  Thames 
street,  which  were  mostly  known  in  the  thirteenth  cen- 
tury by  the  names  they  still  bear,  as  indeed  some  of  them 
were  in  Saxon  times,  when  they  were  termed  "  stationes 
navium c." 

The  usual  place  of  assembly  for  the  citizens  was  Paul's 
Cross  ;  there  the  folk-motes  were  held,  summoned  by  the 
tolling  of  the  great  bell  of  the  Cathedral ;  and  at  that 
spot  whenever  Edward  the  First  was  about  to  visit  his 
foreign  dominions  he  took  leave  of  the  Londoners,  exhorting 
them,  from  wooden  hustings  run  up  for  the  occasion,  to 
keep  the  peace  during  his  absence. 

In  conclusion,  as  to  the  appearance  of  the  city,  we 
shall  not,  perhaps,  be  far  wrong  in  assuming  that  it 
presented  the  aspect  of  a  mass  of  low  whitewashed  tene- 
ments ;  the  plasterer's  brush  appears  to  have  been  un- 
sparingly employed  to  give  a  cleanly  exterior  to  the  dwell- 
ings of  the  Londoners ;  and  one  of  the  earliest  objections 
raised  by  the  citizens  against  the  use  of  sea-borne  coal 
for  fuel,  was,  that  the  smoke  from  it  blackened  the  white 
walls  of  their  buildings. 

Such  in  a  few  words  was  the  general  condition  of  London 
in  the  thirteenth  century ;  and  we  shall  now  proceed  to 
enquire  into  that  of  Winchester,  which  was  long  a  formid- 

c  See  Kemble's  Cod.  Dip.  Anglo-Sax.  passim. 


able  commercial  rival  of  the  metropolis.  Its  vicinity  to  the 
port  of  Southampton,  through  which  almost  all  the  trade 
with  the  south  of  Europe  and  the  East  was  carried  on 
in  early  times,,  rendered  it  a  great  depot  of  the  most  costly 
foreign  merchandize,  while  its  great  fair  held  yearly  on 
the  festival  of  St.  Giles,  and  twenty-three  following  days, 
attracted  merchants  from  every  part  of  Europe ;  perhaps 
the  fair  of  Beaucaire  in  Languedoc  was  its  only  rival  for 
several  centuries.  The  great  hill  or  mount  of  St.  Giles 
overlooking  the  town,  on  which  earl  Waltheof  is  said  to 
have  been  executed  by  order  of  the  Conqueror,  was  in  the 
thirteenth  century  covered  with  stone  shops  or  stalls,  some 
belonging  to  the  crown,  and  many  to  the  bishop,  who  was 
the  lord  of  the  fair  and  received  most  of  the  rents  and  all 
tolls  arising  from  it.  But  the  district  occupied  by  the  fixed 
temporary  buildings  for  the  fair  was  held  quite  distinct 
from  the  city.  The  latter  consisted,  in  this  century,  of 
about  twenty  streets  d ;  and  from  the  names  of  a  few  of  them, 
as  also  of  the  stall-rows  which  have  been  preserved,  we  are 
enabled  to  gather  some  notion  of  the  commercial  activity  of 
the  ancient  Saxon  capital. 

On  the  hill  there  was  the  French  street ;  the  stalls  of  the 
men  of  Caen ;  the  street  of  the  Flemings ;  the  streets  of 
the  men  of  Nottingham  and  other  English  towns ;  and 
there  was  also  the  "  street  in  which  old  clothes  are  sold/' 
a  sort  of  rag-fair  it  may  be  presumed;  the  Goldsmith ry 
was  on  the  hill  during  the  fair.  In  the  town  itself  there 
was  the  High-street  with  its  Spicery,  or  quarter  of  the  Gro- 
cers ;  the  street  where  the  Haberdashers  sat ;  the  Mercery 
street ;  the  Drapery  ;  Parchment  street ;  the  quarter  of 
the  Jewry ;  and  the  respective  streets  of  the  Fullers ; 
Weavers  ;  Carpet-makers  and  Tanners6.  Winchester  in  its 

d  Sixteen  temp.  Hen.  I.  See  Introd.,  e  Most  of  these  names  are  obtained 
p.  xi.  from  deeds  in  the  Register  of  the  Priory 







present  torpid  condition  affords  scarcely  any  indication  of 
the  consequence  and  wealth  it  possessed  in  the  thirteenth 
century,  much  of  which,  indeed,  it  retained  until  the  Re- 
formation ;  although  its  trade  may  be  said  to  have  re- 
ceived an  irrecoverable  blow  when  the  town  was  sacked  by 
the  younger  Simon  de  Montfort  in  1265. 

Mr.  Hallam  estimates  the  population  of  Winchester  in 
the  middle  ages  to  have  been  about  10,000f;  and  it  is 
probable  that  his  estimate  is  correct;  although,  as  in  the 
case  of  London,  we  have  no  means  of  calculating  the  exact 
number  of  its  inhabitants  in  the  thirteenth  century.  Still 
the  ancient  limits  of  the  city  are  well  known,  and  it  is  not 
easy  to  believe  that  a  larger  population  could  have  been 
housed  within  them.  There  is  no  better  method  of  testing 
the  relative  prosperity  of  the  two  cities  than  that  of  com- 
paring the  amount  of  the  town-duties  of  each  at,  or  about, 
the  same  period. 

In  the  year  1275  the  duties  received  in  Winchester, 
including  the  customs  of  merchandize,  as  grain,  leather, 
lead,  cloths,  &c,  amounted  to  £35.  lis.  6d.  in  four  months, 
or  little  more  than  a  hundred  a  yearg.  Ten  years  previ- 
ously the  town  dues  of  London  realised  in  two  months 
the  large  sum  of  £108.  6s.  b^d.h  Thus  we  have  decisive 
proof  that  the  old  Anglo-Saxon  capital  was  already  in  its 
decline.  But  that  decline  was  in  a  great  degree  owing  to 
the  wanton  injury  inflicted  on  it  by  the  younger  Montfort. 

Besides  London  and  Winchester  there  were  two  towns 
of  great  importance  from  their  manufactures,  Northampton 
and  Norwich.    In  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Third  there 

of  St.  Denys,  near  Southampton,  Add. 
MS.  15,314;  others  from  the  Pipe  Roll 
3  Edw.  I.  comp.  de  exitibus  civitatis 
Win  ton. 

f  Supplemental  Notes — Population  of 

s  See  Pipe  Roll  3  Edw.  I.  before 

h  Exitus  Ballive  London,  anno  50 
Hen.  III.  Roll  among  the  records 
formerly  in  the  custody  of  the  Queen's 


were  three  hundred  cloth  workers  in  the  former  town, 
and  Norwich  was  celebrated  for  its  fabrics  in  worsted; 
but  that  place  laboured  under  the  same  disadvantage 
as  London,  inasmuch  as  there  was  an  independent  feudal 
jurisdiction  within  the  city.  Wherever  a  monastery  existed 
within  a  great  town,  the  foundation  of  it  had  usually  pre- 
ceded the  creation  of  the  municipality  j  in  other  words,  the 
religious  house  originated  the  town  surrounding  it.  When 
the  importance  of  the  dependency  could  be  no  longer  ig- 
nored, and  its  inhabitants  acquired  their  franchise,  they 
often  found  that  there  existed  an  element  antagonistic  to 
their  commercial  prosperity.  The  burgesses  discovered  that 
their  charter  of  liberties  was  rendered  in  a  great  degree  in- 
operative by  reason  of  privileges  granted  in  earlier  times 
to  their  ecclesiastical  neighbours.  This  was  especially  the 
case  when  the  town  had  a  river  communicating  with  the 
sea ;  for  in  general  the  monks  had  taken  care  to  secure 
the  sea-port  itself.  Thus  the  port  of  Yarmouth  was  vir- 
tually the  property  of  the  prior  of  Christ  church,  Nor- 
wich; and  in  the  cathedral  city  itself  he  had  a  soke,  or 
exempt  jurisdiction,  which  greatly  obstructed  the  pros- 
perity of  the  place,  and  led  to  constant  collisions,  and 
breaches  of  the  peace,  between  the  tenants  of  the  prior's 
soke  and  the  freemen1.  The  dues  levied  at  Yarmouth 
were  dictated  by  the  prior;  in  Norwich  he  had  his  de- 
mesne fair,  of  which  the  profits  were  exclusively  his  own, 
and  from  which  he  could,  and  did,  exclude  the  citizens, 
who  in  vain  attempted  to  participate  by  violence.  Their 
efforts  were  invariably  unsuccessful,  and  they  were  always 
punished.  The  same  state  of  things  prevailed  in  Newcastle- 
on-Tyne  ;  the  sea-port  of  which  was  in  the  hands  of  the 
priors  of  Durham  and  Tynemouth. 

These  remarks  may  serve  to  give  the  reader  some  notion 

5  Placita  Coronae  1 4-  Edward  I. 



of  the  internal  economy  of  towns  in  England  at  this  period, 
a  subject  on  which  little  information  is  to  be  found  in  our 
general  historians. 

Perhaps  it  will  not  be  out  of  place  to  enquire  how  peo- 
ple travelled  in  these  times ;  and  whether  there  were  not 
associations  to  facilitate  the  progress  of  the  merchant,  or 
pilgrim,  for  a  consideration,  which  are  to  be  regarded  as 
the  prototypes  of  our  modern  stage  coach  partnerships? 
It  would  be  trite  to  say  that  generally  speaking  every 
person  who  could  afford  to  do  so  travelled  on  horseback, 
but  it  may  be  new  to  state  that  there  were  companies  of 
"  hackney-men"  who  provided  horses  for  travellers  at  a 
fixed  rate  per  stage.  That  several  such  associations  were 
in  existence  in  the  thirteenth  century  there  can  be  no 
doubt ;  although  unfortunately  we  possess  direct  informa- 
tion relating  only  to  one  of  them. 

The  road  out  of  London  which  had  the  greatest  traffic 
in  these  early  times  was  undoubtedly  that  which  led  to 
Dover,  the  privileged  sea-port  of  the  realm,  from  which 
persons  leaving  the  country  were  generally  obliged  to 
embark,  in  order  that  the  crown  might  derive  a  revenue 
from  the  passage  toll.  From  an  ancient  period  this  road 
had  been  "  worked"  by  the  hackney-men  of  Southwark, 
Dartford,  Rochester,  and  other  places  on  its  line.  He  who, 
bent  on  business  or  pilgrimage,  hired  a  hackney  in  South- 
wark, paid  sixteen  pence  for  the  stage  to  Rochester  ;  the 
like  sum  from  Rochester  to  Canterbury,  and  in  proportion 
from  the  last  named  place  to  Dover.  These  were  reason- 
able fares ;  but  travellers  availing  themselves  of  the  hack- 
neys were  not  always  conscientious :  they  sometimes  hired 
them  and  forgot  to  pay,  or  paid  less  than  the  prescrip- 
tive charge,  and  moreover  they  often  rode  off  with  them, 
"  whither  they  would and,  in  fact,  it  happened  that  the 
steeds  of  the  contractors  were  frequently  "  lost,  destroyed, 


and,  at  times,  sold,  and  utterly  taken  away  by  their  hirers." 
And  in  order  that  the  theft  might  be  the  better  concealed 
the  ears  and  tails  of  horses  were  cut  off  to  prevent  their 
identification.  The  increase  of  frauds  of  this  kind  was 
remedied  by  the  crown  at  the  close  of  the  fourteenth  cen- 

Besides  hackney-men  there  were  persons  who  provided 
carts  for  the  transport  of  heavy  luggage.  The  hire  of  one 
with  four  horses  was  about  Is.  6d,  a  day  ;  but  such  was  the 
state  of  the  roads  that  it  was  necessary  in  some  districts 
to  rest  the  cattle  for  four  days,  after  travelling  only  two, 
while  the  general  custom  was  to  travel  during  four  days  and 
rest  for  three.  The  rates  of  hire  were  fixed  by  proclamation 
in  the  reign  of  Edward  the  First.  So  bad  and  unknown 
were  cross  roads  at  this  time,  that  guides, — shepherds, 
and  persons  of  a  like  degree, — were  usually  hired  to  con- 
duct travellers  from  one  town  to  another ;  especially  if  it  was 
desirable  to  take  a  shorter  route  than  the  high  roacl :  thus 
in  the  year  1265  the  countess  of  Leicester,  sister  of  Henry 
the  Third,  was  guided  on  her  road  from  Odiham  castle  to 
Porchester  by  "  Dobbe  "  the  shepherd.  It  must  be  borne 
in  mind  also  that  in  the  absence  of  bridges  it  was  necessary 
to  have  persons  well  acquainted  with  the  fording  places  of 
rivers  or  streams. 

A  good  illustration  of  the  difficulty  and  insecurity  of 
travelling  at  the  close  of  this  century,  is  afforded  by  an 
account  of  the  cost  of  transmitting  a  sum  of  money  to 
Prince  Edward,  son  of  Edward  the  First,  in  1301.  In 
that  year  a  portion  of  the  revenue  accruing  from  his  ap- 
panage of  Chester  was  sent  to  London,  to  replenish  his 
generally  exhausted  exchequer. 

h  The  facts  stated  above  are  recited  in  The  preamble  states  that  the  charges  and 
the  patent  granted  to  the  "  men  called  privileges  of  the  association  had  existed 
hakney-men"  in  the  19th  Ric.  II.  (1396.)     in  the  times  of  the  king's  progenitors. 



The  treasure,  one  thousand  pounds,  was  brought  to 
London  by  two  knights  on  horseback,  William  de  la  Mare 
(Delamere)  and  Gilbert  de  Wyleye,  who  were  attended  by 
sixteen  armed  valets,  on  foot.  It  was  not  sufficient,  how- 
ever, that  the  money  should  be  protected  by  men  at  arms ; 
in  the  absence  of  hostels,  excepting  in  towns,  it  was  neces- 
sary to  secure  the  guards  from  hunger.  Therefore  they 
were  accompanied  by  two  cooks,  who  provided  "  a  safe 
lodging"  daily  for  the  money,  and,  as  a  matter  of  course, 
provided  for  the  culinary  necessities  of  its  conductors.  These 
cooks  were  William  of  Ludgershall,  who  was  in  the  king's 
service,  and  Warine  who  was  the  prince's  cook ;  the  latter 
travelled  with  the  escort  only  two  days'  ride  between  Chester 
and  London,  and  then  spurred  on  to  the  metropolis,  to  let 
the  prince's  treasurer  know  that  the  money  was  in  a  fair 
way  of  arriving  in  safety.  Now  in  those  days  a  thousand 
pounds  really  meant  a  thousand  pounds  of  silver ;  so  it  may 
be  necessary  to  tell  how  it  was  conveyed  to  London.  In 
the  first  place  the  prince's  cook  provided  ten  panniers 
"  wherein  to  truss  the  monies"  and  cords  wherewith  to  tie 
them,  which  cost  2*.  9d.  Then  these  ten  panniers  were 
put  across  the  backs  of  five  hackneys ;  supplied  of  course 
by  the  companies  of  hackneymen  established  along  the 
road  travelled1. 

It  took  the  guard  eight  days  to  arrive  in  London  with 
a  heavy  weight,  and  six  days  to  return  to  Chester  without 
one.  The  knights  each  received  one  shilling  a  day,  and 
each  valet  was  well  paid  at  a  third  of  the  same  stipend. 
The  two  cooks  had  each  2d.  a  day,  but  he  who  was  in  the 
prince's  service  had  to  stay  two  extra  days  in  London  in 
order  to  count  out  the  money  to  the  prince's  treasurer,  for 
which  he  received  2s.  extra.    The  cost  of  hiring  the  five 

1  Account  of  the  Chamberlain  of  Chester,  29-30  Edw.  I. 


hackneys  was  thirty  shillings  j  and  the  total  expense  of 
conveying  the  money  in  question  was  £6.  19s.  9d.}  currency 
of  that  day,  or  about  £104.  16s.  in  modem  coin. 

Although  it  has  been  asserted  that  there  were  inns  in 
England  at  this  time,  it  would  be  difficult  to  find  any 
proof  of  the  statement.  The  truth  is  that  even  in  London 
there  was  no  such  accommodation.  There  were  tabernce, 
or  drinking  houses,  where  wine  only  was  sold,  as  there 
were  the  brew-houses  of  ale-wives,  who  sold  beer  only,  and 
there  were  cooks'  shops.  The  same  arrangement  prevailed 
throughout  the  country;  and  it  may  be  confidently  asserted 
there  was  no  establishment  then  existing  which  supplied, 
besides  drink,  food  and  beds.  It  was  not  until  the  middle 
of  the  fourteenth  century  that  the  hostel  or  tavern  had  its 
origin  :  perhaps  the  earliest  in  London  was  the  Saracen's 
Head  in  Friday  Street,  Chepeside,  where  Chaucer,  in  his 
youth,  saw  the  Grosvenor  arms  hanging  out ;  the  poet  did 
not  make  his  acquaintance  with  the  Tabard  in  Southwark 
till  a  later  date. 

There  was,  however,  another  mode  of  conveyance  in 
these  times  which  should  not  be  forgotten.  Ladies  of  rank 
travelled  occasionally  in  covered  cars,  drawn  by  two  or 
more  horses.  Such  a  car  or  chariot  (currus)  was  made  for 
Eleanor  of  Castile,  shortly  before  her  coronation,  which  cost 
the  large  sum  of  £17.  5s.  or  £258.  15s.  modern  currency3. 
Much  artistic  decoration  was  lavished  on  such  vehicles  ; 
they  were  provided  with  a  weather-proof  roof,  from  which 
hung  curtains  of  leather,  or  heavy  silk ;  the  wood-work 
was  painted  and  the  nail-heads  and  wheels  often  gilt. 
The  interior  was  fitted  with  ample  cushions  and  other 
necessary  appliances.  There  is  a  detailed  account  still 
preserved  of  the  cost  of  building  a  travelling-carriage  of 

j  Rot.  Pip.  2  Edw.  I.  comp.  de  providenciis  factis  contra  coronationem  Regis  cele- 
bratam  apud  Westm. 



this  sort  for  Margaret,  duchess  of  Brabant k,  daughter  of 
Edward  the  First ;  some  of  its  external  ornaments  were 
enamelled ;  the  expense  incurred  on  it  amounted  to  £338 
money  of  our  time.  We  have,  unfortunately,  no  represen- 
tations of  these  early  coaches  of  an  older  date  than  the 
fourteenth  century ;  but  from  these  it  may  be  fairly  con- 
cluded that  they  were  clumsy  and  uncomfortable  waggon- 
like concerns ;  and  it  is  needless  to  say  they  were  unpro- 
vided with  springs.  But  the  ingenuity  of  the  time  went 
beyond  the  construction  of  covered  chariots.  Henry  the 
Third  ordered  a  "  house  of  deal"  to  be  made,  running  on 
six  wheels  and  roofed  with  lead ;  which  may  have  been  in- 
tended for  travelling  purposes.  Thus  the  modern  travelling 
vans  used  by  itinerant  dealers  and  exhibitors  had  their  ori- 
gin in  comparatively  remote  antiquity1. 

As  there  were  no  inns  at  this  time  to  which  they  could 
resort,  it  was  necessary  for  travellers  to  carry  provisions  with 
them,  or  they  purchased  them  at  farms  or  religious  houses 
which  lay  on  or  near  their  route ;  for  although  the  latter 
establishments  undoubtedly  supplied  gratuitously  a  night's 
lodging  and  food  when  required  by  a  traveller,  it  is  equally 
certain  they  had  no  objection  to  sell  such  commodities  as  he 
might  require  for  the  prosecution  of  his  journey.  The  diffi- 
culty of  obtaining  provisions  in  some  parts  of  the  country 
during  this  century  must  have  been  very  great,  especially 
in  the  northern  districts,  if  we  may  judge  from  the  state  of 
things  which  prevailed  one  hundred  and  fifty  years  later,  as 
described  by  iEneas  Sylvius,  afterwards  Pope  Pius  II.,  who 
thus  narrates  some  particulars  of  his  return  to  England  from 
Scotland  in  1448.    After  crossing  the  Tweed,  he  entered 

k  Wardrobe  Account,  25  Edw.  I.,  Add. 
MS. 7965, fo.  15,(Brit.Mus.)  Mr. Mark- 
land  has  noticed  these  carriages  in  an  in- 
teresting paper  in  the  Archseologia,  vol. 
xx.  p.  443  ;  but  he  has  cited  no  examples 

of  so  early  a  date  as  the  thirteenth  cen- 

1  See  Liberate,  23  Hen.  III.,  Aug.  4, 
in  Chapter  V. 


a  large  village,  about  sunset,  and  "  alighted  at  a  rustic's 
house,  and  supped  there  with  the  priest  of  the  place  and 
the  host.  Sundry  pottages,  fowls,  and  geese  were  brought 
to  table,  but  there  was  neither  wine  nor  bread.  And  then 
all  the  women  on  both  sides  ran  to  the  house,  as  to  a  new 
thing ;  and  as  our  countrymen  are  wont  to  stare  at  Ethi- 
opians or  Indians,  so  they,  astonished  regarded  iEneas, 
asking  of  the  priest  whence  he  came,  what  he  had  come 
to  do,  and  whether  he  were  a  Christian  ?  But  iEneas, 
being  forewarned  of  the  poverty  of  the  road,  had  received 
at  a  certain  monastery  a  few  loaves  and  a  runlet  of  red 
wine,  which  being  uncovered,  greater  astonishment  seized 
the  barbarians,  who  had  never  seen  either  wine  or  white 
bread.  Pregnant  women  came  up  to  the  table  with  their 
husbands,  and  touching  the  bread  and  smelling  the  wine, 
begged  some  of  it,  among  whom  it  was  necessary  to  distri- 
bute the  whole   At  day-break  he  began  his 

journey,  and  reached  Newcastle,  which  they  say  was  built 
by  Caesar ;  there  he  first  seemed  to  behold  again  the  like- 
ness of  the  world,  and  the  habitable  face  of  the  earth ;  for 
Scotland,  and  the  part  of  England  adjoining  it,  is  totally 
unlike  our  country"1,  being  dismal,  uncultivated,  and  inac- 
cessible in  winter/5  Even  so  late  as  the  period  of  the 
Reformation  one  of  the  reasons  which  the  then  archbishop 
of  York  urged  on  Cromwell  against  the  suppression  of  the 
monastery  of  Hexham,  in  Northumberland,  was,  that  it  was 
of  so  much  importance  to  the  convenience  of  travellers  be- 
tween Newcastle  and  Carlisle.  Harrison  who  compiled  his 
"Description  of  Brittaine","  in  the  time  of  Elizabeth,  was 
inclined  to  think  that  many  things  were  better  in  the  days 
of  the  Edwards  than  at  the  period  he  wrote ;  the  "  good 
old  times"  have  had  their  admirers  in  every  age,  and  it  is 

m  He  speaks  of  Italy;  Commentarii  Pii  Secundi,  &c.,  fol.  Franeof.  1614,  p.  5. 
11  Printed  in  Holinshed's  Chronicles. 



one  of  the  necessary,  albeit  unfanciful  duties  of  the  his- 
torical writer  to  dispel  the  illusions  which  may  prevail 
respecting  them.  Whatever  social  retrogression  there 
might  have  been  in  some  respects  during  the  period  be- 
tween the  fourteenth  and  the  sixteenth  century  it  is  at  least 
certain  that  there  was  a  progressive  improvement  in  the 
means  of  traversing  the  country ;  when  Harrison  was 
taking  his  retrospective  view,  posts  were  established  on  all 
the  main  roads  of  the  kingdom. 

There  is  another  point  connected  with  this  part  of  our 
subject  to  which  we  must  now  advert,  viz.,  the  state  of  the 
trade  of  England.  In  the  thirteenth  century  the  Flemings 
and  Italians  engrossed  the  most  lucrative  departments  of 
commerce;  both  purchased  our  staple  commodity  wool, 
and  both  introduced,  and  by  nearly  the  same  route0,  the 
products  of  the  more  skilled  artisans  of  the  south  of  Europe, 
and  the  rarer  merchandise  of  the  East.  They  imported  the 
silks  of  Italy,  the  fine  cotton  fabrics  of  India,  the  spices 
of  the  same  remote  region ;  and  the  refined  sugars  of 
Alexandria,  where  the  Arabs,  then  the  only  refiners  in 
the  world,  had  established  a  sort  of  monopoly  in  that 
article  of  consumption.  The  Italian  merchants,  however, 
exercised  greater  influence  than  our  neighbours  of  Flanders. 
They  were  often  farmers  of  the  chief  revenues  of  the  crown, 
and  always  its  bankers  until  the  time  of  Edward  the  Third, 
who  becoming  a  sort  of  insolvent,  ruined  half  the  great 
mercantile  houses  of  Florence  and  Genoa.  In  the  time  of 
Henry  the  Third  the  companies  of  the  Neri  and  Bianchi,  the 
respective  colours  of  the  Guelph  and  Ghibbeline  factions 
in  Italy,  were  the  great  merchants  of  England.  There 
was  also  another  class  of  foreign  traders  which  exercised 
some  influence  on  English  commerce :  the  great  province 
of  Guienne  was  still  a  dependency  of  the  English  crown,  and 

0  The  Low  countries. 


the  merchants  of  Bordeaux  and  Bayonne  had  a  small  share 
in  the  eastern  traffic  which  then  existed,  while  they  were, 
at  the  same  time,  the  chief  exporters  of  wine  to  this 
country.  The  province  of  Guienne  was  settled  by  Henry  on 
his  eldest  son,  prince  Edward,  who  mortgaged  the  revenue 
of  the  town  of  Bordeaux  to  St.  Louis  of  France  to  provide 
funds  for  the  crusade  they  jointly  undertook  in  1269p; 
there  is  still  extant  a  very  curious  letter  from  Henry  to 
his  son,  when  he  was  in  need  of  money,  advising  him 
to  "  speak  courteously"  (curialitef)  to  the  wine  exporters, 
whom  he  had  disappointed  in  a  stipulated  payment,  to 
induce  them  to  make  further  shipments  to  England. 

The  wines  brought  to  England  by  the  Bordeaux  mer- 
chants were  chiefly  the  products  of  their  own  district, 
vintages  of  the  borders  of  the  Garonne,  though  not  then 
called  clarets q;  the  wines  of  other  French  provinces  were 
also  largely  exported  to  this  country,  as  those  of  Anjou, 
Aucerne  and  Poitou.  As  for  "  Malvoisie"  it  may  be 
reasonably  doubted  if  such  a  liquor  was  known  here  in 
the  thirteenth  century ;  the  author  has  found  no  mention 
of  it  in  any  contemporary  documents.  The  traders  of  Bay- 
onne brought  hither  the  products  of  Spain,  the  chief  of 
which  were  fruits  and  the  highly  prized  cordovan  leather, 
as  also  the  prepared  sheep-skin  called  bazan. 

The  trade  of  English  provincial  towns  wras  of  the  most 
limited  character ;  the  stocks  of  shop-keepers,  bought  at 
the  various  periodical  fairs,  were  unequal  to  any  extraordinary 
demand,  and  as  until  the  recurrence  of  those  great  annual 
marts  they  had  no  opportunity  of  replenishing  their  ware- 
houses, it  frequently  happened  that  when  the  king  required 
a  particular  commodity,  several  counties  had  to  be  searched 

p  See  the  covenant  in  Liber  de  Anti-  ened  and  boiled.  See  "  La  Vie  Privee 
quis  Legibus,  p.  Ill  et  seq.  des  Francais,"  torn.  iii.  p.  67. 

1  Clarets  (clairets)  were  wines  sweet- 



by  their  respective  sheriffs  in  order  to  procure  it.  A  good 
illustration  of  the  difficulty  of  obtaining  even  home  manu- 
factures is  afforded  by  the  particulars  of  the  siege  of 
Bedford  in  the  year  1224.  Fulke  de  Breaute,  one  of  the 
foreign  retainers  of  King  John,  was  the  owner  or  tenant 
of  that  fortress  at  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  Henry 
the  Third ;  having  seized,  and  imprisoned  in  its  dun- 
geon, Henry  de  Braibroke,  one  of  the  king's  justices 
in  Eyre,  because  of  an  adverse  verdict  delivered  at  the 
assizes  at  Dunstaple,  Hubert  de  Burgh  the  justiciar,  ac- 
companied by  the  youthful  king,  laid  siege  to  his  castle 
in  June  of  that  year;  the  undertaking  was  considered  of 
sufficient  importance  to  induce  the  clergy,  who  had  suffered 
much  from  the  rapacity  of  Fulke,  to  grant  a  money  aid  on 
behalf  of  themselves  and  their  free  tenants ;  and  in  due 
time  the  royal  forces  invested  the  castle,  which  was  a  place 
in  those  days  of  formidable  strength.  The  resistance  of 
the  besieged  was  strenuous ;  and  their  assailants  were  re- 
duced to  the  necessity  of  undermining  the  towers  :  but  for 
this  work  they  required  pickaxes  as  well  as  other  materials, 
and  they  also  needed  ropes  to  work  the  engines  by  which 
they  battered  the  walls.  A  royal  order  was  sent  to  the 
sheriffs  of  London  to  supply  the  necessary  articles,  which 
could  not  be  obtained  at  a  nearer  place ;  even  they  were 
unable  to  furnish  all  the  materials  required  with  sufficient 
speed,  and  writs  were  thereupon  directed  to  the  sheriffs 
of  Dorsetshire  and  other  counties,  ordering  them  to  send 
ropes,  pickaxes,  &c,  to  the  king  without  delay.  Eventually, 
after  a  siege  of  nearly  two  months'  duration,  the  castle  was 
taken;  but  it  was  mainly  enabled  to  hold  out  so  long  in 
consequence  of  the  difficulty  of  procuring  ropes  sufficiently 
stout  to  work  the  king's  battering  engines1". 

r  This  siege  is  described  at  some  length  is  referred  for  authorities  for  the  above 
by  Dr.  Lingard  ;  the  more  curious  reader     statement  to  the  printed  Close  Rolls, 


The  chief  manufactures  of  England  in  this  century  were 
woollen  cloths ;  Weavers'  guilds  are  among  the  earliest 
named  in  the  Exchequer  records,  which  commence  in  the 
time  of  Henry  the  Second5;  the  other  guilds  were  those  of 
Goldsmiths,  Fullers,  and  Tanners.  The  fabric  of  woollens 
seems  to  have  been  very  generally  distributed  over  the 
country.  In  the  north,  Beverley  was  renowned  for  its 
russets  and  blues,  and  Lincoln  for  its  scarlet,  although 
"  Lincoln  green"  is  more  famous  in  popular  tradition*. 
In  the  west,  Totness  was  a  great  clothing  town,  and  the 
capital  of  the  trade  in  those  parts.  But  at  the  same  time 
large  quantities  of  foreign  manufactured  cloths  were  im- 
ported, among  which,  those  of  Flanders,  France,  and  Spain, 
were  in  great  esteem,  more  especially  all  "green,  murrey, 
and  blue  cloths  from  beyond  sea'1." 

But  there  was  one  art  for  which  England  had  been  cele- 
brated from  early  times ;  that  of  working  in  the  precious 
metals,  or  goldsmithry,  as  it  was  called.  The  "  opus 
Anglicanum"  was  prized  in  the  ninth  and  tenth  centuries ; 
and  in  the  period  under  discussion,  Durham  and  Irish 
works  in  silver  or  gold  were  in  great  estimation.  Of  the 
nature  of  these  productions  we  know  absolutely  nothing ; 
but  it  may  be  presumed  that  enamel  formed  a  part  of  the 
ornamentation.  At  the  beginning  of  the  fourteenth  cen- 
tury English  goldsmiths  and  enamellers  were  settled  in 

As  before  remarkedv  the  goldsmiths  worked  rather  than 
dealt  in  the  precious  metals;  when  their  services  were 

vol.  i.  sub.  anno  1224.  Ropes  used  at 
this  date  for  military  engines  and  cross- 
bows were,  it  appears,  ordinarily  formed 
of  horse-hair. 

s  There  is  one  Great  Roll  of  the  Ex- 
chequer for  the  31st  year  of  Henry  the 
First;  but  as  a  series  these  rolls  date 

from  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Second. 

*  Curiously  enough  it  is  but  very 
rarely  named  in  medieval  records. 

u  Wardrobe  Account,  20  Hen.  III. 
Rot.  Pip. 

v  Introd.,  p.  xi. 



required  the  raw  material  was  entrusted  to  them  to  be 
fashioned  according  to  the  directions  of  their  employers. 
So  at  the  coronation  of  Edward  the  First  a  "  mass  of  silver 
weighing  32s.  6d."  was  purchased  and  delivered  to  Ed- 
ward (of  Westminster)  the  goldsmith  "  to  make  little  bells 
thereof,  which  were  hung  to  the  canopy  which  was  carried 
above  the  king's  head it  cost  35s.  2d.  to  purify  this 
lump  of  metal x. 

It  was  originally  proposed  to  conclude  this  chapter  with 
some  account  of  the  state  of  husbandry  in  England  during 
the  period  under  discussion.  Unfortunately  the  subject  is 
too  extensive  to  be  treated  in  a  few  pages ;  it  is,  moreover, 
so  embarrassed  by  the  technicalities  of  agricultural  tenures, 
which  varied  to  a  considerable  degree  in  almost  every  dis- 
trict of  the  country,  that  it  would  be  hopeless  to  attempt 
any  minute  description  of  the  general  state  of  the  agricul- 
tural classes  and  of  agricultural  economy.  It  may  suffice 
to  say  in  a  few  words  that  in  the  thirteenth  century  there 
were  few  small  farms  ;  the  great  proprietors  kept  their 
land  in  their  own  hands  and  farmed  on  their  own  account, 
by  the  aid  of  their  villans  and  other  dependents.  It  was 
more  convenient  to  give  their  labourers  a  subordinate  in- 
terest in  the  land,  than  to  compensate  them  in  money  for 
the  personal  services  they  rendered  at  the  various  seasons 
of  the  year.  Erom  this  arrangement  the  system  of  copy- 
holds is  to  be  mainly  derived.  In  early  times  some  services 
were  repaid  in  kind. 

Numerous  ancient  marl  pits  yet  remaining  in  various 
parts  of  the  country  shew  the  extent  to  which  that  ma- 
terial was  employed  in  preparing  soils ;  and  the  litter  of 
cattle-folds  was  amassed  for  the  same  purpose  :  in  some 
leases,  of  the  early  part  of  the  fourteenth  century,  the  tenant 
covenanted  to  apply  it  twice  in  the  year ;  this  was  a  gene- 

*  Rot.  Tip.  5  Edw.  I.,  2U9  Rot.  Comp. 


ral  agreement  in  the  county  of  Wilts.  It  was  a  common 
practice  to  let  stock  of  every  description  to  farm,  even  bees, 
the  lord  receiving  in  return  so  much  of  the  produce,  besides 
his  original  investment.  Thus  in  the  manor  of  Tunbridge, 
part  of  the  honour  of  Clare,  the  swineherds  had  forty-five 
sows,  for  each  of  which  they  were  bound  to  render  every 
year,  if  there  were  paunage,  five  pigs ;  if  there  were  no 
paunage  they  paid  one  hundred  and  five  shillings ;  and  so, 
observes  the  bailiff,  "  those  sows  are  immortal  to  their  lords, 
because  the  swineherds  will  always  answer  thus  for  them7." 

Daily  labourers  on  farms  were  fed  at  the  lord's  expense ; 
their  chief  diet  being  a  sort  of  porridge,  the  ingredients 
of  which  are  not  specified.  The  whole  arrangements 
were  under  the  control  of  the  reeve,  or  steward,  who  also 
managed  the  sale  of  stock  of  every  description.  One  of 
his  duties  was  to  collect  the  hair  of  the  cattle  for  the 
purpose  of  making  ropes  for  the  ploughs  and  wains  j  for 
the  same  object  he  was  bound  to  grow  a  crop  of  hemp  on 
the  demesne  lend2 :  all  farm  implements  were  originally 
furnished  and  kept  in  repair  by  the  lord. 

The  chief  agriculturists  of  the  kingdom  were  the  reli- 
gious, especially  the  monks  of  the  Cistertian  order,  and  it 
is  from  a  careful  examination  of  their  chartularies  and  the 
custumals  of  their  manors  that  most  of  the  information  ex- 
tant relating  to  medieval  husbandry  is  to  be  gleaned.  The 
quantity  of  live  stock  possessed  by  some  of  the  clergy  was 
often  enormous,  considering  how  prevalent  diseases  among 
cattle  were,  both  from  the  testimony  of  chroniclers  and 
contemporary  farming  accounts;  in  1331  the  stock  be- 
longing to  the  bishopric  of  Winchester  amounted  to  1683 
oxen  of  all  ages,  and  11,548  sheep. 

7  "  Et  iste  sues  immortales  dominis     pense  Honoris  de  Clare, 
suis,  quia  semper  sic  respondebunt  inde         z  Add.    MS.   6159 ;     tract  entitled 
porcarii."    Rot.  Pip.  20  Hen.  III.  Ex-      "  Husebondrie,"  fo.  217. 



There  is,  however,  another  subject  connected  with  the 
domestic  economy  of  the  middle  ages  which  possesses,  it 
may  be,  a  greater  degree  of  interest  than  agriculture,  and 
which  is  more  germane  to  an  essay  on  Domestic  Archi- 
tecture, and  that  is  the  condition  of  horticulture ;  we  are 
certain  our  ancestors  had  gardens  of  some  kind  attached  to 
their  manor-houses,  and  it  is  worth  while  to  ascertain  their 
ordinary  character. 

The  first  rudiments  of  horticultural  science  must  have 
been  introduced  into  this  country  by  the  Romans ;  and 
the  writings  of  Pliny  prove  that  the  fruits  cultivated  by 
that  people  at  the  zenith  of  their  rule  included  almost  all 
those  now  grown  in  Europe,  with  the  exception  of  the 
orange a,  pine-apple,  gooseberry,  currant,  and  raspberry. 
Even  in  those  early  times,  and  when  much  of  the  country 
was  forest  and  marsh,  we  have  the  testimony  of  Tacitus b 
that  "  the  soil  and  climate  of  England  were  very  fit  for  all 
kinds  of  fruit-trees,  except  the  vine  and  the  olive ;  and  for 
all  plants  and  edible  vegetables,  except  a  few  which  are 
peculiar  to  hotter  countries."  If  this  observation  does  not 
exactly  prove  that  horticulture  had  been  widely  tried,  it 
supports  the  conjecture  that  it  was  not  long  before  the 
Roman  settlers  introduced  those  fruits  which  they  were 
accustomed  to  consume  in  their  own  country,  and  which 
were  not  found  indigenous  in  this.  Pliny  states  ex- 
plicitly that  cherries  were  planted  in  Britain  about  the 
middle  of  the  first  century ;  they  had  been  brought  from 
Pontus  to  Italy  by  Lucullus c  a  hundred  and  twenty  years 
previously.    Notwithstanding  the  opinion  of  Tacitus,  that 

a  Though  this  has  been" douhted ;  some 
writers  having  supposed  the  "  malus  as- 
syria,"  or  "citrus  medica,"  mentioned 
by  Pliny,  lib.  xii.  cap.  vii.,  to  mean  the 
orange;    but  see  on    this    subject  the 

edition  of  Desfontaines,  Paris,  1829,  vol. 
v.  p.  10,  and  the  Excursus,  p.  99. 

b  Vita  Agric,  cap.  xiv. 

c  Hist.  Nat.,  lib.  xv.  cap.  xxx. 


our  climate  was  not  suited  to  the  vine,  it  was  intro- 
duced by  the  Romans  in  the  third  century,  and  that 
its  culture  was  not  very  soon  afterwards  abandoned,  is 
proved  by  Bede's  notice  of  vineyards  at  the  beginning 
of  the  eighth  century. 

Whatever  amount  of  horticultural  knowledge  may  have 
been  diffused  in  England  under  the  dominion  of  the  Romans, 
there  can  be  no  reasonable  doubt  that  much  of  it  was  soon 
lost  amidst  the  period  of  anarchy  and  devastation  which 
succeeded  their  retirement.  Nature  would  in  a  great 
measure  provide  against  the  entire  destruction  of  the  trees 
and  plants  which  they  had  imported  and  acclimatised,  but 
the  science  of  gardening  would  be  gradually  forgotten. 
In  fact  it  was  not  resuscitated  in  any  part  of  Europe  until 
the  time  of  Charlemagne.  That  monarch  greatly  encou- 
raged the  art  in  France,  and  as  England  became  more 
settled  in  its  government,  horticulture  might  be  expected 
to  revive  with  the  other  occupations  of  peace ;  yet  our 
Saxon  ancestors  do  not  seem  to  have  emulated  the  example 
of  their  French  neighbours.  We  know  they  had  their 
herb-gardens,  whence  our  term  orchard,  and  the  existence 
of  one  apple-garden  is  noticed  in  Domesday ;  it  was  at 
Nottingham  :  horti,  and  hortuli,  gardens,  or  little  gardens, 
are  frequently  mentioned  also  in  that  record.  It  must  be 
admitted,  however,  that  little  or  nothing  is  known  of  the 
state  of  horticulture  in  this  country  prior  to  the  Norman 
invasion  :  and  when,  after  that  event,  we  begin  to  find 
traces  of  horticultural  knowledge  among  monastic  writers, 
it  is  evident  from  the  names  applied  to  various  fruits  that 
France  supplied  those  which  were  held  in  most  esteem, 
during  the  twelfth  and  thirteenth  centuries. 

Excepting  a  notice  in  William  of  Malmesbury  relative  to 
the  culture  of  the  vine  in  England,  particularly  in  Glouces- 
tershire, the  earliest  English  author  who  has  treated  of  hor- 


ticulture,  and  that  only  incidentally,  is  Alexander  Necham, 
to  whose  writings  we  have  so  frequently  referred.  His  valu- 
able, comparatively  unknown,  and  as  yet  unpublished,  work 
"  de  Naturis  Rerum d,"  is  a  sort  of  common -place  book, 
wherein  he  entered  under  various  heads  the  gleanings  of  his 
secular  and  theological  reading  ;  but  as  much  of  that  read- 
ing, in  matters  appertaining  to  natural  history,  was  limited 
to  Solinus  and  Isidore,  his  observations  must  be  received 
with  some  caution.  His  description  of  what  a  "  nobilis 
ortus  "  should  contain  is  evidently  in  a  great  degree  purely 
rhetorical,  since  it  enumerates  besides  trees  and  plants  indi- 
genous to,  or  then  probably  acclimatised  in,  England,  others 
which  were,  and  still  are,  except  under  very  special  condi- 
tions, natives  solely  of  the  south-east  of  Europe  and  of  Asia. 
That  his  remarks  however,  were  not  wholly  inapplicable 
to  an  English  monastic  garden  of  the  twelfth  century,  is 
proved  by  his  mention  of  the  pear  of  St.  Regie,  a  fruit  of 
French  origin  and  name,  which  was  extensively  grown  in 
this  country  during  the  thirteenth  century.  Besides  this 
pear  he  enumerates  apples,  chestnuts,  peaches,  pomegran- 
ates, citrons,  golden  apples,  almonds  and  figs.  A  doubt 
may  be  reasonably  entertained  as  to  the  cultivation  of  the 
pomegranate  or  citron,  even  in  the  most  scientific  claustral 
garden,  in  England  during  the  latter  half  of  the  twelfth 
century.  It  should  be  remembered,  nevertheless,  that  both 
had  been  grown  in  Italy  and  the  south  of  France,  from  the 
time  of  the  Romans,  and  that  specimens  may  have  been 
introduced  as  curiosities  by  some  of  the  travelled,  or  alien, 
churchmen  of  Necham's  time.  We  know  from  the  inter- 
esting memorials  of  the  early  abbats  of  St.  Alban's,  pre- 
served by  Matthew  Pa,ris,  that  they  frequently  visited  Italy 
on  the  affairs  of  their  house,  and  they  may  have  imported 

d  There  are  numerous  MS.  copies  of  this  work ;  several  are  in  the  British 


from  thence  horticultural  rarities  for  their  gardens,  as  they 
were  accustomed  to  bring  over  rarities  in  art  for  the  deco- 
ration of  their  church.  There  is  no  reason  to  suppose 
that  the  chestnut,  even  though  not  indigenous,  a  fact  as 
yet  uncertain,  did  not  grow  in  this  country  subsequent  to 
Roman  times;  the  same  remark  applies  to  the  peach, 
almond,  and  fig ;  the  first  of  these  fruits  was  cultivated  as 
far  north  as  St.  Gall  in  the  time  of  Charlemagne,  and  was 
certainly  planted  in  the  palace  garden  at  Westminster  as 
early  as  the  year  1276.  There  remain  then  of  the  fruit 
trees  which  Necham  thought  requisite  for  a  "  noble  garden" 
only  the  "  golden  apples  "  {aurea  mala)  to  be  disposed  of ; 
it  is  not  at  all  probable  that  they  were  golden  pippins,  and 
they  must  it  is  feared,  be  assigned  to  the  fabled  Hesperides, 
of  which  he  had  read  in  his  favourite  Solinus.  Although 
he  does  not  name  them  as  desirable  in  a  "  noble  garden," 
Necham  mentions,  in  another  place,  cherries  and  mulberries, 
with  this  remark,  "they  (and  other  soft  fruits)  should  be 
taken  on  an  empty  stomach,  and  not  after  a  meal."  Among 
soft  fruits  he  reckoned  apples  ;  his  notion  that  pears,  unless 
cooked  were  cold  and  indigestible  was  shared  by  Pliny ;  the 
opinion  was  probably  due  in  both  cases  to  the  fact  that 
the  commonest  varieties  of  that  fruit  were  adapted  chiefly 
to  culinary  purposes.  Necham  makes  no  practical  remarks 
on  horticulture;  he  was  acquainted,  however,  with  the 
process,  still  in  use,  of  grafting  the  pear  on  the  thorn. 
Grafting  was  a  branch  of  horticultural  science  which  exer- 
cised the  minds  and  ingenuity  of  the  religious  from  the 
earliest  time.  Manuscripts  of  the  works  of  Varro,  Colu- 
mella, and  Palladius  were  of  frequent  occurrence  in  the 
monastic  libraries  of  the  middle  ages  ;  and  the  experi- 
mentalists of  those  days,  although  they  certainly  failed  to 
produce,  fully  believed  in  those  marvellous  results  said 
to  have  been  attained  by  grafting;,  which  deceived  the 



credulous  from  the  days  of  Virgil  and  Pliny  to  the  time 
of  Evelyn. 

Of  the  vine,  which  was  extensively  grown  in  this  country 
during  the  twelfth  and  thirteenth  centuries,  Necham  says 
little.  That  it  was  cultivated  in  order  to  make  wine  there 
can  be  no  doubt ;  and  at  the  present  time  it  seems  wholly 
incredible  that  a  controversy  like  that  which  took  place  in 
the  last  century  between  Daines  Barrington,  who  adopted 
the  opinion  of  Sir  Robert  Atkyns e,  on  the  one  side,  and 
Dr.  Pegge  on  the  otherf,  respecting  the  culture  of  the  vine, 
could  have  been  maintained  so  long  in  sheer  ignorance  of 
the  great  number  of  accounts  relating  to  vineyards  which 
are  preserved  in  our  several  Record  offices.  From  the 
time  of  Henry  II.,  the  great  rolls  of  the  exchequer  present 
numerous  illustrations  of  the  subject ;  and  although  after 
that  monarch's  acquisition  of  Guienne,  in  right  of  his 
consort,  Eleanor  of  Aquitaine,  the  manufacture  of  wine  in 
this  country  may  have  been  checked  by  the  importation 
of  a  more  generous  product  from  Bourdeaux;  still  wine, 
whatever  may  have  been  its  quality,  continued  to  be  made 
in  many  a  vineyard  in  England  even  so  late  as  the  fifteenth 
century.  Early  in  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Third  the  vine- 
yards of  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury  at  Teynham  and 
Northflete  in  Kent,  were  in  great  repute,  and  during  the 
vacancy  of  the  see  they  were  kept  in  order  by  the  ministers 
of  the  crown g.  At  the  same  period  the  bishops  of  Hereford 
had  a  vineyard  at  Ledbury  "  under  Malvern,"  the  produce 
of  which  sold  at  ten  shillings  a  barrel11 ;  and  many  other  in- 
stances might  be  cited  if  necessary.  The  accounts  of  the 
keeper  of  the  vineyard  at  Windsor  castle  in  the  reign  of 

e  That  vinea  meant  an  apple  orchard.         g  Liberate  Roll  17  Hen.  III. 
Ancient  and  Present  State  of  Glouces-         h  Rot.  Pip.  20  Hen.  III.,  comp.  de 

tershire,  p.  17.  Episcopatu  Hereford. 

f  Archseologia,  vol.  i.  and  ii. 


Edward  III.,  detail  every  operation,  from  planting,  grafting, 
and  manuring,  till  the  fruit  was  pressed,  casks  made  or  re- 
paired, and  the  wine  barrelled1.  For  some  time  the  super- 
intendence of  the  Windsor  vineyard  was  in  the  hands  of  one 
Stephen  of  Bourdeaux,  who  had  doubtless  been  brought  from 
Guienne,  to  impart  to  English  gardeners  the  method  of  cul- 
ture practised  by  the  vine-dressers  of  the  Garonne.  It  was 
part  of  the  economy  of  the  Windsor  vineyard,  as  of  others,  to 
make  nearly  as  much  verjuice  as  wine,  a  circumstance  which 
may  indicate,  perhaps,  the  poorness  of  the  vintage.  Verjuice 
was  much  used  in  the  sauces  and  other  culinary  prepara- 
tions of  those  times,  and  appears  to  have  been  prepared 
either  from  the  juice  of  the  grape,  from  vine-leaves,  or  from 
sorrel.  The  only  interesting  remark  made  by  Necham  on 
the  vine  refers  to  its  usefulness  when  trained  against  the 
house  front k. 

Erom  the  time  of  Necham  till  the  close  of  the  thirteenth 
century  we  have  little  information  respecting  English  horti- 
culture except  that  which  is  supplied  by  records,  autho- 
rities which  are  necessarily  meagre  in  detail.  In  consider- 
ing their  contents  it  will  be  convenient  to  take  the  several 
fruits  mentioned  in  some  sort  of  order ;  and  first  as  to  the 
Pear.  In  accounts  of  the  fourth  and  the  twentieth  years  of 
Edward  L,  1276,  1292,  we  find  enumerated  among  pur- 
chases for  the  royal  garden  at  Westminster,  plants,  or  sets, 
of  pears  called  Kaylewell,  or  Calswell',  Rewl',  or  de  Regula, 
and  Pesse-pucelle  ;  these  are  rude  versions  of  the  names  of 
French  varieties  then  in  great  repute.  The  Kaylewell  was 
the  Caillou,  a  Burgundy  pear ;  hard,  of  inferior  quality,  and 
fit  only  for  baking  or  stewing.    The  Rewl'  was  the  pear  of 

1  These  accounts  are  included  in  the 
Journals  of  Works  at  Windsor,  preserved 
among  the  Exchequer  Records  formerly 
in  the  custody  of  the  Queen's  Remem- 
brancer and  now  deposited  in  Carlton 


k  "  Pampinus  latitudine  sua  excipit 
aeris  insultus,  cum  res  ita  desiderat,  et 
fenestra  clementiam  caloris  Solaris  ad- 
mittit."  Lib.  ii. 



St.  Regie,  which  we  have  seen  noticed  by  Necham  in  the 
twelfth  century ;  it  appears  to  have  derived  its  name  from 
the  village  of  St.  Regie,  in  Touraine.  The  Pesse-pucelle1 
may  have  been  the  variety  anciently  known  in  France  as 
the  "  Pucelle  de  Saintongue there  was  also  another  sort 
called  "  Pucelle  de  Elandres."  Of  these  varieties  the  Cail- 
lou  seems  to  have  been  most  commonly  grown  in  England  : 
there  is  extant  a  writ  of  Henry  III.  directing  his  gardener 
to  plant  it  both  at  Westminster  and  in  the  garden  at  the 
Tower.  Much  information  as  to  the  different  kinds  of 
pear  known  in  this  country  in  the  thirteenth  century,  is 
derived  from  the  bills  delivered  into  the  Treasury  by  the 
fruiterer  of  Edward  I.  in  the  year  1292m.  They  enumer- 
ate in  addition  to  the  St.  Regie,  Caillou,  and  Pesse-pucelle 
pears,  others  named  Martins,  Dreyes,  Sorells,  Gold-knobs 
("  Gold-knopes"),  and  Cheysills.  If  their  prices  are  to  be 
taken  as  any  indication  of  the  esteem  in  which  the  several 
varieties  were  held,  or  of  their  rarity,  the  St.  Regie  and 
Pesse-pucelle  appear  to  have  occupied  the  first  places ;  the 
cost  of  those  fruits  ranging  from  lOd.  to  2s.  and  3s.  a 
hundred ;  Martins  sold  at  8d.,  the  Caillou  at  Is.,  and  the 
other  sorts  at  2d.  or  3d.  per  hundred. 

To  the  preceding  list  of  pears  cultivated  in  England  in 
early  times  must  be  added  another  sort  which  may  be  rea- 
sonably claimed  as  partly  of  native  origin.  The  horticul- 
tural skill  of  the  Cistertian  monks  of  Wardon,  in  Bedford- 
shire, a  foundation  dating  from  the  twelfth  century,  pro- 
duced, at  some  early  but  uncertain  time,  a  baking  variety 
of  the  pear.  It  bore,  and  still  bears  the  name  of  the  ab- 
bey ;  it  figured  on  its  armorial  escutcheon",  and  supplied 

1  Also  called  "  Pas-pucelle."  according  to  Bishop  Tanner,  Jr.  three 

m  Now  preserved  in  the  Chapter-house,  Wardon  pears  or,  two  and  one;  hut  the 

Westminster.  counter  seal  appended  to  the  deed  of 

n  The  arms  of  Wardon  abhey  were  Surrender,  preserved  among  the  Aug- 



the  contents  of  those  Wardon-pies  so  often  named  in  old 
descriptions  of  feasts,  and  which  so  many  of  our  historical 
novelists0  have  represented  as  huge  pasties  of  venison,  or 
other  meat,  suited  to  the  digestive  capacities  of  gigantic 
wardens  of  feudal  days.  It  is  time,  in  justice  to  these 
venerable  gardeners,  that  this  error  should  be  exploded. 
Their  application  to  horticultural  pursuits,  even  up  to  the 
Dissolution,  is  honourably  attested  by  a  survey  of  their 
monastery,  made  after  that  event,  which  mentions  the 
"  great  vineyard,"  the  "  little  vineyard/'  two  orchards, 
doubtless  the  same  in  which  the  "  Wardon"  was  first 
reared,  and  a  hopyard.  The  Wardon  is  still  known  in  the 
west  and  other  parts  of  England,  as  a  winter  pear. 

The  Wardon  completes  the  list  of  the  named  varieties 
of  the  pear  grown  in  this  country  during  medieval  times, 
so  far  as  the  subject  has  been  hitherto  investigated.  It 
should  be  noticed,  however,  as  "  Gold-knopes"  are  named 
above,  that  there  is  still  a  common  Scotch  pear  called 
the  "  Golden  Knap,"  which  is  possibly  the  very  sort  sup- 
plied to  Edward  I.,  more  than  five  centuries  and  a  half 
gone  by. 

Of  apples  one  sort  only  is  named  in  any  account  of  the 
thirteenth  century  that  has  fallen  under  the  writer's  obser- 
vation ;  and  that  is  the  "costard? it  occurs  in  the  fruit- 
erer's bills,  already  quoted,  of  the  year  1292 :  but  as  this 
fruit  was  very  generally  cultivated  from  an  early  time**  there 
must  have  been  many  varieties  known.    The  pear  main  was 

mentation  Records,  bears  a  demi-crosier  perty  of  keeping!"  Arboretum  et  Fruti- 

between  three  Wardon  pears.    The  late  cetum  Britannicum,  vol.  ii.  p.  882. 

editors  of  Dugdale's  Monasticon  remark  P  "  Poma  Costard' ;"  they  sold  for  one 

that  Wardon  pears  were  sometimes  called  shilling  the  hundred. 

Abbats'  pears,  but  no  authority  is  given  q  Malmesbury,  speaking  of  Glouces- 

for  the  assertion.    Monasticon,  vol.  v.  tershire,  says,  "  Cernas  tramites  publicos 

p.  371.  vestitos  pomiferis  arboribus,  non  insitiva 

0  Mr.  Loudon  observes  that  the  War-  manus  industria,  sed  ipsius  solius  humi 

don  pear  was  so  called  from  "its  pro-  natura." 


certainly  known  by  that  name  soon  after  the  year  1200,  as 
Blomefield  instances  a  tenure,  in  Norfolk,  by  petty  serjeanty 
and  the  payment  of  200  pearmains  and  4  hogsheads  of  cider 
or  wine  made  of  pearmains,  into  the  Exchequer,  at  the  feast 
of  St.  Michael  yearly1'.  Cider  was  largely  manufactured 
during  the  thirteenth  century,  even  as  far  north  as  York- 
shire; thus  in  1282  the  bailiff  of  Cowick  in  that  county, 
stated  in  his  account,  that  he  had  made  sixty  gallons  of 
cider  from  three  quarters  and  a  half  of  apples8.  It  has 
been  already  remarked  that  our  forefathers  considered  the 
apple  to  be  a  "  soft  fruit,"  and  more  wholesome  than  the 

It  may  be  desirable,  previous  to  the  enumeration  of  the 
other  kinds  of  fruit  generally  cultivated  during  this  century, 
to  place  before  the  reader  a  statement  of  the  resources  of  a 
nobleman's  garden  in  the  year  1296;  one  which,  although 
it  belonged  to  perhaps  the  wealthiest  baron  of  that  period, 
was  not,  probably,  better  stocked,  or  more  extensive,  than 
many  annexed  to  the  Cistertian  abbeys  of  the  same  age  ; 
the  members  of  that  religious  order  being  then  pre-eminent 
for  their  skill  in  horticulture  and  for  agricultural  enter- 

In  the  office  of  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster  is  preserved  an 
account  rendered  by  the  bailiff  of  Henry  de  Laci,  earl  of 

r  History  of  Norfolk,  vol.  xi.  p.  242. 
ed.  1810. 

s  In  a  tract  on  Husbandry,  written  in 
England  early  in  the  fourteenth  century, 
we  find  it  stated,  under  the  rubric  "  co- 
merit  horn  deit  mettre  le  issue  de  sun 
estor  a  ferine,"  that  x  quarters  of  apples 
or  pears  ought  to  yield  a  tun  (tonel)  of 
cider  as  rent  (moesun.)  Add.  MS.  6159, 
fo.  220.  Lawson,  who  lived  in  York- 
shire, thus  describes  the  process  of  mak- 
ing cider  and  perry  in  his  time,  that  is 
before  1597:  "  dresse  every  apple,  the 

stalke,  upper  end,  and  all  galls  away: 
stampe  them,  and  straine  them,  and 
within  24  houres  time  tunne  them  up 
into  cleane,  sweet  and  sound  vessels,  for 
feare  of  evill  ayre,  which  they  will  readily 
take  :  and  if  you  hang  a  poeke  full  of 
cloves,  mace,  nutmegs,  cinamon,  ginger, 
and  pils  of  lemmons  in  the  midst  of  the 
vessell,  it  will  make  it  as  wholesome  and 
pleasant  as  wine.  The  like  usage  doth 
Perry  require."  A  New  Orchard,  &c, 
p.  52. 


Lincoln*,  of  the  profits  arising  from,  and  the  expenditure 
upon,  the  earl's  garden  in  Ho] born,  then  in  the  suburbs  of 
London,  in  the  24th  year  of  Edward  I.  We  learn  from 
this  curious  document  that  apples,  pears,  large  nuts,  and 
cherries,  were  produced  in  sufficient  quantities,  not  only  to 
supply  the  earl's  table,  but  also  to  yield  a  profit  by  their 
sale.  The  comparatively  large  sum  of  nine  pounds,  two 
shillings  and  threepence,  in  money  of  that  time,  equal  to 
about  one  hundred  and  thirty-five  pounds  of  modern  cur- 
rency, was  received  in  one  year  from  the  sale  of  fruit  alone. 
The  vegetables  cultivated  in  this  garden  were  beans,  onions, 
garlic,  leeks  and  some  others,  which  are  not  specifically 
named.  Hemp  was  also  grown  there,  and  some  description 
of  plant  which  yielded  verjuice,  possibly,  sorrel.  Cuttings  of 
the  vines  were  sold,  from  which  it  may  be  inferred  that  the 
earl's  trees  were  held  in  some  estimation. 

The  stock  purchased  for  this  garden  comprised  cuttings 
or  sets  of  the  following  varieties  of  pear-trees  ;  viz.  two  of 
the  St.  Regie,  two  of  the  Martin,  five  of  the  Caillou,  and 
three  of  the  Pesse-pucelle  :  it  is  stated  that  these  cuttings 
were  for  planting.  The  only  flowers  named  are  roses,  of 
which  a  quantity  was  sold,  producing  three  shillings  and 
twopence.  There  was  a  pond,  or  vivary,  in  the  garden, 
and  the  bailiff  expended  eight  shillings  in  the  purchase  of 
small  fish,  frogs,  and  eels,  to  feed  the  pikes  in  it.  This 
account  further  shews  that  the  garden  was  enclosed  by  a 
paling  and  fosse  ;  that  it  was  managed  by  a  head  gardener 
who  had  an  annual  fee  of  fifty-two  shillings  and  two  pence, 
together  with  a  robe  or  livery  :  his  assistants  seem  to  have 
been  numerous,  and  were  employed  in  dressing  the  vines 
and  manuring  the  ground  :  their  collective  wages  for  the 
year  amounted  to  five  pounds. 

Quinces  {coynes)  and  medlars  are  frequently  mentioned 

*  The  last  of  that  name  who  hore  the  title  ;  he  died  in  1312. 


in  the  royal  household  accounts  of  the  thirteenth  century ; 
so  often,  indeed,  that  there  is  no  reason  to  doubt  that  these 
fruits  were  extensively  cultivated  in  England.  Quinces  are 
named  in  the  fruiterer's  accounts  of  the  year  1292,  before 
quoted,  and  were  sold  at  the  rate  of  four  shillings  the 

Peaches,  as  already  stated,  were  enumerated  as  garden 
stock  by  Necham  in  the  twelfth  century,  and  slips  of  peach- 
trees  were  planted  in  the  royal  garden  at  Westminster  in 
the  fourth  year  of  Edward  the  First,  1276u. 

We  have  not  found  any  notices  of  the  nectarine  or 
apricot  earlier  than  the  fifteenth  centuryx. 

The  almond  is  mentioned  by  Nechamy,  but  we  may 
reasonably  assume  it  was  cultivated  chiefly  as  an  ornamental 
tree,  and  that  the  large  quantities  of  this  nut  eaten  during 
Lent,  in  ancient  times,  were  imported  from  the  south  of 
Europe.  It  is  worthy  of  remark  that  Necham  speaks  of  the 
date-palm,  a  tree  which  appears  to  have  been  cultivated 
in  England  as  early  as  the  sixteenth  century.  Lawson,  in 
his  "New  Orchard,"  gives  instructions  for  setting  date 

Plums  are  seldom  named  in  early  accounts. 

The  cherry  was  well  known  at  the  period  of  the  Con- 
quest, and  at  every  subsequent  time.  We  have  seen  that 
it  is  mentioned  by  Necham  in  the  twelfth,  and  that  it  was 
cultivated  in  the  earl  of  Lincoln's  garden  in  the  thirteenth 
century.  In  the  twenty-third  year  of  Henry  the  Third 
there  is  an  order  to  buy  cherry-trees  for  the  royal  garden 

u  From  the  commentary  of  Godefridus 
on  Palladius,  translated  in  the  fifteenth 
century  by  Nicholas  Bollarde,  we  find 
that  the  fruit  of  the  peach  was  then  called 
its  apple.  "Also  the  appul  of  a  pecher 
shallewox  rede  if  his.  .  .  gryfted  one 
a  plane  (?plome)  tie."    MS.  Harl.  116, 

fo.  156. 

Both  are  named  by  Lawson  in  the 
sixteenth  century. 

y  Directions  for  planting  it  are  given 
by  Nicholas  Bollarde,  in  the  fifteenth 
century.    MS.  Harl.  116,  fo.  155,  b. 


at  Westminster2,  and  in  1277  Giles  de  Audenard  purchased 
"  plants  of  vines,  cherry-trees,  willows,  roses,  and  certain 
other  things"  for  the  same  placea.  In  an  account  of  the  pro- 
fits of  the  honour  of  Clare  in  1236  we  find  that  the  apples, 
cider,  and  cherries  sold  during  one  year  brought  the  sum  of 
£3.  6s.  5d.h  It  is  true  no  varieties  of  this  fruit  are  named,  as 
of  the  pear,  but  when  we  examine  writers  of  the  beginning  of 
the  seventeenth  century,  as  for  instance  the  "  Husbandman's 
fruitfull  Orchard,"  published  before  1609,  we  find  that  four 
varieties  of  the  cherry  were  then  grown  in  England,  viz., 
the  Flemish,  the  Gascoyne,  the  English  and  the  Black 
cherry.  The  foreign  sorts  ripened  in  May,  the  native  not 
before  June.  It  is  extremely  probable  that  the  Gascoyne 
cherry  was  brought  into  this  country  soon  after  Guienne 
became  a  dependency  of  the  British  crown,  and  our  great 
mercantile  intercourse  with  Flanders,  from  a  very  remote 
time,  would  naturally  occasion  the  introduction  of  its  fruits 
as  well  as  its  manufactures.  The  late  Mr.  Loudon c  refers 
to  one  Richard  Haines,  fruiterer  to  Henry  the  Eighth,  as  the 
person  supposed,  by  some,  to  have  re-introduced  the  culture 
of  the  cherry  in  England.  This  opinion  was  derived  from 
the  "  Epistle  to  the  Reader,"  prefixed  to  "  The  Husband- 
man's fruitfull  Orchard the  name  of  the  fruiterer  was  not 
Haines  but  Harris  ;  he  was  an  Irishman,  and  planted  an 
orchard,  celebrated  in  the  seventeenth  century,  at  Teynham 
in  Kent,  a  place  famous  long  before  for  its  vineyard,  which 
bore  the  name  of  the  "  New-garden."  He  is  said  to  have 
fetched  out  of  "  Fraunce  greate  store  of  graft es  especially 
pippins :  before  which  time  there  was  no  right  pippins  in 
England.  He  fetched  also,  out  of  the  Lowe  Countries, 
Cherrie  grafts,  and  Peare  grafts,  of  divers  sorts."  Henry 

z  Liberate  Roll,  23  Hen.  III.  m.  15. 
*  Rot.  Pip.,  5  Edw.  I. 
b  Rot.  Pip.,  20  Hen.  III. 

0  Encyclopaedia  of  Gardening-,  td. 
1835,  p.  22. 



the  Eighth  planted  a  great  quantity  of  cherry-trees  at 
Hampton  Court  through  the  agency  of  Harris d. 

The  mulberry,  or  More  tree,  as  it  was  called,  appears 
to  have  been  grown  in  England  from  a  very  remote  period ; 
it  is  included  in  Necham's  list  of  desirable  fruits. 

The  earliest  notice  of  the  gooseberry,  which  I  have 
found,  is  of  the  fourth  year  of  Edward  the  Eirst,  1276, 
when  plants  of  this  genus  were  purchased  for  the  king's 
garden  at  Westminster;  but  as  it  is  an  indigenous  fruit 
we  may  infer  that  it  was  known  at  a  remoter  time,  though 
probably  only  in  its  wild  state. 

Strawberries  and  raspberries  rarely  occur  in  early  ac- 
counts, owing  probably  to  the  fact  that  they  were  not  culti- 
vated in  gardens,  and  known  only  as  wild  fruits.  Some 
kind  of  drink  however  was  made  both  from  the  raspberry 
and  mulberrye.  Strawberries  are  named  once  in  the  House- 
hold Roll  of  the  countess  of  Leicester  for  the  year  1265. 
This  plant  does  not  seem  to  have  been  much  grown  even  at 
the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century f.  Both  fruits  being  indi- 
genous would  be  found  plentifully  in  the  woods  in  ancient 
times,  and  thence  brought  to  market  as  they  are  at  the  pre- 
sent day  in  Italy  and  other  parts  of  southern  Europe. 

Of  nuts  the  sorts  common  in  this  country  from  an  early 
period  appear  to  have  been  the  chestnut  and  hazel-nut. 
The  "large  nuts"  mentioned  as  growing  in  the  garden  of 
the  earl  of  Lincoln  in  Holborn,  were  probably  walnuts ;  for 
although  the  exact  period  of  the  introduction  of  that  variety 
is  not  known,  it  was  generally  cultivated  as  early  as  the 

d  The  accounts  are  still  preserved ;  bought  at  Southampton,  the  bailiffs  of 

they  were    formerly  at    the  Chapter-  which  place  are  commanded  to  send  to 

house.  London  "unum  dolium  de  mureto  et 

e  There  is  an  order  on  the  Liberate  aliud  dolium  de  Francboyse." 
Roll,  21  Hen.  III.  m.  13,  to  pay  John         f  In  the  time  of  Henry  VIII.  straw- 

Mansel  the  king's  clerk  6s.  Sd.  "  pro  berry  roots  sold  at  fourpence  a  bushel, 

duobus  bucettis  de  mure  et  Francboyse"  Hampton  Court  Accounts. 


middle  of  the  fifteenth  century,  and  the  wood  of  the  tree 
known  by  the  name  of  "  masere whence,  probably,  the 
name  given  to  those  wooden  bowls,  so  much  prized  in  me- 
dieval times,  called  mazers  e.  It  has  been  supposed  that 
those  vessels  derived  their  appellation  from  the  Dutch  word 
maeser,  signifying  a  maple h,  and  it  is  probable  they  were 
sometimes  made  of  that  material,  as  they  were  occasionally 
of  the  ash  and  other  woods ;  yet  the  timber  of  the  walnut 
tree  being  often  beautifully  variegated  would  supply  a 
material  in  every  respect  equal,  if  not  superior,  to  the  com- 
mon maple. 

Nuts  were  cultivated  in  England  in  early  times  in  order 
to  obtain  oil.  It  was  estimated  by  an  English  writer  of 
the  early  part  of  the  fourteenth  century,  that  one  quarter  of 
nuts  ought  to  yield  four  gallons  of  oil  \  but  he  does  not 
specify  any  particular  sort  of  nut. 

Little  can  be  said  with  certainty  respecting  the  varieties 
of  culinary  vegetables  cultivated  in  England  previously  to 
the  fifteenth  century.  The  cabbage  tribe  was  doubtless 
well  known  in  the  earliest  times,  and  generally  reared 
during  the  middle  ages  :  of  leguminous  plants  the  pea  and 
bean  were  grown  in  the  thirteenth  century ;  the  latter  it 
will  be  recollected  was  among  the  products  of  the  earl  of 

g  "  Take  many  rype  walenottes  and 
water  hem  a  while,  and  put  hem  in  a 
moiste  pytt,  and  hile  hem,  and  ther  shal- 
be  grawe  therof  a  grett  stoke  that  we  calle 
masere."  Nicholas  Bollarde's  version  of 
Godefridus  super  Palladium,  MS.  Har. 
116,  fo.  158. 

h  See  Arch.  Journal,  vol.  ii.  p.  262. 

1  "E  un  quarter  de  noyz  deit  re- 
spoundre  de  iiij.  galons  de  oille."  The 
title  of  this  curious  tract  is,  "  Ici  aprent 
la  manere  coment  hom  deit  charger 
baillifs  e  provoz  sur  lur  acounte  rendre 
de  un  maner.    E  coment  hom  deit  ma- 

ner  garder."  The  treatise  immediately 
following  it,  in  the  same  manuscript, 
purports  to  have  been  written  by  Sir 
Walter  de  Henlee,  knight — "  Ceste  dite 
fist  Sire  Water  de  Henlee  chivaler" — 
from  the  character  of  the  writing  in  each 
being  the  same  it  may  be  conjectured 
with  probability,  that  he  was  the  author 
of  both  works.  Add.  MS.  6159,  fo.  220. 
The  oil  of  small  nuts,  "minutarum 
nuciurn,"  is  often  named  on  the  Libe- 
rate Rolls  of  the  time  of  Henry  the 



Lincoln's  garden  in  Holborn.  The  chief  esculent  root  was 
probably  beet,  which  is  mentioned  by  Necham.  The  pot 
herbs  and  sweet  herbs  cultivated  and  used  from  a  remote 
period,  were  the  same  which  are  enumerated  by  our  native 
writers  on  horticulture  of  the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth 
century  k.  Of  salads  the  lettuce,  rocket,  mustard,  water- 
cress, and  hop,  are  noticed  by  Necham.  Onions,  garlic, 
and  leeks  appear  to  have  been  the  only  alliaceous  plants  in 
use  before  the  year  1400.  With  these  remarks  we  may 
quit  the  kitchen,  for  the  flower-garden. 

Our  invaluable  authority,  Alexander  Necham,  says,  a 
"  noble  garden"  should  be  arrayed  with  roses,  lilies,  sun- 
flowers, violets  and  poppies ;  he  mentions  also  the  narcissus 
(N.  pseudonarcissus  ?)  The  rose  seems  to  have  been  culti- 
vated from  the  most  remote  time ;  early  in  the  thirteenth 
century  we  find  King  John  sending  a  wreath  of  roses  to 
his  lady,  par  amours,  at  Ditton  ;  roses  and  lilies  were 
among  the  plants  bought  for  the  royal  garden  at  West- 
minster in  1276  :  the  annual  rendering  of  a  rose  is  one  of 
the  commonest  species  of  quit-rent  named  in  ancient  con- 
veyances. Of  all  the  flowers,  however,  known  to  our  an- 
cestors, the  gilly-flower  or  clove  pink l,  {clou-de-girqflee), 
was  the  commonest,  and  to  a  certain  degree  the  most  es- 
teemed. Mr.  Loudon  has  stated,  erroneously,  that  the 
cruelties  of  the  duke  of  Alva  in  1567,  were  the  occasion  of 
our  receiving  through  the  Flemish  weavers,  gilly-flowers, 
carnations,  and  Provins  roses.  The  gilly-flower  had  been 
known  and  prized  in  England  centuries  before  :  at  the  end 
of  the  sixteenth  century,  Lawson,  who  terms  it  the  king  of 
flowers,  except  the  rose,  boasted  that  he  had  gilly-flowers 

k  Compare  Lawson's  "  Country  House-      and  sweet  herbs  to  the  sixteenth  century- 
wife's  Garden,"  chapters  7  and  8.   Here     which  were  certainly  known  here  long 
it  may  be  remarked  that  Mr.  Loudon  in  before, 
his  "  Encyclopaedia  of  Gardening"  has         1  Dianthus  Caryophyllus. 
attributed  the  introduction  of  many  pot 



"  of  nine  or  ten  severall  colours,  and  divers  of  them  as 
bigge  as  roses.  Of  all  flowers  (save  the  Damask  rose)  they 
are  the  most  pleasant  to  sight  and  smell.  Their  use  is 
much  in  ornament,  and  comforting  the  spirites,  by  the 
sence  of  smelling. "  There  was  a  variety  of  this  flower 
well  known  in  early  times  as  the  wall  gilly-flower  or  bee- 
flower,  "because  growing  in  walles,  even  in  winter,  and 
good  for  Bees  m."  The  reserved  rent,  "  unins  clavi  gario- 
fili"  which  is  of  such  frequent  occurrence  in  medieval  deeds 
relating  to  land,  meant  simply  the  render  of  a  gilly-flower, 
although  it  has  been  usually  understood  to  signify  the  pay- 
ment of  a  clove  of  commerce ;  the  incorrectness  of  this 
reading  must  be  apparent  if  it  be  recollected  that  the 
clove  was  scarcely  known  in  Europe  in  the  twelfth  and 
thirteenth  centuries,  when  this  kind  of  reserved  rent  was 
most  common. 

Another  flower  of  common  growth  in  medieval  orchards, 
or  gardens,  was  the  pervinke,  or  periwinkle  ; 

"  There  sprang  the  violet  all  newe, 
And  fresh  pervinke,  rich  of  hewe, 
And  flowris  yellow,  white,  and  rede  ; 
Such  plente  grew  there  nor  in  the  mede." — Chaucer. 

As  this  plant  will  flower  under  the  shade  of  trees  or  lofty 
walls,  it  was  well  adapted  to  ornament  the  securely  en- 
closed, and  possibly  sombre,  gardens  of  early  times. 

From  an  early  period  the  nurture  of  bees  had  occupied 
attention  in  England ;  the  numerous  entries  in  Domesday 
in  which  honey  is  mentioned  shew  how  much  that  product 
was  employed  for  domestic  purposes  in  the  eleventh  cen- 
tury. Among  other  uses  to  which  it  was  applied  was  the 
making  of  beer  or  ale  (cervisia.)  When  the  duke  of 
Saxony  visited  England  in  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Second, 

m  The  "  Country  Housewife's  Garden,"  p.  14. 



the  sheriff  of  Hampshire  had  an  allowance  in  his  account 
for  corn,  barley,  and  honey  which  he  had  purchased  to 
brew  beer  for  the  duke's  use n.  An  apiary  was  generally 
attached  to  a  medieval  garden,  and  formed  part  of  the 
stock,  which  according  to  the  usage  of  early  days,  was 
sometimes  let  out  to  farm.  In  the  fourteenth  century  an 
English  writer,  whom  we  have  before  quoted,  observed  that 
every  hive  of  bees  ought  to  yield,  one  with  another,  two  of 
issue,  as  some  yielded  none  and  others  three  or  four 
yearly  °.  In  some  places,  he  adds,  bees  have  no  food  given 
to  them  during  winter,  but  where  they  are  fed  a  gallon  of 
honey  may  suffice  to  feed  eight  hives  yearly.  He  estimated 
that  if  the  honey  were  taken  only  once  in  two  years  each 
hive  would  yield  two  gallons. 

It  is  not  probable  that  much  art  was  shewn  in  the  lay- 
ing out  of  gardens  or  orchards  before  the  fifteenth  century. 
Water  being  an  absolute  necessity,  every  large  garden 
would  be  supplied  with  a  pond  or  well,  and  it  appears  from 
ancient  illuminations  that  fountains,  or  conduits,  often  of 
elaborate  design,  were  sometimes  erected  in  the  gardens  of 
the  wealthy. 

Our  ancestors  seem  to  have  been  very  fond  of  the  green- 
sward, and  any  resemblance  to  modern  flower-beds  is  rarely 
seen  in  the  illustrations  of  old  manuscripts  ;  where  flowers 
are  represented  so  planted  they  are  generally  surrounded 
by  a  wattled  fence. 

■  Madox's  Hist,  of  the  Exchequer.  doune  lorn,  e  la  ou  horn  lour  doune  a 

0  "  E  chescoune  rouche  de  eez  deit  manger  si  pount  il  pestre  viij.  rouches 

respoundre  de  deus  rouches  par  an  de  tot  le  yver  de  un  galon  de  mel  par  an. 

lour  issue,  lun  parmy  lautre.  Kar  acoune  E  si  vous  nel  quillez  fors  en  ij.  aunz,  si 

ne  rent  nule,  e  acoune  iij.  ou  iiij.  par  an.  averes  ij.  galouns  de  mel  de  chescoune 

E  en  acoun  lu  lour  doune  lorn  a  manger  rouche." — Add.  MS.  6159,  fo.  220. 
rien  de  tout  le  iver,  e  en  acou  lu  lour 




Although  this  building  is  now,  and  has  been  for  some 
time,  called  a  castle,  it  was  known  in  the  thirteenth  and 
fourteenth  centuries  by  the  name  of  "  Aydon  Halle,"  as 
was  also  its  dependent  manor  \  It  is  indeed  only  a  border 
house  carefully  fortified.  "  The  general  plan  is  a  long  ir- 
regular line  with  two  rather  extensive  enclosures  or  courts 
formed  by  walls,  besides  one  smaller  one  within.  On  two 
sides  is  a  steep  ravine,  on  the  others  the  outer  wall  has  a 
kind  of  ditch  but  very  shallow.  The  original  chief  entrance 
is  yet  by  an  external  flight  of  steps,  which  had  a  covered 
roof  to  the  upper  story,  and  so  far  partaking  of  the  features 
of  the  earlier  houses :  it  contains  at  least  four  original  fire- 
places. Some  of  the  windows  are  square  headed,  with  two 
lights  \"  The  stable  is  remarkable  for  the  total  absence  of 
wood  in  its  construction,  the  mangers  being  of  stone,  and, 
as  Hutchinson0  remarks,  was  evidently  contrived  for  the 
preservation  of  cattle  during  an  assault.  The  windows  of 
the  stable  are  small  oblong  apertures  in  the  wall  widely 
splayed  internally  and  secured  by  iron  bars.  Among  other 
details  worthy  of  notice,  is  a  good  example  of  a  drain. 
The  number  of  fireplaces  in  this  building  may  be  attributed 

a  Escaet.  43  Edw.  III.,  no.  16,  "ma- 
nerium  de  Ayden  halle."  It  was  then 
in  the  possession  of  Robert  de  Raymes 
or  Ramsey. 

•>  Mr.  Twopeny,   in   "  Glossary  of 
Architecture,"  5th  edition,  vol.  i.  p.  168. 
e  History  of  Northumberland. 














i  X 

j    L  1 

i         1  M 

1— i  A  Ti 

1  J   I       H  Id" 

1  71 


A.  Back  kitchen 

B.  Kitchen 

C.  Sitting  Room 
D  Parlour 

E.  Dairy 

F  Cellar 

G.  Pantry 

H.  Lumber  bouse 
I  Ditto. 

J    Eovel  arched  with  stone. 
K  Hovel 

L  Hovel  arched  with  stone 
M  Court  yard 
N.  Garden 
P  Synke 

Q.  R  S,  T  D,  V,  X ,  buildings  for  farm  pur- 

R.-ale  80  feet  to  an  inch 







to  its  situation  in  a  district  where  coal  was  dug,  and  easily 
procured,  at  the  time  of  its  construction. 

The  manor  of  Aydon  belonged,  in  the  early  part  of  the 
thirteenth  century,  to  a  family  which  derived  its  name  from 
the  place.  The  male  line  of  the  Ay  dons  failed  in  the  time 
of  Edward  the  First,  who  gave  Emma  de  Aydon,  the  heiress 
of  her  family,  in  marriage  to  Peter  de  Vallibus d,  by  whom, 
it  is  probable,  the  present  building  was  erected.  It  has 
been  already  observed  that  its  date  is  late  in  the  thirteenth 
century,  and  the  period  of  the  acquisition  of  the  property 
by  de  Vallibus  may  be  certainly  placed  after  the  year  1280. 
The  subsequent  descent  of  this  estate  is  not  very  clear,  nor 
is  it  material  to  the  present  purpose.  In  a  list  of  the  names 
of  all  the  castles  and  towers  in  the  county  of  Northumber- 
land, with  the  names  of  their  proprietors,  made  about  the 
year  1460  e,  it  is  called  the  "  castle  of  Aydon,"  and  is 
described  as  being  the  joint  property  of  Robert  Raymese, 
or  Ramsay,  and  Ralph  de  Grey.  The  Ramsays  are  said 
to  have  had  a  joint  interest  in  it  with  the  family  of  Carnaby 
until  the  time  of  Charles  the  First.  Aydon  castle  is  now 
the  property  of  Sir  Edward  Blackett,  of  Matfen,  Bart.  It 
stands  in  a  commanding  position  about  five  miles  to  the 
north-west  of  the  town  of  Hexham,  overlooking  the  pic- 
turesque valley  of  the  Tyne.  The  tourist  must  not  con- 
found this  place  with  the  manor  of  Haydon  Bridge,  once 
the  seat  of  the  Lucy's  and  Umfravilles,  which  lies  to  the 
west  of  Hexham. 

d  "  Peter  de  Vallibus  tenet  Ayden  &c, 
adterminum  vite  sue."  Testa  de  Nevill, 
p.  386.  At  a  later  time  a  moiety  of  the 
manor  of  Aydon  was  held  by  Richard  de 
Gosebeke,  in  right  of  his  wife.  Inq. 

post  mortem  9  Edw.  I.  no.  34. 

e  Printed  from  a  MS.  in  the  posses- 
sion of  R.  Surtees,  of  Mainsforth,  in 
Hodgson's  History  of  Northumberland, 
vol.  i.  pt.  3. 



This  building  is  part  of  an  ancient  manor-house  which 
belonged  to  the  Priors  of  Christ  Church,  Canterbury f.  It 
is  thus  described  by  Hasted,  the  Kentish  topographer ; 
"  It  appears  to  have  been  a  large  mansion  formerly.  The 
old  hall  of  it  is  yet  remaining,  with  the  windows,  door- 
cases, and  chimnies  of  it,  in  the  Gothic  style.  Over  the 
porch,  at  the  entrance  of  the  house,  is  the  effigies  of  the 
Prior,  curiously  carved  in  stone,  sitting  richly  habited,  with 
his  mitre  and  pall,  and  his  crozier  in  his  left  hand,  his 
right  lifted  up  in  the  act  of  benediction,  and  his  sandals  on 
his  feet.  This  most  probably  represents  Prior  Chillenden s." 
The  hall  and  most  of  the  principal  apartments  were  taken 
down  about  the  year  1810  \  The  mouldings  over  that 
which  was  the  entrance  to  the  house  in  Iiasted's  time 
belong  so  clearly  to  the  style  of  the  thirteenth  century,  the 
niche  and  figure  being  rather  earlier  in  character,  that  it  is 
impossible  they  could  have  been  the  work  of  Prior  Chil- 
lenden in  the  time  of  Richard  the  Second.  It  is  extremely 
probable  that  the  existing  remains  are  a  portion  of  the 
work  of  Prior  Henry,  who,  as  it  appears  by  his  "  Memo- 
riale,"  made  considerable  repairs  in  and  additions  to  this 
house  between  the  years  1289  and  1313.  In  the  former 
year  he  built  a  new  chapel  with  a  garderobe,  and  an  oriel ; 
in  1293  a  new  granary;  in  1303  a  new  stable;  and  in 

f  The  manor  of  Godmersham  was 
originally  given  to  the  priory  of  Christ 
Church,  Canterbury,  by  Beornulph,  king 
of  Mercia,  in  822,  for  the  use  of  the  re- 
fectory and  the  clothing  of  the  monks. 
After  it  had  been  for  some  time  alien- 
ated from  the  monastery,  it  was  restored 
to  it  in  1036  by  Archbishop  Egelnoth. 
In  the  38th  of  Edward  the  Third  the 
prior  had  a  grant  of  a  weekly  market 

here.  In  30  Edward  I.  the  prior  of 
Christ  Church  had  at  Godmersham  one 
messuage,  36  acres  of  land,  one  acre  of 
meadow,  and  three  and  a  half  acres  of 
wood.  At  the  Dissolution  this  manor 
was  granted  to  the  dean  and  chapter  of 

«  History  of  Kent,  vol.  iii.  p.  158. 

h  Gentleman's  Magazine,  March  1810, 
vol.  lxxx.  p.  209. 





1313  a  new  solar,  or  upper  chamber  with  a  garderobe, 
looking  southwards  \  The  chief  features  of  the  edifice  as 
it  now  stands,  are  the  moulded  doorway  already  mentioned^ 
and  a  cylindrical  chimney  in  the  eastern  gable,  which  is 
supported  on  heavy  corbels,  and  apparently  retains  its 
original  capping. 

This  building  is  generally  called  the  "  Priory,"  possibly 
a  corruption  of  "  Priory-house,"  since  it  is  certain  there 
never  was  any  ecclesiastical  foundation  on  the  spot. 


The  history  of  this  building  is  involved  in  great  ob- 
scurity. In  the  year  1281  (9  Edw.  I.),  the  manors  of 
Great  and  Little  Wenham,  in  the  hundred  of  Samford,  co. 
Suffolk,  were  held  by  Petronilla  de  Holbroke.  The  estate 
of  Little  Wenham  was  subsequently  the  seat  of  the  family 
of  Brewrs,  whose  descendants  possessed  it  in  the  reign  of 
Henry  the  Eighth  k. 

The  material  of  the  walls  of  this  house  is  chiefly  brick, 
mixed  in  parts  with  flint.  These  bricks  are  mostly  of  the 
modern  Elemish  shape,  but  there  are  some  of  other  forms 
and  sizes,  bearing  a  general  resemblance  to  Roman  bricks 
or  tiles.  The  colour  of  the  bricks  varies  considerably.  The 
buttresses  and  dressings  are  of  stone. 

The  plan  is  a  parallelogram,  with  a  square  tower  at  one 
angle :  on  the  outside  the  scroll  moulding  is  used  as  a 

1  "  Godmeresham.  Anno  1289,  Nova  E  iv.  fol.  105  b. 

capella  cum  garderoba  et  oriole,  k  Two  knights  banneret  of  this  family 

xij.s.vj.d.    Anno  1293,  Nova  granaria,  are  mentioned  in  the  reign  of  Edward  xviij.s.  iij.d.  Anno  1294,  Nova  ber-  the  First,  Cole's  MSS.  vol.  xxviii.,  p.  108. 

caria,  viij.s.    Anno  1303,  novum  stabu-  See  also  Jermyn's  Suffolk  collections  in 

lum,  viij.s.  iiij.d.      Anno  1313,  the  British  Museum  (Add.  MSS.)  vol. 

novum  solarium  cum  garderoba  versus  xxiii.,  f.  141.    "  Formerly  the  seat  of  the 

Suth',  xix.s.  ij.d."     Memoriale  Brews's,  now  of  Thomas  Thurston  Esq." 

Henrici  Prioris,  MS.  Cotton.,   Galba  Kirby's  Itinerary  of  Suffolk. 


string,  and  it  is  continued  all  round,  shewing  that  the  house 
is  entire  as  originally  built :  at  one  angle,  where  the  ex- 
ternal staircase  was  originally  placed,  some  other  building 
appears  to  have  been  added  at  a  later  period,  though  since 
removed :  of  this  additional  structure  an  Elizabethan  door- 
way remains  with  an  inscription  built  in  above  it.  The 
ground  room  is  vaulted  with  a  groined  vault  of  brick  with 
stone  ribs  which  are  merely  chamfered  ;  they  are  carried  on 
semi-octagon  shafts  with  plainly  moulded  capitals.  The 
windows  of  this  lower  room  are  small  plain  lancets,  widely 
splayed  internally. 

The  upper  room  has  a  plain  timber  roof,  and  the  fire- 
place is  blocked  up.  The  windows  have  seats  in  them ; 
and  at  the  end  of  the  room  near  the  door  is  a  recess  or 
niche  forming  a  sort  of  cupboard.  Both  the  house  and 
the  tower  are  covered  with  flat  leaden  roofs,  having  brick 
battlements  all  round,  with  a  coping  formed  of  moulded 
bricks  or  tiles,  some  of  which  are  original,  and  others  of 
the  Elizabethan  period.  The  tower  is  a  story  higher  than 
the  body  of  the  house,  and  has  a  similar  battlement  and 
coping  :  the  crenelles,  which  are  at  rather  long  intervals, 
are  narrow  with  wide  merlons  between  them.  In  one 
corner  of  the  tower  is  a  turret  with  a  newel  staircase. 

On  the  upper  story  of  the  projecting  square  tower  is 
the  chapel,  which  opens  into  the  large  room  or  hall  at  one 
corner.  It  is  a  small  vaulted  chamber :  the  east  window 
is  of  three  lights,  with  three  foliated  circles  in  the  head,  of 
Early  English  character :  the  north  and  south  windows  are 
small  lancets  widely  splayed  within :  in  the  east  jamb  of 
the  south  window  is  a  very  good  piscina  with  a  detached 
shaft  at  the  angle,  the  capital  of  which  has  good  Early 
English  mouldings  :  the  basin  is  destroyed.  On  the  north 
side  of  the  altar-place  is  another  niche  like  a  piscina,  but 
without  any  basin ;  it  has  a  trefoil  head  and  a  bold  scroll 









A.  Modern  Window,    walled  up.         B    Original  Door,  walled  up.         C.  Modern  Door        D.  Chimney 



moulding  for  a  hood  terminated  by  masks.  The  vault  is 
of  a  single  bay  with  good  ribs,  of  Early  English  character, 
springing  from  corbels,  the  two  eastern  being  heads,  the 
two  western  plain  tongues.  On  each  side  of  the  east 
window  is  a  bracket  for  an  image.  The  west  end  of  the 
chapel  consists  of  a  good  Early  English  doorway,  with  a 
window  on  each  side  of  it,  of  two  lights  with  an  octagonal 
shaft  between  them :  the  labels  both  of  the  door  and 
windows  are  good  scroll  mouldings,  that  of  the  doorway 
terminated  by  bosses  of  foliage,  those  of  the  windows  by 
masks.  On  the  south  side  of  the  chapel  is  another  small 
doorway  opening  to  the  staircase;  opposite  to  this  is  a 
low  side  window,  a  small  lancet  with  a  dripstone  like  the 
others,  internally  it  is  widely  splayed  to  a  round  arch ;  it 
is  situated  close  to  the  west  wall  of  the  chapel,  and  has  an 
original  wooden  shutter. 

The  church  of  Little  Wenham  partakes  so  much  of  the 
same  features  as  the  Hall,  that  there  can  be  no  doubt  that 
whoever  built  the  one  erected  the  other. 


Formerly  the  residence  of  the  family  of  St.  John1;  the 
tower  is  the  only  part  of  this  building  remaining  entire ; 
the  hall  being  greatly  altered  :  it  still  retains  a  good  Early 
English  window  of  two  lights  with  trefoiled  heads. 


This  house  is  popularly  known  in  the  neighbourhood  as 
the  Monk's  House.    It  is  situated  at  Charney  in  the  parish 

1  See  Bridges'  History  of  Northamp-      would  appear  to  have  been  called  the 
tonshire,  ii.  p.  571.     There  is  some      New  Manor;   the  seat  of  the  St.  Johns 
doubt  as  to  the  precise  name  of  this      was  at  the  Old  Manor, 
place,  from  the  account  of  Bridges  it 



of  Longworth,  near  Wantage,  in  Berkshire,  close  to  the 
small  church  or  chapel  of  Charney,  but  has  a  private  chapel 
of  its  own,  though  the  church  being  older  than  the  house, 
it  must  always  have  been  side  by  side  with  it.  This  may 
perhaps  be  accounted  for  by  the  circumstance  that  it  was  a 
grange  belonging  to  the  abbey  of  Abingdon,  and  the  occa- 
sional residence  of  the  abbot m. 

It  consisted  of  a  hall  and  two  transverse  wings  ;  the  front 
of  the  hall  has  been  rebuilt  and  its  place  supplied  by  a 
modern  building  divided  into  several  rooms,  but  the  foun- 
dations and  part  of  the  back  wall  appear  to  be  original ;  it 
was  about  36  feet  by  17.  The  two  wings  are  nearly  per- 
fect, the  front  gables  are  on  the  same  plane  with  the  front 
of  the  hall,  but  they  extend  much  farther  backwards,  and 
the  south  wing,  which  adjoins  the  church-yard,  is  length- 
ened still  more  by  the  addition  of  a  chapel  attached  to  the 
upper  room  at  the  east  end,  the  principal  front  of  the  house 
facing  the  west.  The  place  of  the  altar  is  quite  distinct ; 
the  piscina  and  locker  remain ;  the  east  window  is  of  two 
lights,  quite  plain,  the  south  window  is  a  small  lancet  with 
a  trefoil  head,  widely  splayed ;  the  roof  is  modern.  It  is 
separated  from  the  larger  room  by  a  stone  wall,  with  a 
small  doorway  through  it,  and  is  itself  so  small  (12  ft.  5  in. 
by  9  ft.  10  in.)  that  it  appears  to  have  been  merely  a  private 
oratory  for  the  abbot,  or  the  two  or  three  monks  who 
usually  inhabited  the  house.  The  whole  of  the  details  of 
this  chapel,  and  of  the  rest  of  the  original  work  in  the 
house,  belong  to  the  latter  part  of  the  thirteenth  century, 
the  end  of  the  reign  of  Henry  the  Third,  or  the  beginning 
of  that  of  Edward  the  First.  The  ground-floor  of  the  south 
wing  is  divided  into  two  rooms  corresponding  to  the  solar 

m  It  was  probably  at  some  time  a  resi-      by  one  of  tbat  family  to  the  monks  of 
dence  of  the  Bassets ;  or  it  may  have  Abingdon, 
derived  its  name  from  having  been  given 







and  chapel  above,  the  larger  room  is  30  feet  by  16,  and  has 
an  original  fire-place  in  it,  the  head  of  which  is  of  the  form 
so  common  at  that  period,  called  the  square-headed  trefoil ; 
and  three  original  windows,  two  of  them  square-headed, 
the  third  at  the  east  end,  a  double  lancet ;  it  has  a  door 
into  the  court-yard,  and  had  another  into  the  hall.  This 
room  would  appear  to  have  been  the  kitchen,  though  the 
fire-place  is  scarcely  large  enough  for  very  extensive  cook- 
ing. The  room  under  the  chapel  appears  to  have  been 
a  cellar,  and  is  still  used  as  such ;  in  place  of  windows 
it  has  small  loops. 

The  solar,  or  large  room  above,  adjoining  the  chapel,  has 
its  original  open  timber  roof,  which  although  plain,  is  of 
good  character ;  it  is  canted,  of  seven  cants,  with  tie-beam, 
king-post,  and  struts  :  the  king-post  is  octagonal,  with 
square  abacus,  and  base,  which  sufficiently  indicate  its  date. 
The  entrance  to  the  solar  is  by  steps  from  the  yard,  and  it 
appears  always  to  have  been  external  and  in  the  same  situa- 
tion, probably  by  a  covered  projecting  staircase,  opposite  to 
one  of  the  doors  of  the  hall,  traces  of  which  still  remain. 
The  north  wing  has  its  walls  nearly  in  their  original  state, 
though  some  windows  and  doors  have  been  inserted,  and 
the  interior  arrangements  have  been  altered.  In  the  west 
gable  is  a  small  quatrefoil  window,  or  opening  into  the  roof, 
and  one  of  the  upper  rooms  retains  its  original  double  lancet 
window  ;  there  is  also  part  of  an  original  chimney,  but  the 
fire-place  is  of  the  fifteenth  century. 


The  oldest  parts  of  St.  John's  Hospital  appear  to  be  of 
the  date  of  the  end  of  the  thirteenth  century,  though  a 
great  part  is  much  later.  The  east  window  of  the  chapel 
is  of  this  date,  and  has  geometrical  intersecting  tracery. 


The  Master's  house,  which  stands  in  a  garden  at  a  short 
distance  from  the  Hospital,  seems  to  be  likewise  of  this 
date.  It  consists  of  a  parallelogram  standing  east  and 
west,  with  a  square  projection  on  the  north  side.  The 
walls  of  this  part  appear  to  be  original,  but  great  altera- 
tions were  made  in  the  sixteenth  century,  particularly  by 
an  addition  on  the  north  side  which  contains  the  present 
staircase.  The  windows  were  almost  entirely  altered  at 
that  time,  so  that  very  little  of  original  work  can  be  dis- 
covered on  the  ground  floor,  but  on  the  next  story,  and 
adjoining  one  of  the  principal  rooms,  is  a  closet  only  four 
feet  wide,  in  which  is  a  small  plain  lancet  window,  having 
a  trefoil  rear  arch,  springing  on  one  side  from  the  wall 
and  supported  on  the  other  by  a  detached  shaft,  with  a 
good  moulded  capital,  and  under  the  window  is  a  square 
sink  with  a  drain  in  the  centre. 

The  original  roof  still  remains  tolerably  perfect  over  the 
principal  part  of  the  building.  It  is  a  king-post  roof.  The 
principals  have  a  tie-beam  and  collar-beam,  with  semi- 
circular braces.  The  king-post,  which  has  longitudinal  and 
transverse  struts  or  braces,  and  supports  a  longitudinal 
beam  on  which  rests  the  collar-beam,  is  octagonal  with 
moulded  capitals  and  bases.  All  the  common  rafters  have 
the  circular  braces  resting  on  a  kind  of  short  hammer- 
beam,  and  giving  the  whole  roof  an  appearance  of  uni- 
formity only  broken  at  intervals  by  the  king- posts,  which 
has  a  very  good  effect.  The  longitudinal  beam  which  lies 
on  the  top  of  the  king-posts,  seems  to  have  been  much 
used  about  this  period ;  we  have  the  same  thing  occurring 
in  the  roof  of  the  solar  at  Charney,  and  a  little  later  in 
that  of  the  Hall,  at  Sutton  Courtenay. 

There  are  the  remains  of  a  curious  painting  of  late  date 
on  the  wall  in  the  roof. 


03  S 

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Stoke -Say,  or  Stoke  castle,  as  it  is  sometimes  called,  is 
situate  in  a  fine  wooded  valley,  about  seven  miles  north  of 
Ludlow,  on  the  road  from  that  place  to  Shrewsbury.  The 
building  is  in  a  tolerably  entire  state,  but  is  completely 
uninhabited  and  occupied  only  as  farm  offices. 

The  manor  belonged  to  the  family  of  Say,  who  held  it 
under  the  Lacies n,  to  which  last  family  it  had  reverted 
before  1273,  the  husband  of  the  heiress  of  the  Lacies 
dying  possessed  of  it  that  year.  It  next  passed  to  the 
Ludelawes  or  Ludlows,  and  in  1291  Laurence  de  Ludelawe 
obtained  a  licence  to  strengthen  with  a  wall  of  stone  and 
lime,  and  crenellate  his  mansion  at  Stoke-Say  °. 

The  buildings  and  court-yard  are  surrounded  with  a  moat 
about  22  feet  wide,  and  which  comes  up  close  to  the  walls 
of  the  house  ;  the  only  entrance  being  by  a  gate-house  into 
the  court-yard.  The  present  gate-house  is  a  rich  specimen 
of  Elizabethan  timber-work. 

The  court-yard  is  of  an  irregular  oblong  form.  It  for- 
merly contained  a  covered  well  at  the  south-east  and 
various  buildings  on  the  north  side,  now  destroyed.  On 
the  west  side  of  it,  opposite  the  gateway,  stands  the 
house,  which  has  a  remarkably  imposing  appearance,  hav- 
ing at  the  south  end  a  singular  tower,  which  is  connected 

n  "  Walterus  de  Say  [tenet]  quatuor 
feoda  in  Northstoke,  Suthstoke."  Testa 
de  Nevill. 

°  Laurence  de  Ludlow  had  licence  to 
crenellate  his  mansion  of  Stoke-Say,  in 
1291.    Rot.  Pat.  19  Ed.  I.,  m.  2. 

Pro  Laurencio  de  Ludelawe. 

Rex  omnibus  ballivis  et  fidelibus  suis 
ad  quos  &c. :  salutem.  Sciatis  quod 
concessimus  pro  nobis  et  l.eredibus  nos- 

tras dilecto  nobis  Laurencio  de  Lodelawe 
quod  ipse  mansum  suum  de  Stok  Say  in 
comitatu  Salop  muro  de  petra  et  calce 
firmare  et  kernellare,  et  illud  sic  firma- 
tum  et  kernellatum  tenere  possit  sibi  et 
heredibus  suis  imperpetuum,  sine  occa- 
sione  nostri  vel  heredum  nostrorum  aut 
ministrorum  nostrorum  quorumcunque. 
In  cujus  &c.  Teste  Rege,  apud  Here- 
ford, xix.  die  Octobris. 


by  a  covered  passage  with  the  main  building,  which  con- 
tains the  hall  in  the  centre,  and  other  apartments  at  each 

The  tower  which  is  well  proportioned  and  has  a  com- 
manding appearance  on  the  exterior,  is  of  very  unusual 
form  in  its  plan.  It  is  an  irregular  polygon,  present- 
ing on  the  exterior  the  appearance  of  a  double  octagonal 
tower.  It  is  of  three  stories,  lighted  by  single  or  double 
lancet  windows  and  surmounted  by  a  battlemented  para- 
pet, pierced  with  loop-holes.  The  roof  is  conical,  and 
there  are  two  original  circular  chimneys  on  the  south  side. 
The  lower  story  is  of  very  irregular  form  internally,  the 
openings  of  the  windows  being,  for  the  purpose  of  defence, 
placed  obliquely  to  the  wall,  so  as  to  prevent  as  far  as  pos- 
sible the  shooting  of  arrows  into  the  interior  of  the  room. 
There  is  a  large  original  fire-place  in  this  room.  The 
entrance  is  from  the  court-yard,  and  is  protected  by  two 
large  and  strong  buttresses.  This  story  has  been  con- 
nected with  the  main  building  by  a  covered  passage  on 
the  west  side. 

A  staircase  in  the  wall  leads  to  the  next  story,  which  had 
also  an  external  entrance  which  communicated,  as  will  be  seen 
afterwards,  with  the  principal  apartments  and  hall  in  the 
main  building.  Above  this  is  a  third  story,  of  which  the 
floors  have  been  destroyed  by  fire,  but  it  is  described  as 
having  had  three  small  rooms. 

The  rooms  on  these  two  stories  are  lighted  by  windows 
which  have  seats  in  the  sills,  and  have  had  shutters  inside. 
The  staircase  is  continued  to  the  top  of  the  turret,  where 
there  is  a  small  closet.  The  whole  of  the  apertures  in  the 
tower,  including  the  loop-holes  in  the  parapet  have  had 
interior  shutters,  the  hinges  and  catches  of  which  still  re- 
main in  many  of  them. 

Of  the  main  building,  the  centre  and  principal  part  is 


TOWER,  (From  the  exterior,) 



occupied  in  its  whole  height  and  width  by  the  hall,  which 
is  in  the  interior  51  ft.  by  31.  It  is  lighted  on  the  west  side 
by  four  large  windows  over  the  moat,  and  on  the  east  by 
three  large  ones,  and  a  shorter  one  which  is  placed  over  the 
entrance  doorway,  but  is  now  blocked  on  the  outside p. 
They  are  transomed,  of  two  lights,  with  a  plain  circle  in 
the  head.  The  lights  are  trefoiled  with  early  soffit  cusping. 
They  have  had  glass  in  the  lights  above  the  transoms,  but 
only  shutters  below.  They  are  all  furnished  with  seats. 
Externally  there  is  a  gable  to  each  window.  The  hall  is 
covered  with  a  very  strong  double  collar-beam  roof  having 
curved  collar-braces  and  resting  on  large  upright  stone 
corbels  with  good  Early  English  mouldings. 

The  principal  entrance  to  the  Hall  is  at  the  north  end 
by  a  large  arched  doorway  from  the  court-yard. 

At  the  south  end  of  the  hall  is  a  square  trefoil-headed 
doorway  which  leads  to  the  lower  apartments  of  that  wing, 
and  through  them  to  the  passage  communicating  with  the 
tower;  there  is  also  from  this  door  an  external  staircase, 
which  led  to  the  principal  apartment  or  solar,  and  from 
this  place  it  is  evident  from  the  marks  of  roofs  on  the  wall 
that  a  communication  once  existed  with  the  door  of  the 
second  story  of  the  tower,  as  may  be  seen  in  the  general 
view.  This  apartment,  which  has  two  small  openings  look- 
ing into  the  hall,  is  now  wainscoted,  and  has  an  elaborately 
carved  chimney-piece  of  sixteenth  or  seventeenth  century 
date.  It  is  lighted  by  a  large  window,  similar  to,  and  cor- 
responding with  those  of  the  hall,  and  there  is  a  similar 
one  on  the  west  side.  Between  the  window  on  the  east 
side,  and  the  hall  windows,  are  two  small  windows  or  open- 
ings, one  a  trefoiled  lancet  and  the  other  ogee-headed, 
the  uses  of  which  have  not  been  ascertained.  The  door 
leading  into  this  apartment  and  also  those  of  the  hall,  are 

p  It  is  opened  in  the  view  given. 


square-headed  trefoils.  This  room  communicated  with 
other  apartments  and  a  closet ;  underneath  are  other 
rooms,  one  of  which  is  a  cellar. 

At  the  other  end  of  the  hall  is  a  staircase  of  solid  timber 
which  leads  to  the  apartments  of  the  north  wing,  and  ter- 
minates in  a  large  landing,  or  platform,  from  which  a 
door  opens  into  the  apartment  containing  the  fire-place 
here  engraved  :  the  external  part  of  this  room  is  of  timber, 
but  it  rests  on  the  solid  masonry  of  the  projecting  tower 
below.  The  principal  part  of  the  ground  floor  of  this  wing 
is  occupied  by  a  large  room  now  used  as  a  cellar,  and  which 
was  probably  intended  for  that  purpose  •  and  a  tower  pro- 
jecting from  it  into  the  moat,  having  very  thick  walls,  and 
measuring  14  feet  on  the  outside,  and  not  quite  7  within. 
It,  as  well  as  the  cellar,  is  lighted  with  narrow  windows 
or  loops,  which  were  evidently  intended  for  defence.  The 
room  over  these  is  also  lighted  in  the  same  manner,  but 
the  one  in  the  story  above  is  of  timber  with  large  windows. 
It  projects  over  the  stone-work,  and  is  supported  by  brackets 
resting  on  stone  corbels.  In  this  room  is  the  fire-place  al- 
ready mentioned,  and  which  has  an  original  octagonal  chim- 
ney over  it. 

Altogether  this  is  one  of  the  most  perfect  and  interesting 
thirteenth  century  buildings  which  we  possess,  and  deserves 
a  much  more  careful  examination  of  the  uses  of  its  parts 
than  it  has  yet  received. 

On  comparing  it  with  the  neighbouring  mansion  of 
Acton  Burnell,  it  offers  some  curious  considerations.  The 
licence  to  crenellate  Acton  Burnell  was  obtained  in  1284, 
and  that  for  Stoke-Say  in  1291  j  but  the  style  of  Acton 
Burnell  is  much  later  than  that  of  Stoke-Say.  Both  have 
transomed  windows,  but  at  Acton  Burnell  the  heads  are 
filled  with  true  bar-tracery,  with  foliated  spherical  triangles, 
while  at  Stoke-Say  the  head  is  of  solid  plate  tracery  with 










a  plain  circle,  the  lights  being  trefoiled,  with  early  soffit 
cusping.  The  only  way  of  accounting  for  the  difference 
of  the  two  is  by  supposing  the  hall  itself  belongs  to  an 
older  building,  and  that  when  the  licence  to  crenellate  was 
obtained,  the  tower  (which  presents  no  feature  earlier  than 
the  date  of  the  licence)  and  the  opposite  end,  as  well  as 
the  moat  and  the  original  wall  of  the  court-yard,  of  which 
some  fragments  remain,  were  added  to  it.  At  all  events 
this  is  a  suggestion  worth  attending  to,  and  which  there 
are  good  grounds  for  believing  that  future  observations 
would  confirm. 

This  description  is  from  notes  and  sketches  made  in 
June  1845. 


This  manor  was  the  property  of  the  Greys  of  Rother- 
field ;  "  Robert  Grey  had  the  Barony  of  Coges  near  Whit- 
ney, by  the  gift  of  his  uncle  Walter  de  Grey,  archbishop 
of  York q."  The  manor-house  is  partly  of  the  thirteenth 
century;  the  side  of  it  next  the  garden,  in  which  there 
are  two  good  Early  English  windows,  is  clearly  of  that  date, 
and  it  is  probable  that  some  of  the  other  walls  are  also 
original;  but  the  house  was  partly  rebuilt  in  the  Eliza- 
bethan period,  and  alterations  still  more  recent  have  been 


Cottesford  is  a  small  secluded  village  consisting  of  very 
few  houses,  and  lying  about  five  or  six  miles  north  of 

The  original  plan  of  the  manor-house  of  Cottesford,  as 

q  Kennett's  Parochial  Antiquities,  p.  Cogges,  and  there  was  on  the  same  a 
324,  ed.  1695.  In  5  Edward  II.  John  chief  messuage,  with  a  garden,  valued 
de  Grey  was  seised  of  the  manor  of     at  4s.  yearly.    Esc.  5  Edw.  II.  no.  61. 



far  as  it  can  now  be  made  out,  was  a  parallelogram  with 
two,  or  probably  three  square  projections  at  the  back.  The 
ground-floor  consists  of  two  large  rooms,  one  of  which  to 
the  north  is  the  kitchen,  and  the  other  the  hall  or  common 
living  room.  The  two  projections  contain  the  cellar  and 
larder  at  present,  though  the  one  to  the  north-west  was 
probably  originally  used  for  a  different  purpose.  These  are 
lighted  by  small  narrow  square-headed  windows,  which  are 
evidently  original.  In  the  hall  is  a  large  open  fire-place 
with  a  projecting  hood.  In  the  kitchen  are  two  fire-places 
and  the  oven ;  the  general  thickness  of  the  walls  is  two  feet 
six  inches.  At  the  south  end  an  addition  containing  the 
parlour  has  been  added  in  comparatively  modern  times. 

The  first  floor  presents  nothing  remarkable  but  a  small 
closet  about  six  feet  square  in  the  north-west  projection, 
and  which  adjoins  one  of  the  bed-rooms.  In  this  there  is 
a  small  window  looking  to  the  north,  and  under  it  a  kind 
of  projecting  bench,  on  which  is  fixed  a  stone  drain  one 
foot  eight  inches  in  length  by  ten  inches  deep,  and  which 
has  evidently  been  intended  for  pouring  away  refuse  water, 
&c.  The  outside  of  the  wall  is  here  covered  with  ivy, 
so  that  the  external  part  of  the  drain  cannot  be  seen. 
From  the  door  of  this  closet  a  small  narrow  wooden  stair- 
case leads  into  the  attics  which  are  in  the  roof.  This 
is  very  strong  and  massive,  with  tie-beams  and  queen-posts, 
and  appears  to  be  of  the  date  of  the  sixteenth  or  seven- 
teenth century,  at  which  time  many  important  alterations 
were  made  in  the  house.  In  the  northernmost  of  the  attics 
is  the  window  shewn  in  the  plate,  which  has  had  internal 
shutters  and  bolts.  The  principal  stairs  are  at  the  south- 
east angle  of  the  building,  and  lead  out  of  the  hall. 

Externally  the  only  parts  which  have  preserved  their 
original  character  are  the  north  end  and  back,  the  front 
having  been  almost  entirely  altered,  only  one  of  the  small 






square  windows  before  mentioned,  remaining  to  shew  that 
the  wall  itself  is  original.  The  whole  of  the  windows  of 
the  front,  including  those  in  the  attic,  appear  to  have  been 
inserted  at  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  or  beginning  of  the 
seventeenth  century.  They  are  large,  with  wooden  mullions 
and  transoms.  The  front  and  ends  were  at  that  time  also, 
plastered  and  ornamented  with  pargetting  work. 

The  chief  objects  of  interest  on  the  exterior  are  the  attic 
window  on  the  north  end  before  mentioned,  and  the  chim- 
ney on  the  north-west  projection.  The  window  appears  to 
be  of  transition  work  of  the  end  of  the  twelfth  or  beginning 
of  the  thirteenth  century,  and  consists  of  two  round-headed 
lights  divided  by  a  shaft.  The  capital  is  square  on  the 
abacus,  but  cut  down  below  to  the  shape  of  the  shaft,  (which 
is  octagonal,)  and  appears  to  have  been  ornamented  at  the 
angles  with  plain  broad  foliage.  This  window,  as  men- 
tioned before,  had  internal  shutters  and  bolts.  The  date 
here  given  seems  to  be  that  of  the  older  parts  of  the  build- 
ing, but  the  chimney  just  mentioned  seems  to  be  of  the 
fourteenth  century.  It  is  octagonal,  standing  on  a  square 
base,  and  is  crested  with  battlements,  the  flue  belonging  to 
it  is  carried  down  the  interior  of  the  wall  into  one  of  the 
lower  stories,  but  the  fire-place  being  destroyed  it  is  not 
possible  now  to  say  which.  On  the  first  floor  of  the  middle 
projection  is  a  small  window  of  fifteenth  century  date,  and 
now  blocked  up. 

There  is  no  appearance  of  a  chapel  having  been  attached 
to  the  house,  but  the  near  proximity  of  the  parish  church 
would  render  that  appendage  unnecessary. 


The  old  parsonage  at  West  Tarring  is  in  part  of  this 
century  ;  it  has  however  undergone  so  much  alteration  that 


its  real  age  is  only  apparent  upon  entering  it,  as  externally 
it  presents  all  the  appearance  of  a  building  of  the  fifteenth 
century.  As  it  now  stands  the  house  consists  of  a  hall 
of  the  fifteenth  century  running  east  and  west,  and  of  a 
building  attached  to  the  east  end  of  the  hall,  and  at  right 
angles  to  it.  This  is  of  two  stories,  and  was  either  the 
solar  of  a  thirteenth  century  house,  or  possibly  the  entire 
house.  In  plan  it  is  oblong,  no  original  divisions  of  the 
interior  remain.  The  ground  floor  does  not  seem  to  have 
been  vaulted,  all  the  original  windows  have  been  destroyed. 
The  upper  story  had  two  doors,  both  now  built  up,  one  on 
the  east,  the  other  on  the  west  side,  the  latter  seems  to 
have  been  the  principal  one,  and  had  shafts  on  the  outside ; 
both  are  placed  near  the  south  end.  At  each  end  is  a  large 
two-light  window,  now  filled  with  perpendicular  tracery, 
but  in  the  jambs  of  which  remain  shafts  with  foliaged 
capitals  of  good  Early  English  work. 

The  Early  English  portions  of  this  house  have  the  jambs, 
quoins,  and  other  cut  stones  of  Caen  stone,  in  the  Per- 
pendicular parts  the  Southbourn  stone  is  used. 


The  archdeacon's  house  in  the  Close  is  in  part  composed 
of  a  hall  of  this  century ;  the  north  side  of  this,  which  is 
the  least  altered,  has  a  handsome  door,  with  shafts  at  its 
west  end,  immediately  east  of  this  a  very  large  chimney 
projects  from  the  wall,  and  beyond  are  two  large  windows 
each  of  two  lights  unfoliated,  and  with  a  plain  circle  above 

The  interior  is  divided  by  modern  partitions,  but  the 
wall  separating  the  hall  from  the  kitchen  or  buttery  re- 
mains, and  is  pierced  by  two  circular- headed  arches. 




The  remains  of  the  manor-house  here  are,  though  small, 
of  remarkably  good  character,  and  of  some  interest.  They 
consist  of  portions  of  a  building  running  east  and  west,  and 
measuring  internally  40  ft.  by  23,  and  of  a  porch  attached 
to  the  south-east  angle.  The  building  was  of  two  stories, 
the  lower  one  vaulted,  the  windows  were  narrow  lancets. 
The  only  part  of  the  walls  of  the  upper  room  which  re- 
main is  the  eastern  gable.  In  this  is  a  large  window  of 
two  unfoliated  lights,  with  a  plain  circle  above  them.  The 
mouldings  of  this  window  are  particularly  rich. 

The  porch  is  also  groined,  and  has  a  handsomely  moulded 
internal  door.  There  was  a  small  room  over  it,  very  pos- 
sibly a  chapel. 

As  in  the  case  of  Tarring  it  does  not  seem  easy  to  deter- 
mine whether  what  now  remains  constituted  the  whole 
house,  or  whether  there  was  a  hall  on  the  south  side  of  the 
existing  remains,  which  may  have  been  merely  the  chamber 
or  solar. 

bishop's  palace,  wells. 

The  parts  of  the  palace  at  Wells  which  belong  to  the 
thirteenth  century  are  perhaps  the  finest  remains  of  the 
Domestic  Architecture  of  the  period  which  we  possess. 
They  are  of  two  periods,  the  long  room  or  gallery  with 
a  vaulted  groined  floor  being  of  decided  Early  English 
character,  while  the  great  hall  and  chapel  are  of  early 
Decorated  character,  and  are  supposed  to  have  been  con- 
structed between  1275  and  1302. 

The  earlier  portion  is  a  building  about  80  ft.  by  40. 
The  ground  floor  has  a  groined  vault  resting  on  two  ranges 


of  columns.  The  windows  are  lancets  of  moderate  size, 
but  this  story  does  not  seem  to  have  been  originally  in- 
tended to  be  dwelt  in.  In  later  times  a  wall  has  been 
built  along  one  row  of  the  columns,  so  as  to  part  off  a  long 
narrow  passage,  and  in  this  a  handsome  fire-place  of  the 
fifteenth  century  has  been  placed.  The  staircase  is  modern, 
and  it  does  not  appear  how  the  original  stair  was  arranged. 
The  upper  story  is  chiefly  occupied  by  one  large  room, 
with  windows  on  each  side,  these  are  large,  of  two  lights, 
with  the  heads  trefoiled,  and  with  a  quatrefoil  above  them. 
The  scoinson  arch  is  trefoiled,  and  the  jambs  have  marble 
shafts,  with  capitals  of  fine  Early  English  foliage.  A  part 
only  of  the  windows  are  ancient,  the  others  being  modern 
copies  of  the  old  ones.  This  building  runs  nearly  north 
and  south,  its  northern  end  is  joined  on  to  some  later  parts 
of  the  palace,  the  southern  end  finishes  with  two  gables, 
one  of  which  has  a  window  similar  to  those  in  the  first 
floor,  the  other  a  large  quatrefoil  window.  Between  these 
gables  is  a  chimney  with  a  circular  shaft,  which  seems  to 
be  original.  All  this  building  has  undergone  a  complete 
repair,  in  the  course  of  which  considerable  alterations  and 
additions  have  been  made  to  it. 

Attached  to  the  south-west  angle  of  this  building  and 
communicating  with  it  by  a  doorway  is  the  chapel,  a  noble 
specimen  of  a  Domestic  chapel.  It  has  a  large  six-light 
window  in  the  east  end,  and  three  three-light  windows  on 
each  side,  the  tracery  of  these  is  very  fine.  Under  the 
middle  window  on  the  south  side  is  a  small  "  low-side 
window/'  There  is  a  very  fine  groined  roof,  with  nume- 
rous beautifully  carved  bosses. 

The  hall  is  in  ruins,  only  the  north  side,  the  west  end, 
and  an  octagonal  turret  which  formed  the  south-east  angle 
remaining.  It  was  a  magnificent  room,  120  ft.  by  70,  with 
windows  in  the  side.  At  each  angle  is  an  octagonal  turret, 


with  a  stair  which  leads  to  the  battlements.  It  is  joined  to 
the  south-west  angle  of  the  chapel. 

The  windows  are  of  two  lights,  with  transoms ;  in  the 
head  is  some  elegant  tracery,  the  highest  part  of  which  is 


Although  called  a  castle  this  building  seems  to  have 
had  no  pretensions  to  the  character  of  a  place  of  strength. 
It  is  surrounded  by  a  moat,  which  washes  the  walls  in  one 
part,  and  consists  of  two  portions,  one  more  than  twice  as 
long  as  the  other ;  these  meet  at  a  right  angle,  and  at  this 
corner  is  a  small  round  tower.  In  the  centre  of  the  longer 
wing  is  the  gateway  which  leads  completely  through  the 
house  without  doors  on  either  side,  the  entrance  to  the  in- 
terior is  by  a  door  in  the  re-entering  angle  at  the  junction 
of  the  two  wings  of  the  building.  The  greater  part  of  the 
house  has  only  two  stories,  but  over  the  gateway  there  is  a 
third,  so  as  to  form  a  sort  of  tower.  The  round  tower  has 
also  a  third  story.  These  towers  are  both  finished  with  a 
plain  parapet,  and  do  not  seem  to  have  been  embattled. 
Those  windows  which  remain  on  the  ground  floor  are  small, 
those  of  the  upper  story  are  all  alike,  of  one  light  with  a 
transom,  the  heads  have  the  form  which  has  been  called 
a  square-headed  trefoil.  The  whole  interior  has  been 
modernised,  and  little  or  nothing  can  now  be  ascertained 
of  the  internal  arrangement ;  the  exterior  is  in  a  very  un- 
altered condition ;  with  the  exception  that  the  upper  story 
of  the  part  south  of  the  gateway  has  been  lowered. 

The  space  enclosed  within  the  moat  is  of  a  nearly  square 
form,  the  house  occupies  one  side  of  this  and  a  part  of 
another.  It  seems  not  unlikely  that  the  quadrangle  may 
have  been  completed  by  offices  built  of  wood  and  plaster, 


as  in  the  mote  at  Ightham.  From  the  character  of  the 
mouldings  this  building  seems  to  belong  to  the  latter  part 
of  this  century. 


"Adjoining  the  church-yard  stands  the  parsonage  house, 
a  small  building  of  great  antiquity,  having  small  trefoil- 
headed  windows,  &c.  The  interior  presents  various  gothic 
arches  &c,  and  there  is  a  curious  winding  stone  staircase 
leading  to  the  second  floor,  exactly  similar  to  those  in  the 
tower  of  most  churches  r." 


Acton  Burnell  is  a  pleasant  village,  having  a  very  in- 
teresting cruciform  Early  English  church,  and  is  situate 
about  seven  miles  south  of  Shrewsbury,  and  within  a  short 
distance  of  Caer  Carador,  where  Caractacus  made  his  last 
stand  against  the  Romans. 

The  castle,  or  rather  the  manor-house,  is  situate  in  the 
grounds  of  Sir  E.  J.  Smythe,  Bart.,  and  the  interior  has  been 
entirely  converted  into  stables  and  other  farm  buildings. 

The  history  of  this  building  has  been  given  by  the  Rev. 
C.  H.  Hartshorne  in  the  Archaeological  Journal,  vol.  ii. 
p.  325,  so  that  there  can  be  no  doubt  of  the  date  of  its 
erection.  Acton  Burnell  it  seems  belonged  to  Robert 
Burnell,  who,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  III.,  was  tutor  to  the 
prince,  afterwards  Edward  I.,  and  resided  here,  where  he 
had  a  house  and  a  park,  and  procured  the  privilege  of  a 
market  and  fair  for  his  manor.  On  the  accession  of 
Edward  I.  he  was  elected  bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells,  and 
made  lord  high  chancellor  and  treasurer,  and  in  the  twelfth 
year  of  that  reign,  1284,  he  obtained  of  the  king  licence  to 

r  Horsfield's  Sussex,  vol.  i.  p.  282. 



strengthen  with  a  wall  of  stone  and  lime,  and  crenellate  his 
mansion  at  Acton  Burnell,  and  also  a  licence  to  cut  timber 
in  the  king's  forests  for  the  building.  It  seems,  therefore, 
that  the  old  mansion  was  pulled  down  and  the  present  one 
erected  between  this  date  and  1292,  the  time  of  the  bishop's 
death.  The  only  remains  of  the  original  buildings  are  the 
two  ends  of  the  barn,  which  will  be  mentioned  afterwards, 
and  which  stand  in  the  park  at  some  distance  from  the 

This  date  therefore  clearly  brings  the  building  within 
the  thirteenth  century,  though  its  style  is  later  than  that 
which  we  usually  consider  as  belonging  to  the  period. 
The  words  "  Early  English"  and  "  thirteenth  century," 
when  applied  to  architecture,  are  frequently  taken  to  be 
synonymous,  but  it  should  be  recollected  that  the  portion 
of  the  Decorated  style  which  is  known  as  "  Geometrical," 
was  introduced  in  the  reign  of  Edward  I. ;  and,  therefore, 
that  the  buildings  of  that  style  which  exhibit  a  transition 
from  the  Early  English  to  the  Decorated,  and  pass  gradu- 
ally into  the  latter,  belong,  in  almost  all  instances,  to  the 
last  half  of  the  thirteenth  century,  some  few  only  being  of 
the  beginning  of  the  fourteenth.  A  very  conclusive  body 
of  evidence  on  this  point  is  given  by  Mr.  J.  H.  Parker,  in 
a  paper  on  Merton  College  chapel,  Oxford,  in  the  second 
volume  of  the  Archaeological  Journal,  p.  137. 

The  style  of  Acton  Burnell  is  further  removed  from 
Early  English  than  we  usually  find  at  this  date.  The  form 
of  the  tracery  of  the  windows  is  geometrical,  but  the 
mouldings  somewhat  resemble  those  of  a  more  advanced 
period  of  Decorated ;  the  deep  hollows,  and  doubly,  or 
triply,  filleted  rounds  which  are  so  characteristic  of  the 
geometrical  style  are  not  found  here,  the  mullions  and  tra- 
cery having  merely  a  simple  round  and  fillet. 

Bishop  Burnell  built  also  the  episcopal  palace  at  Wells, 


the  hall  of  which  is  still  remaining.  The  windows  of  both 
have  transoms,  a  common  feature  of  domestic  architecture 
at  this  period,  though  of  very  unusual  occurrence  in  eccle- 
siastical. The  use  of  transoms  in  the  large  windows  of 
halls  was  doubtless  owing  to  the  convenience  of  having 
shutters  to  the  lower  lights,  which  is  well  shewn  at  Stoke- 

Between  the  two  buildings  of  Wells  and  Acton  Burnell 
there  is  a  great  general  resemblance,  though  that  of  Wells 
is  decidedly  of  a  more  geometrical  character  •  the  tracery 
is  more  elaborate,  the  mouldings  have  more  numerous 
members,  and  the  whole  exhibits  that  superiority  of  work- 
manship and  finish  which  might  be  thought  necessary  to 
mark  the  distinction  between  the  principal  palace  of  the 
bishop  and  his  country  residence. 

The  general  form  of  the  house  at  Acton  Burnell  is  a 
parallelogram  measuring  about  ninety-five  feet  by  sixty, 
and  having  a  small  square  tower  at  each  angle.  These 
towers  are  now  the  only  parts  of  the  place  which  can  be 
clearly  made  out ;  the  whole  of  the  rest  of  the  interior 
having  been  destroyed  to  make  room  for  stables,  &c.  The 
walls  of  the  towers  are  thick,  and  those  on  the  west  are 
lighted  by  small  narrow  square-headed  windows.  The  one 
on  the  north-east  seems  to  have  contained  the  staircase 
leading  to  the  hall,  and  the  opposite  one  at  the  north-west 
a  staircase  leading  to  the  other  parts  of  the  building,  and 
there  is  also  a  doorway  from  it  to  the  roof.  The  build- 
ing in  general  seems  to  have  had  three  stories,  but  on 
the  north  side  the  two  upper  ones  were  occupied  by  the 
hall,  the  extent  of  which  may  be  ascertained  by  the  re- 
mains of  doorways  in  the  walls ;  by  careful  measurement 
its  size  appears  to  have  been  fifty  feet  by  twenty-four  *  it 
communicated  with  small  rooms  at  each  end.  It  was 
lighted  by  three  large  transomed  windows  of  two  lights, 





A.  Hall,  50  ft  by  24 

B.  North-eastern  tower. 

C    South-western  tower 

D.  Square-headed  window  shewn  in  woodcut 





Shewing  also  the  lower  story  and  one  of  the  windows  of  the  hall 




interior  of  door  a.nd  window,  north  side    (Blocked  externally.) 

The  whole  of  the  windows  in  the  lower  story  under  the  hall  were  of  this  character. 



having  spherical  triangles  in  the  head,  but  the  dripstones 
are  wanting,  and  have  probably  been  destroyed.  There  is 
also  a  large  window  in  the  small  apartment  adjoining  the 
hall  on  the  north-east.  All  the  windows  have  seats  in 
the  jambs.  The  upper  part  of  the  south  side  has  been 
modernized,  and  roofed  to  serve  as  a  barn,  but  as  it  is 
more  than  probable  that  a  chapel  was  attached  to  the 
bishop's  residence,  this  would  most  likely  be  its  situation. 
The  west  side,  the  centre  portion  of  which  projects  as  far 
as  the  towers,  was  occupied  by  domestic  offices.  The  prin- 
cipal front  and  entrance  was  on  the  east  side,  but  it  is  so 
entirely  clothed  with  ivy  that  it  is  difficult  to  make  out  its 
original  design.  It  had  in  the  lower  story  a  doorway  with 
a  window  on  each  side,  and  similar  windows  in  the  upper 
story,  between  which  a  niche  with  a  pedimental  canopy  is 
still  visible  in  the  midst  of  the  ivy.  It  is  to  be  regretted 
that  the  ivy  is  allowed  to  cover  it  so  entirely  as  to  prevent 
its  parts  being  seen,  as  it  is,  doubtless,  a  valuable  example 
of  a  front  of  this  period. 

The  barn,  which  stands  at  a  short  distance  to  the  north- 
east of  the  house,  as  mentioned  before,  and  of  which  the 
two  gables  only  remain,  evidently  belonged  to  the  earlier 
building.  The  side  walls  are  very  low,  and  the  roof  enor- 
mously high,  and  of  very  acute  pitch ;  this,  with  the  narrow 
slits  and  windows  with  which  it  was  lighted,  shew  clearly 
the  purpose  for  which  it  was  intended.  The  narrow  slits 
or  loops  are  square-headed  on  the  outside,  but  in  the  in- 
terior are  of  that  form  called  the  square-headed  trefoil. 

A  parliament  was  summoned  by  Edward  I.  at  Acton 
Burnell  in  1283,  and  tradition  assigns  the  barn  as  the 
building  in  which  the  meeting  of  the  House  of  Commons 
was  held.  Its  age  and  size,  the  distance  between  the 
gables  being  157  feet  and  the  width  of  the  gables  40  feet, 
render  it  possible  that  tradition  may  be  right.    That  the 


parliament  could  not  have  been  held  in  the  present  house 
is  clear,  as  that  was  not  commenced  until  the  year  after, 
but  it  might  have  been  held  in  the  old  house. 

These  notes  and  the  accompanying  illustrations  relate  to 
the  buildings  as  they  appeared  in  June,  1845. 


Anthony  de  Bek,  the  favourite  of  Edward  the  First, 
obtained  the  royal  licence  to  crenellate  his  dwelling  house 
at  Somerton  in  the  county  of  Lincoln,  in  the  year  1281s. 
The  castle  was  originally  a  quadrangular  building,  with 
four  towers,  of  a  circular  form  externally,  and  polygonal 
within;  their  several  positions  are  shewn  in  the  ground- 
plan.  There  is  however  considerable  difficulty  in  making 
out  the  complete  design  of  the  building,  particularly  with 
respect  to  its  out- works.  The  principal  entrance  was,  pro- 
bably, on  the  south  side,  just  beyond  the  west  end  of  the 
present  house,  but  all  remains  of  the  gate-house,  towers,  or 
bridge  are  obliterated.  A  moat  surrounded  the  castle, 
running  close  to  the  east,  south,  and  west  sides ;  but 
extending  to  a  much  greater  distance  towards  the  north, 
where  there  is  a  large  piece  of  ground,  now  cultivated, 
within  the  moat,  beyond  the  castle.  The  east  and  west 
sides  are  flanked  by  two  large  pools,  with  strong  banks, 
about  twice  the  breadth  of  the  inner  moat.  These  pools, 
or  outer  moats,  are  quite  separate  from  the  inner  moat, 
and  at  their  north  ends  extend  a  little  beyond  the  north- 
ern towers  of  the  castle.  There  is  now  a  road  across  the 
whole  area. 

The  court  of  the  castle  is  cut  up  by  brick  walls,  barns, 
&c.    The  north-west  tower  has  been  totally  destroyed  ; 

9  Rot.  Pat.  9  Edw.  I.,  m.  17. 





that  on  the  south-west  is  now  inclosed  in  a  fold-yard ;  the 
ground  room  of  the  lower  has  been  preserved,  and  is  a 

A.  Mound  planted  with  trees.  B.  Part  of  the  bank  of  the  moat.  CC.  Moat. 

very  curious  specimen,  resembling  a  small  chapter-house: 
the  form  is  polygonal,  and  the  vault  is  carried  on  a  central 
shaft,  from  which  the  ribs  spring,  and  are  carried  at  the 
opposite  end  on  corbels  in  the  angles  of  the  external  wall : 
in  each  bay  is  a  small  single-light  window,  now  blocked 
up  :  these  and  the  mouldings  of  the  ribs  and  the  corbels 
are  of  Early  English  character,  late  in  the  style.  Parts 
of  the  south  and  west  moats  have  been  filled  up  and 
levelled,  in  order  to  form  the  fold-yard  in  that  quarter. 
The  buildings  of  this  edifice  seem  to  have  been  similar 
in  plan  to  those  of  Maxstoke  castle,  in  Warwickshire,  and 
Wingfield  castle,  in  Suffolk*. 


The  ancient  manor-house  of  Soar,  in  the  hamlet  of  Plax- 
tool,  parish  of  Wrotham,  Kent,  was  formerly  the  seat  of 
the  family  of  Colepeper  of  Preston,  near  Aylesford.  Hasted 

These  notes  were  obligingly  supplied  by  E.  J.  Willson,  Esq.,  of  Lincoln. 


the  Kentish  historian  says,  that  the  ancient  and  remarkable 
chapel  still  remaining  in  this  house,  "  was  probably  made 
use  of  by  the  inhabitants  of  this  district  in  general,  before 
the  present  chapel  of  Plaxtool  was  erected11." 

The  ancient  part  of  the  house,  which  is  that  represented 
in  the  plans,  consists  of  an  oblong  building  running  nearly 
east  and  wTest  and  of  two  lesser  ones  attached  to  the  north- 
east and  north-west  angles.  The  whole  is  of  two  stories  ; 
the  ground  floor  of  the  larger  building  is  covered  by  a  very 
massive  pointed  (not  groined)  vault :  at  its  east  end  is  a 
large  door  opening  to  the  exterior,  at  the  west  end  a  small 
one  opening  to  the  stair,  which  leads  to  the  upper  story. 
The  ground-floors  of  the  other  parts  of  the  house  have  each 
a  door  to  the  outside,  but  no  communication  with  the  inte- 
rior of  the  house ;  the  windows  on  this  floor  seem  to  have 
been  all  mere  loops.  The  upper  story  is  reached  by  a 
stone  turnpike  stair  at  the  south-west  angle  of  the  princi- 
pal building,  partly  contained  in  a  semicircular  projecting 
turret.  The  head  of  this  stair  is  within  the  large  upper 
room,  and  was  closed  by  a  door,  which  when  open,  fell  into 
a  recess  prepared  for  it  in  the  wall.  At  the  foot  of  the 
stair  is  a  door  on  each  side,  one  opening  to  the  vaulted 
lower  story,  the  other  to  the  modern  part  of  the  house  ;  it 
is  not  easy  to  determine,  whether  the  house  originally  ex- 
tended on  this  side  or  not.  The  door  certainly  does  not 
look  like  an  external  one  in  its  present  state,  but  it  may 
perhaps  have  been  covered  by  a  porch.  By  its  side  is  a 
short  shaft,  resting  on  a  corbel  about  5  ft.  from  the  ground, 
with  a  foliated  capital  supporting  a  block  of  stone  ;  the  use 
of  this,  and  indeed  whether  it  is  in  its  original  position, 
does  not  seem  clear.  The  principal  room  is  25  ft.  by  20;  it 
has  a  fire-place  in  the  north  wall,  the  hearth -stone  remains, 
but  the  jambs  and  hood  are  mutilated ;  this  is  the  only 

■  History  of  Kent,  vol  ii.  p.  241. 



OLD  SOAR.  175 

fire-place  of  which  there  are  any  remains  in  the  building. 
Opposite  to  the  fire-place  is  a  door  now  built  up.  There 
are  two  small  lockers,  one  near  the  fire-place,  the  other  in 
the  opposite  wall.  This  room  was  lit  by  a  long,  probably 
two-light,  window  in  each  end,  and  two  small  windows  on 
each  side  of  the  fire-place,  one  of  them  has  a  straight  trefoil 
head  externally.  The  windows  at  the  ends  have  seats  in 
their  sills.  The  roof  is  apparently  original ;  it  has  tie- 
beams  and  king-posts  with  moulded  caps.  The  tracery 
has  been  knocked  out  of  the  windows. 

The  room  at  the  north-east  angle  probably  served  as  the 
chapel,  as  in  its  south  wall  there  remains  a  small  though 
elegant  piscina.  This  room  is  entered  by  a  doorway  set 
diagonally,  and  close  to  this  is  either  a  small  door  to  the 
outside  or  a  window  ;  if  the  former  it  is  not  easy  to  see  how 
it  was  reached  from  the  outside,  if  the  latter  the  sill  is  un- 
usually low.  In  the  east  wall  was  a  large  window  now  con- 
verted into  a  door.   A  foliated  capital  remains  on  one  side. 

The  room  at  the  north-west  angle  is  also  entered  by  a 
doorway  set  diagonally  j  it  has  no  other  windows  than  four 
cross  loops,  one  on  each  side.  It  may  have  been  con- 
structed partly  with  a  view  to  defence,  as  it  effectually 
flanks  two  sides  of  the  building. 

But  little  remains  which  may  serve  to  indicate  the  date ; 
the  drip-moulding  of  the  windows  has  notch-head  corbels, 
and  the  foliage  of  the  capitals  which  remain  is  of  an  early 
character;  the  section  of  the  mouldings  corresponds  in 
indicating  a  date  not  far  from  1300.  The  piscina  in  the 
chapel  is  cinque-foiled,  and  seems  later  in  date. 


The  history  of  this  fine  building,  almost  the  only  existing 
relic  of  the  ancient  palace  and  castle  at  Winchester,  has 


been  ably  illustrated  by  Mr.  E.  Smirke,  in  an  essay  printed 
in  the  "  Proceedings  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  at  Win- 
chester, in  1845."  It  appears  that  this  hall  was  com- 
menced by  Henry  the  Third,  in  the  year  1222  ;  master 
Elias  of  Dereham  was  the  architect,  who  superintended  its 
construction.  It  seems  to  have  been  completed  by  the  year 
1235-6,  when  the  wooden  roof  was  put  up;  glazed  frames 
were  made  for  the  windows  and  the  room  itself  was  white- 
washed and  painted.  Numerous  directions  relative  to  the 
works  done  in  the  hall  at  Winchester,  are  given  among  the 
"  Historical  Illustrations,"  in  the  succeeding  chapter. 

The  present  entrance  to  the  hall  is  not  the  original  one ; 
that,  wherever  it  may  have  been  situated,  was  made  suffi- 
ciently wide  to  admit  of  the  passage  of  carts x  ;  and  it  had, 
in  the  thirteenth  century,  a  large  external  porch.  In  plan, 
the  hall  by  its  division  into  a  central  and  two  side  aisles, 
bears  a  strict  resemblance  to  that  of  Oakham,  and  to  the 
general  design  of  Norman  structures  of  the  same  nature. 
Some  doubt  has  been  thrown  upon  the  antiquity  of  the 
lateral  windows  of  the  building,  but  it  is  most  probable 
that  they  are  of  the  same  date  as  its  earliest  details. 
It  is  certain  that  Henry  the  Third  ordered  the  windows 
in  his  private  chamber  at  Winchester  to  be  made  on 
the  same  plan  as  those  in  the  hall.  On  a  careful  consider- 
ation of  the  existing  documents  relating  to  its  construction, 
it  would  appear  that  there  is  no  sufficient  ground  for  attri- 
buting the  windows  to  a  later  period  than  the  first  half  of 
the  thirteenth  century ;  they  may  therefore  be  pronounced 
the  earliest  examples  of  that  particular  kind  of  tracery, 
now  extant. 

Repairs  and  alterations  were  made  in  the  hall  in  the  time 
of  Edward  the  First;  and  subsequently  extensive  works, 
chiefly  in  the  roof,  were  completed  in  the  reigns  of  Richard 

*  See  p.  243. 


THE  KING'S  HALL,  WINCHESTER.  A  D  1222—1235 




THE  KING'S  HALL,  WINCHESTER,,  AD.  1222-1235 





Klevation  of  Inside  of  South  Doorway,  wiuh 
section  of  Archivolt  Mouldings 

Section  above  Cap  Plan  of  Column 




the  Second  and  Henry  the  Sixth ;  the  bosses  of  the  roof 
prove  also  that  further  alterations  were  made  in  the  time  of 
Edward  the  Fourth.  All  these  facts  are  detailed  in  Mr. 
Smirke's  valuable  paper. 


There  are  considerable  remains  of  the  domestic  build- 
ings of  the  Priory,  amongst  which  may  be  noticed  the 
present  Deanery,  formerly  the  prior's  house;  it  has 
three  external  arches  and  a  vaulted  passage  of  the  time 
of  Henry  III. 

The  arches  are  very  acute  and  without  shafts;  they 
were  originally  all  open,  forming  a  sort  of  vestibule  to  the 
house,  and  were  probably  connected  with  the  cloisters.  In 
the  spandrels  of  the  arches  are  narrow  lancet  niches,  with 
the  brackets  for  images  remaining,  and  the  arches  are 
flanked  by  the  original  buttresses  on  each  side. 

The  hall  is  of  the  fifteenth  century,  with  a  fine  roof  and 
windows,  but  it  is  now  divided  into  several  apartments. 
The  construction  of  the  roof  is  very  simple  but  very  good ; 
each  pair  of  principals  is  supported  by  a  wooden  arch  spring- 
ing from  corbels,  about  two  feet  below  the  wall-plate,  these 
corbels  are  carved  into  heads,  some  of  which  appear  to  be 
intended  as  portraits  of  a  particular  bishop.  At  the  point 
of  this  arch  is  a  collar-beam  connected  with  it,  and  with 
two  braces  meeting  in  the  centre,  by  which  means  the 
whole  frame  or  truss  is  well  tied  together,  and  there  is 
scarcely  any  more  thrust  upon  the  walls  than  there  would 
if  there  was  a  tie-beam  as  in  modern  roofs. 

The  windows  are  lofty,  divided  by  a  transom,  and  have 
the  customary  seats  formed  in  the  sill. 

a  a 


On  the  west  side  of  the  Close,  under  the  house  of  one  of 
the  canons,  are  some  vaulted  apartments,  which  appear  to 
have  formed  the  substructure  of  another  hall,  said  to  have 
been  the  Refectory,  or  Strangers'  hall,  belonging  to  the 
priory ;  the  roof  of  it  may  still  be  traced.  The  pillars 
which  support  the  vault  are  plain  round,  with  moulded 
capitals  and  bases  of  Early  English  character  ;  one  of  them 
is  of  slender  proportions,  the  others  are  massive.  In  the 
front  part  of  this  vaulted  substructure,  now  used  as  a 
kitchen,  are  the  two  stone  legs  of  a  table  of  the  thirteenth 
century,  which  are  ornamented  with  good  bold  sculpture 
and  sunk  panels  ;  the  top  is  at  present  formed  of  an  oak 
slab  of  considerable  age,  but  probably  not  the  original  one. 
As  there  is  no  original  fire-place  or  chimney,  there  is  no 
evidence  that  this  room  was  designed  for  a  kitchen.  In  one 
of  the  other  rooms  a  late  Perpendicular  fire-place  has  been 
inserted,  and  there  are  remains  of  early  painting  on  the 
vault.  The  whole  of  the  walls  of  the  house  containing  this 
kitchen  are  of  the  thirteenth  century,  as  will  be  seen  by  the 
elevations.  In  the  gable  of  the  south  end  is  an  elegant 
rose  window,  and  under  it  the  remains  of  another  larger 
window.  On  the  ground-floor  is  an  arch,  which  formerly 
opened  into  the  kitchen,  and  formed  the  original  doorway ; 
the  small  doorway  now  used  being  evidently  made  out  of  a 
window  of  the  same  form  as  the  one  still  remaining  in  the 
east  front. 


The  house,  from  which  the  doorway  here  given  is  taken, 
stands  in  a  street  leading  towards  the  church,  at  a  short 
distance  from  the  market  place.    It  has  been  very  much 








altered,  but  retains  some  original  features.  The  plan  seems 
to  have  been  much  the  same  as  that  of  the  house  at  Char- 
ney  ;  that  is,  a  hall  occupying  the  centre,  and  a  wing  at 
each  end  projecting  backward,  but  in  front  forming  a  part 
of  the  same  line  as  the  hall ;  but  great  additions  have  been 
made  to  it  in  the  fifteenth  or  sixteenth  century.  The 
eastern  wing,  which  now  projects  considerably  in  front, 
contains  a  remarkable  square  double  window  of  that  pe- 

The  principal  parts  of  the  original  building  which  still 
remain,  are  the  principal  doorway  and  the  drain  inside,  of 
which  engravings  are  given.  The  arch  is  pointed  and  has 
very  good  Early  English  mouldings ;  the  jambs  have  at- 
tached shafts  with  plain  moulded  capitals.  The  dripstone 
is  terminated  at  one  end  by  a  female  head  and  at  the  other 
by  that  of  a  king  having  the  short  beard,  hair  and  crown 
of  Henry  III.  Erom  this  door  is  a  passage  through  to  the 
back  of  the  house,  on  the  right  of  which  was  doubtless 
the  screen  of  the  hall,  and  on  the  left  the  entrance  to  the 
kitchen.  In  this  last  wall  there  is  still  remaining  a  small 
arched  recess,  2  ft.  4  in.  wide,  2  ft.  5  in.  high,  and  1  ft.  7  in. 
deep,  containing  a  drain  which  projects  from  the  wall  in  the 
manner  of  a  piscina,  the  corner  of  which  is  ornamented 
with  a  rose  and  two  varieties  of  a  kind  of  tooth  ornament. 
The  slab  is  sunk  from  all  four  sides  to  the  centre,  where 
there  is  a  human  head  in  relief,  and  under  it  four  holes  for 
carrying  off  the  water.  At  the  point  of  the  arch  is  a  small 
staple  to  which  something  has  been  suspended.  Some 
years  since,  the  back  of  the  wall  was  removed  in  order 
to  ascertain  how  the  water  was  carried  off ;  when  a  pipe 
communicating  with  a  leaden  cistern  much  decayed  was 
discovered.  The  use  of  these  drains,  of  which  other  ex- 
amples occur,  has  not  been  ascertained,  but  it  seems  very 
probable  that  they  were  for  the  convenience  of  the  guests' 


washing  their  hands  before  they  went  into  the  hall,  and  if 
so,  the  staple  above  might  be  for  suspending  a  chained 
dish,  or  for  hanging  a  towel. 


The  prebendal  house  at  Thame  was  a  few  years  ago  a 
very  perfect  and  interesting  specimen  of  a  moderate  sized 
dwelling-house  of  the  thirteenth  century.  But  it  has  re- 
cently been  converted  into  a  modern  residence,  and  has 
entirely  lost  its  original  character.  The  chapel,  with  the 
triplet  of  lancet  windows  at  the  east  end,  has  however  been 


Near  the  town-hall  is  a  good  doorway,  with  bold  mould- 
ings, and  the  tooth  ornament :  the  rest  of  the  house  is 


There  is  a  singular  curiosity  here,  a  wooden  doorway  to 
a  barn,  with  the  tooth  ornament  cut  in  wood. 


Near  the  church  is  a  small  house,  said  to  have  been  the 
old  manor-house,  the  walls  of  which  appear  to  be  of  the 
thirteenth  century,  though  most  of  the  windows  are  inser- 
tions of  a  comparatively  late  period.  Two  of  the  original 
lancet-windows  remain,  and  the  doorway  is  a  good  exam- 
ple of  the  commencement  of  the  thirteenth  century,  with 
the  tooth-ornament,  and  early  mouldings,  partaking  of  the 
transition  Norman  character. 





m  ■ 

Impost  of  door  Base  of  window-shaft     Mullion.        Capital  of  window-shaft.  Window-head. 


i  :r,i,::t.  i:„ 





Arch  mouldings 









The  contents  of  this  chapter  are  principally  derived  from 
an  invaluable  series  of  records,  called  the  "  Liberate  Rolls/ ' 
preserved  in  the  Tower  of  London  ;  but  a  few  of  the  docu- 
ments have  been  taken  from  the  Close  Rolls.  These  au- 
thorities had,  hitherto,  escaped  the  notice  of  all  previous 
writers  on  architectural  history,  although  a  few  extracts 
from  them,  relating  to  painting  in  England,  were  printed 
by  Horace  Walpolea ;  and,  more  recently,  the  whole  of  the 
passages  illustrating  that  department  of  art  were  pub- 
lished, in  the  original  Latin,  by  Sir  Charles  L.  Eastlakeb. 

The  following  pages  comprise  all  the  really  important 
documents,  referring  to  the  architectural  works  executed 
by  order  of  Henry  the  Third,  which  are  to  be  found  in 
the  records  alluded  to.  It  was  considered  advisable  to 
present  them  to  the  reader  in  an  English  form c ;  but 
whenever  a  word  of  doubtful  import  occurred  in  the  ori- 
ginal, it  has  been  preserved  in  a  foot-note.  It  should  be 
observed  that,  in  all  probability,  these  documents  were 
drawn  up  from  the  verbal  orders  of  the  king,  who  fre- 
quently refers  in  them  to  the  oral  instructions  he  had  given 
to  his  various  officers. 

Henry  did  more  to  advance  the  progress  of  art  than  any 
English  sovereign  anterior  to  Edward  the  Third.  In  ad- 
dition to  his  works  at  the  abbey  and  palace  of  Westmin- 
ster, he  repaired,  or  entirely  rebuilt,  most  of  the  numerous 
manor-houses  belonging  to  the  crown,  besides  contributing 
largely  to  the  improvement  of  parish  churches  in  all  parts 

a  In  his  "Anecdotes  of  Painting."  Oil  Painting." 

b  See  "  Materials  for  the  History  of        c  The  translation  is  almost  literal. 


of  the  kingdom.  His  architectural  taste  was  not  inherited 
by  his  successor  j  after  the  accession  of  Edward  the  First 
the  Liberate  Rolls  cease  to  afford  any  important  inform- 
ation relative  to  the  fine  arts. 


G.  de  Craucumbe  is  ordered,  out  of  the  issues  of  the 
manor  of  Woodstock,  to  cause  the  wainscoting  of  the 
king's  great  chamber  there  to  be  painted  of  a  green  colour, 
and  the  picture  in  the  same  chamber,  which  is  darkened  in 
parts,  to  be  re-touched  d,  and  windows  (shutters)  of  fir e 
to  be  made  for  the  same  chamber,  well  bound  with  iron. 
Woodstock,  January  7. 

The  keeper  of  the  king's  houses  at  Woodstock  is  ordered 
to  cause  to  be  painted  in  the  king's  round  chapel  at  Wood- 
stock, with  good  colours,  the  Majesty  of  the  Lord,  and  the 
four  Evangelists,  and  the  figure  of  St.  Edmund  on  one  side, 
and  the  figure  of  St.  Edward  on  the  other,  and  to  cause 
two  new  glass  f  casements  to  be  made  there.  Windsor, 
January  27. 

The  sheriff  of  Kent  is  commanded  to  cause  the  king's 
two  cellars  in  the  castle  of  Rochester  to  be  ceiled,  viz.,  the 
cellar  beneath  the  king's  great  chamber,  and  the  cellar 
under  the  king's  wardrobe.    Westminster,  February  23. 

The  king  to  the  keeper  of  the  manor  of  Kennington. 
We  command  you  to  cause  the  chimney  of  our  chamber  at 
Kennington  to  be  rebuilt,  and  those  things  which  need 
repair  in  our  other  houses  there  to  be  repaired ;  and  the 
chapel  of  our  chamber  to  be  painted  with  "  histories,"  so 
that  the  field  shall  be  of  a  green  colour  stencilled  with 
gold  stars;  and  cause  the  windows  and  stairs g  to  be  re- 
paired.   Kennington,  March  17. 

d  retentari.  e  sap.  f  verrinas  novas.  &  gradus. 


The  men  of  Feckenham  are  commanded,  out  of  the  farm 
of  their  township,  to  cause  Walter  of  Swaffham,  the  Ser- 
jeant of  Feckenham,  to  have  monies  to  make  four  up- 
right h  windows  in  the  hall  at  Feckenham,  to  wainscote  the 
king's  chapel  there  behind  the  chancel-altar,  and  to  repair 
the  aforesaid  hall,  chamber,  and  chapel,  and  the  king's  other 
houses.   Kidderminster,  June  3. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  ordered  to  cause  the 
king's  wainscoted  chamber,  in  the  castle  of  Winchester,  to 
be  painted  with  the  same  "histories"  and  pictures  with 
which  it  was  before  painted.    Same  date. 

The  sheriff  of  Shropshire  is  commanded  to  cause  the 
stable  of  the  castle  of  Bridgenorth,  and  the  kitchen  within 
the  barbican  of  the  tower  of  the  same  castle,  to  be  repaired. 
Worcester,  June  14. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  commanded  to  cause 
windows  to  be  made  in  the  king's  painted  chamber  within 
the  castle  of  Winchester,  which  is  too  dark,  according  to 
the  plan  1  of  master  Elias  of  Dereham,  and  to  cause  the 
wainscote  of  the  same  chamber  to  be  painted  with  green 
colour.    Woodstock,  June  21. 

The  sheriff  of  Oxford  is  ordered  to  cause  the  pictures 
which  remain  to  be  done  in  the  king's  great  bed-chamber k 
at  Woodstock  to  be  finished,  and  the  Crucifixion,  and  the 
figures  of  St.  Mary  and  St.  John  to  be  painted  in  the  great 
chapel ;  and  he  is  to  cause  the  aisles1  of  the  great  hall  at 
Woodstock  to  be  unroofed,  and  re-covered  with  shingles, 
and  to  repair  the  houses  at  the  well,  and  roof  them,  and  to 
buy  fir-boards  to  put  about  the  well  there.  Woodstock, 
June  24. 

It  is  ordered  of  the  sheriff  of  Hereford  that  at  the  head 
of  the  "orielm"  of  the  king's  chamber  in  the  castle  of  Here- 

h  estantinas  :   a  term  of  doubtful  import. 
k  talamo.  i  alas. 

5  secundum  dispositionem. 
m  ad  capud  oriolli. 


ford  he  cause  to  be  made  a  certain  fair  and  decent  chapel, 
of  the  length  of  twenty- five  feet,  and  that  he  cause  that 
chapel  to  be  wainscoted;  to  do  which  Hugh  de  Kilpeck 
shall  let  him  have  wood  in  his  bailiwick  by  the  king's  order. 
Hereford,  September  11. 


The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Wiltshire.  We  command 
you  to  cause  our  great  chamber  at  Clarendon,  which  is  in 
need  of  repair,  to  be  repaired,  and  likewise  to  repair  the 
staircase11  of  the  same  chamber  and  roof  it  with  lead. 
Clarendon,  June  3. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Wiltshire.  We  order  that 
without  delay  you  cause  the  kitchen,  butlery  and  sewery 
of  our  hall  at  Clarendon  to  be  repaired ;  and  cause  to  be 
finished  the  plastering  and  wainscoting0  and  other  things 
which  are  still  to  be  completed  in  our  new  chapel  beside 
our  great  chamber.  And  cause  a  certain  pent-house p  to 
be  made  from  our  queen's  chamber  unto  the  said  queen's 
wardrobe  which  is  beneath  that  new  chapel,  and  a  chimney 
in  the  same  wardrobe.  And  also  cause  the  walls  of  our 
cellar  to  be  repaired  and  covered  with  plaster,  and  repair 
the  chimney  of  the  chamber  which  was  Hugh  de  Nevill's 
there,  and  the  other  things  which  are  in  want  of  necessary 
repair.  And  cause  to  be  made  a  certain  sufficient  machine 
at  our  well  there  to  draw  water ;  and  likewise  make  a 
certain  good  and  large  privy  chamber  between  our  hall 
and  kitchen,  without  the  wall,  towards  our  park.  Claren- 
don, January  10. 

The  king  to  his  bailiff  of  Kennington.  We  order  you 
to  cause  a  certain  wall  to  be  made  outside  our  chamber 
at  Kennington  to  enclose  our  court-yard;  and  make  one 

n  gradum.  0  dauburam  et  lambreschuram.  P  quoddam  apenticium. 



knight's  chamber,  and  a  scullery q ;  and  put  iron  bars  to 
the  window  of  our  queen's  chamber,  and  cause  the  glass 
windows  of  our  chamber  which  are  broken,  and  the  four 
gates,  to  be  repaired.    Kennington,  February  10. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Southampton.  We  command 
you  to  cause  a  certain  beamr  to  be  placed  in  the  chapel 
of  St.  Thomas  the  Martyr  in  our  castle  of  Winchester, 
which  shall  touch  both  walls  of  the  seat  of  us  and  our 
queen,  to  wit,  from  one  wall  to  the  other,  and  let  there  be 
erected  in  the  middle  of  the  beam  a  certain  cross,  with  the 
images  of  Mary,  John  and  two  angels.  Also  cause  the 
house  which  is  erected  in  the  middle  of  the  castle  aforesaid 
to  be  roofed  with  slate,  and  cause  the  wall  which  is  begun 
around  that  house,  to  enclose  it,  to  be  finished  in  the  style 
in  which  the  wall  was  commenced.  And  cause  the  stones 
which  are  at  Southampton,  and  came  from  Purbeck,  for  the 
works  of  our  castle  at  Winchester,  to  be  carried  to  Winches- 
ter, and  safely  keep  them  until  our  further  orders.  Ken- 
nington, April  3. 

The  king  to  Walter  de  Burgh,  keeper  of  the  manor  of 
Kennington.  We  command  you  that  you  cause  to  be 
made  at  Kennington,  on  the  spot  where  our  chapel  which 
is  roofed  with  thatch  is  situated,  a  chapel  with  a  staircase8, 
of  plaster,  which  shall  be  thirty  feet  long  and  twelve  feet 
wide ;  in  such  a  manner  that  in  the  upper  part  there  be 
made  a  chapel  for  the  use  of  our  queen,  so  that  she  may 
enter  that  chapel  from  her  chamber  ;  and  in  the  lower  part 
let  there  be  a  chapel  for  the  use  of  our  family.  Merton, 
April  13. 

The  king  to  the  same.  We  order  you  to  lengthen  the 
wardrobe  of  our  chamber,  beneath  our  chamber  at  Ken- 
nington, with  plaster- work*,  and  to  wainscote  the  chamber 

Q  squieleriam. 

r  trabem;  clearly  a  rood-loft. 

8  capellam  ad  stagium. 
1  plastiicio. 

b  b 


of  our  queen  beyond  her  bed  ;  and  to  finish  the  chimney 
of  our  chamber.    Kennington,  April  28. 

The  king  to  John  le  Fraunceis.  We  order  you  out  of 
the  monies  of  queen-gold  which  are  in  your  custody  to 
deliver  to  brother  John  of  Waverley,  mason,  £10,  for  the 
work  of  our  queen's  chamber  at  Westminster.  Windsor, 
May  8. 

The  king  to  Walter  de  Burgh.  We  command  you  with- 
out delay  to  lengthen  the  privy-chamber  of  our  chamber  at 
Kennington  with  stone  and  lime.    Kennington,  May  13. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Northumberland.  We  com- 
mand you  without  delay  to  repair  the  chamber  of  our  castle 
of  Newcastle-on-Tyne  at  the  head  of  our  old  hall,  and  like- 
wise our  chamber  in  the  "  old  tower,"  under  the  inspection 
of  Robert  de  Neweham  and  Hugh  de  Burneton,  whom  we 
have  assigned  thereto.  And  cause  also  our  new  hall  and 
new  chamber  in  the  same  castle  to  be  roofed  with  lead,  by 
the  view  and  testimony  of  the  same  Robert  and  Hugh. 
And  repair  also  the  breach  of  the  wall  beyond  the  postern 
of  the  same  castle,  and  the  palisade  before  the  gate  of  the 
same  castle,  nigh  the  old  tower,  &c.  Westminster,  May  16. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Wiltshire.  We  order  you  to 
cause  the  chimney  of  our  great  chamber  at  Clarendon,  and 
the  well  of  water  in  our  court  there,  to  be  repaired,  and 
make  a  certain  pent-house  between  our  queen's  chamber 
and  our  wardrobe  there,    Westminster,  May  20. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Wiltshire.  We  order  you  to 
make  a  certain  oven  in  our  court-yard  at  Clarendon.  Wood- 
stock, June  30. 

The  king  to  Walter  cle  Burgh.  We  command  you  to 
make  a  certain  pent- house,  with  a  chimney,  at  the  head  of 
our  hall  at  Brill,  in  the  manner  in  which  our  reeve  there 
shall  tell  thee  on  our  behalf ;  and  cause  to  be  repaired  our 
other  houses  there,  which  are  in  need  of  repair. 


Walter  de  Burgh  is  ordered  to  unroof  the  king's  chamber 
at  Kennington  and  afterwards  to  re-cover  it  with  good  tile ; 
and  to  cause  the  queen's  chamber  there  to  be  roofed. 

The  sheriff  of  Oxford  is  commanded  to  make  a  certain 
stone  wardrobe,  with  its  appurtenances,  on  the  small  plot 
between  the  hall  and  the  king's  great  chamber  at  Oxford, 
on  the  north  part :  and  to  repair  the  mantel  of  the  chimney 
of  the  same  chamber.    Oxford,  August  18. 

The  king  to  his  bailiff  of  Woodstock.  We  order  you  to 
make  a  certain  porch  before  the  door  of  our  queen's  cham- 
ber at  Evereswell,  and  cover  it  with  lead ;  and  cause  the 
curtain  and  the  other  painting  in  our  high  chamber  beside 
our  hall,  to  be  repaired  where  necessary.  Woodstock, 
August  22. 


The  king  to  the  sheriffs  of  London.  We  order  you  to 
repair  the  chambers  of  our  tower  of  London,  and  to  com- 
plete the  chimney  of  our  queen's  chamber;  and  also  to 
make  a  spur  of  boards,  good  and  becoming,  between 
the  chamber  and  chapel  of  the  new  turret  of  the  same 
tower,  nigh  our  hall,  towards  the  Thames.  London, 
March  2. 

The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  commanded  to  put  iron  bars 
to  the  windows  in  the  queen's  chamber  at  Clarendon,  and 
to  make  a  certain  door  before  the  aforesaid  chamber  with 
a  certain  bordure  on  the  door  aforesaid  ;  and  to  make  a 
certain  staircase  and  door  in  the  same  queen's  wardrobe  : 
and  to  repair  the  glass  windows  of  the  king's  chamber,  and 
to  make  a  certain  house  beyond  the  stair  of  the  king's 
cellar,  which  is  called  the  "  Rock,"  and  to  repair  the  house 
beyond  the  rock  :  and  also  to  roof  the  chamber  of  Alexan- 
der ;  and  to  cause  the  king's  wardrobe  there  to  be  roofed 


and  crested  ;  and  to  crest  the  chapel  of  All  Saints,  and  to 
repair  the  king's  salsary  and  larder,  and  to  roof  the  sewery, 
butlery  and  kitchen  there.  He  is  also  to  repair  and  re- 
crest  the  king's  hall  there :  and  to  make  a  certain  covering 
over  the  king's  oven  :  and  to  make  certain  wooden  barriers 
before  the  door  of  the  hall,  and  without  the  gate  there : 
and  to  make  a  certain  aisle  between  the  door  of  the  hall 
and  the  door  of  the  stair  of  the  king's  chamber  there,  with 
a  certain  "  oriol"  at  the  top  of  the  said  stair  ;  and  to  make 
also  an  iron  chain  and  a  certain  bucket  for  the  well  there. 
Clarendon,  December  24. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  commanded  to  make, 
without  delay,  a  certain  aisle  from  the  door  of  the  queen's 
chamber  in  Winchester  castle  to  the  door  of  her  chapel  in 
the  same  castle.    Winchester,  December  25. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  ordered  to  repair  the  glass 
of  the  window  of  the  hall  at  Winchester  over  the  great 
doorway ;  and  to  repair  the  Dais  of  the  same  hall,  as  well 
with  colours,  where  it  shall  be  necessary,  as  otherwise ;  and 
to  cause  the  wainscote  of  the  chamber  there  to  be  painted 
a  green  colour,  and  starred  with  gold ;  and  circles  to  be 
made  on  the  same  wainscote  in  which  are  to  be  painted 
"  histories  "  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament.  Wherwell, 
December  27. 

Walter  de  Burgh  is  ordered  to  make  a  chimney  in  the 
queen's  great  lower  plastered  chamber,  at  Brill,  and  an 
aisle  between  the  king's  chamber  and  the  queen's  chamber 
aforesaid.    Wherwell,  December  27. 

Walter  de  Burgh  is  commanded  to  wainscote  as  well  the 
upper  as  the  lower  chapel  of  the  queen  at  Kennington,  and 
to  raise  the  flue  of  the  king's  chimney  there,  and  to  do 
other  small  necessary  works  there. 


The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Wiltshire.  We  command  you 
to  bar  the  windows  of  our  chamber,  and  the  chamber  of 
our  queen,  and  of  our  chapel  and  of  the  chapel  of  our 
queen  at  Clarendon,  with  iron,  so  that  they  may  be  barred 
before  our  coming  there,  which  will  be  before  the  end  of  the 
three  next  following  weeks.    Woodstock,  November  5. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Southampton.  We  order  you 
to  make  in  our  castle  of  Winchester,  behind  the  chapel  of 
St.  Thomas  the  Martyr,  a  certain  chamber  for  the  use  of 
the  bishops,  and  a  chimney  and  a  certain  privy-chamber 
in  the  same  :  and  a  pent-house  beside  our  almonry,  for 
the  use  of  the  poor ;  and  a  "  thupet "  for  our  great  kitchen, 
and  to  repair  the  mantel  of  the  chimney  in  our  queen's 
chamber.  Also  make,  in  the  same  castle,  two  posts  before 
the  porch  of  our  hall,  and  a  certain  chain  for  the  same 
posts ;  and  a  certain  door  as  you  go  out  of  the  hall  towards 
our  chamber ;  and  make  lists  before  the  entrance  of  the 
hall,  and  barriers  beyond  the  bridge  of  the  castle  aforesaid, 
and  a  palisade  on  either  side  of  the  same  bridge.  Make 
also  a  certain  small  Mary,  with  a  great  tabernacle  for  the 
chape]  of  our  aforesaid  queen,  and  a  certain  painted  tablet 
to  be  placed  before  the  altar  of  the  same  chapel.  Wood- 
stock, Nov.  14. 

The  king  to  the  constable  of  the  Tower  of  London.  We 
order  you  to  cause  the  walls  of  our  queen's  chamber,  which 
is  within  our  chamber,  at  the  aforesaid  Tower  to  be  white- 
washed and  pointed,  and  within  those  pointings  to  be 
painted  with  flowers ;  and  cause  the  drain  of  our  private 
chamber  to  be  made  in  the  fashion  of  a  hollow  column,  as 
our  well-beloved  servant  John  of  Ely  shall  more  fully  tell 
thee,    Woodstock,  November  23. 


The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Wiltshire.  We  command  you 
that  beside  the  wall  between  the  hall  and  our  chamber  at 
Clarendon  you  cause  to  be  made  towards  the  park  a  certain 
pent-house  to  hold  litter ;  together  with  a  certain  privy- 
chamber  for  the  use  of  our  household  at  the  end  of  the 
aforesaid  pent-house.    Clarendon,  December  18. 

The  king  to  the  keeper  of  the  bishop  rick  of  Ely.  We 
direct  you  so  to  roof  the  chapel  and  chamber  of  the  houses 
of  the  aforesaid  bishoprick  at  London  that  the  rain  may  not 
enter  them.    Westminster,  January  20. 

Order  to  pay  Master  Alexander  the  carpenter  £20  for 
wainscoting  the  queen's  chapel  at  Westminster.    Feb.  4. 

The  king  to  the  keepers  of  the  bishoprick  of  Winches- 
ter. We  command  you  to  paint  throughout  the  cham- 
ber of  our  queen,  and  to  cause  a  certain  window  to  be 
made  in  the  most  convenient  place  in  it ;  and  to  make 
a  herbary  between  the  chamber  and  chapel.  Rochester, 
February  10. 

The  king  to  Walter  de  Tywe.  We  command  you,  with- 
out delay,  to  cause  the  new  chapel  of  our  queen  at  Wood- 
stock to  be  wainscoted,  and  likewise  to  make  an  aisle  be- 
tween the  same  chapel  and  her  chamber  there,  so  that  she 
may  go  to,  and  return  from,  that  chapel  with  a  dry  foot. 
Westminster,  March  18. 

The  king  to  Walter  de  Burgh.  We  direct  you  to  make 
a  wardrobe  and  a  privy-chamber  to  the  same  wardrobe,  at 
Brill,  for  the  use  of  our  queen.    Westminster,  April  8. 

To  the  same.  We  command  you  to  roof  our  chamber 
at  Kennington,  and  the  chamber  of  our  queen  there,  with 
shingles,  and  likewise  to  repair  the  chimney  under  our 
chamber  there ;  and  cause  our  garden  to  be  enclosed  with 
a  ditch.    Westminster,  April  8. 

The  king  to  the  bailiff  of  Woodstock.  We  command 
you  to  make  a  certain  chimney  in  our  great  wardrobe  at 



Woodstock,  and  to  cover  the  small  chamber  of  the  same 
wardrobe  with  shingle.    Windsor,  May  18. 

The  king  to  the  keepers  of  the  bishoprick  of  Winchester. 
We  command  you  to  make  a  certain  house  of  dealu,  run- 
ning upon  six  wheels,  and  cause  it  to  be  covered  with  lead  ; 
and  to  wainscote  the  porch  of  the  queen's  chapel  in  our 
castle  of  Winchester,  and  likewise  the  long  alley  from  the 
chapel  aforesaid  unto  our  chamber  there  ;  and  also  cause 
to  be  wainscoted  the  alley  which  is  between  our  chamber 
and  the  chapel  of  St.  Thomas  there  ;  and  make  a  certain 
wall  and  gate  before  the  doors  of  our  kitchens  there ;  and 
a  certain  herbary,  and  a  wall  on  the  side  of  our  hall,  to- 
wards the  south ;  and  likewise  repair  our  well  in  the  same 
castle,  and  buy  four  images  for  the  porch  of  our  aforesaid 
hall ;  and  cause  a  map  of  the  world  to  be  painted  in  the 
said  hall ;  and  repair  the  glass  windows  of  the  hall,  chapel, 
and  chambers  where  needful ;  and  make  a  certain  cellar 
under  the  chamber  of  our  queen ;  and  cover  with  lead, 
certain  lists  beside  the  wall  within  the  court,  from  the 
queen's  chapel  to  the  door  of  the  hall  and  the  wall  of  the 
great  tower.    Westminster,  August  4. 

The  king  to  the  bailiffs  of  Windsor.  We  command  you 
that  you  finish  the  works  on  which  we  ordered  you  to 
expend  fifty  marks,  without  delay;  and  paint  the  chamber 
of  our  queen  at  Windsor,  and  wainscote  the  chamber  of 
Edward  our  son,  and  put  iron  bars  to  each  window  of  the 
same  chamber,  and  likewise  make  a  privy  chamber  con- 
venient to  the  same  chamber,  &c.    Windsor,  August  11. 

The  king  to  Walter  de  Burgh.  We  order  you  to  cause 
to  be  built  a  certain  chapel  at  our  manor  of  Cliff,  of  stone 
and  lime,  fifty  feet  in  length  and  twenty-two  feet  in  width ; 
with  fair  glass  windows;  and  cause  the  chamber  of  our 
queen  there  to  be  wainscoted  and  painted  with  a  "  history;" 

u  sappo. 


and  block  up  the  window  at  the  head  of  our  bed  in  the 
same  chamber,  and  make  a  good  glass  window  in  the  gable 
of  the  aforesaid  chamber,  well  barred  with  iron ;  and  wain- 
scote  our  great  chamber  beyond  our  bed.  Woodstock, 
August  28. 

The  king  to  the  keeper  of  the  manor  of  Woodstock. 
We  order  you  to  repair  our  dovecote  at  Woodstock  where 
needful ;  and  to  make  a  certain  wall  between  our  larder 
there  and  the  further  angle  of  our  higher  chamber  towards 
the  south.  And  make  a  certain  new  cloor  in  the  chamber 
of  our  queen  under  our  chamber ;  and  cover  with  lead  the 
whole  alley  at  Evereswell.    Same  date. 

To  the  same.  We  order  you  to  make  a  herbary  at 
Evereswell  around  the  well.    Woodstock,  September  4. 

The  king  to  Walter  cle  Tywe,  keeper  of  the  manor  of 
Woodstock.  We  command  you  to  make  a  certain  chimney 
in  the  wardrobe  of  our  queen  at  Woodstock,  and  to  raise 
the  fluex  of  the  chimney  of  our  chamber  there  higher  by 
six  feet,  and  cover  the  pent-house,  which  is  between  our 
queen's  chamber  and  the  new  pent-house,  with  lead ;  and 
cover  also  our  mill  there  with  slate y,  and  repair  the  bays 
of  our  vivaries  with  chalk  :  and  repair  the  gutter  of  our 
kitchen  at  Evereswell ;  and  make  a  cloor  in  our  queen's 
chamber  ;  and  also  cause  to  be  made  a  certain  lattice  with 
a  door  and  with  forms  before  the  gate  of  our  new  chapel ; 
and  repair  all  the  houses  as  well  at  Evereswell  as  at  the 
former  court  which  need  repair  ;  and  make  a  certain  cross 
with  Mary  and  John  and  a  certain  image  of  St.  Mary  to  be 
placed  in  the  aforesaid  new  chapel ;  and  cause  to  be  made 
also  a  certain  house  near  the  stairs  of  our  great  chamber  to 
hold  firewood  and  coal  (charcoal?)  for  our  use.  Woodstock, 
September  10. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Wiltshire.    We  command  you 

x  tuellum. 

y  sclata. 



to  cause  the  chimney  of  our  wardrobe  at  Clarendon  to  be 
pulled  down,  and  a  new  one  to  be  built ;  and  renovate  and 
enlarge  the  privy-chamber  of  the  same,  and  make  a  certain 
wardrobe  of  the  length  of  thirty  feet  before  the  aforesaid 
privy-chamber.    Clarendon,  September  30. 

The  king  to  the  keepers  of  the  bishoprick  of  Winchester. 
We  order  you  to  make  in  our  castle  of  Winchester  a  draw- 
bridge with  a  bretache  above  it,  at  the  entry  of  the  great 
tower ;  and  cause  to  be  repaired  the  joists  of  our  chamber 
in  the  tower  aforesaid,  where  our  wardrobe  used  to  be  ; 
and  also  make  a  fair  porch  before  the  door  of  the  chapel  of 
Saint  Judoc  together  with  a  bell-turret  for  the  chapel  of 
St.  Thomas  in  the  same  castle ;  and  wainscote  the  alley 
from  our  chamber  unto  our  same  chapel :  and  roof  all  the 
houses  of  the  same  castle,  and  make  one  inner  close  in  the 
same  ;  together  with  two  furnaces  in  the  greater  kitchen, 
and  a  chimney  in  our  chamber  above  the  porch  of  the  great 
hall.  And  cause  all  our  stone  which  is  at  Stoneham  to  be 
carried  to  the  aforesaid  castle,  and  there  safely  deposited. 
Clarendon,  November  24. 

The  king  to  Walter  cle  Burgh.  We  command  you  to 
make  in  our  castle  of  Windsor  a  certain  chamber  for  our 
use  nigh  the  wall  of  the  same  castle  of  the  length  of  sixty 
feet,  and  of  the  width  of  twenty-eight  feet,  and  another 
chamber  for  the  use  of  our  queen  of  the  length  of  forty  feet 
which  shall  be  near  unto  our  chamber,  and  under  the  same 
roof  along  the  same  wall ;  and  a  certain  chapel  of  the  length 
of  seventy  feet  and  of  the  width  of  twenty-eight  feet,  on  the 
length  of  the  same  wall.  So  that  there  be  a  competent 
space  left  between  the  aforesaid  chambers  and  that  chapel 
to  make  a  little  grass-plot.    Kennington,  January  4. 


Edward  Fitz-Otho  keeper  of  the  king's  works  at  West- 
minster is  ordered  to  raise  the  chimney  of  the  queen's 
chamber,  and  to  paint  the  chimney  of  the  chamber  afore- 
said, and  on  it  to  cause  to  be  pourtrayed  a  figure  of  Winter, 
which  as  well  by  its  sad  countenance  as  by  other  miserable 
distortions  of  the  body  may  be  deservedly  likened  to  Winter 
itself.    Westminster,  January  20. 

The  king  to  the  keepers  of  the  works  of  the  Tower  of 
London.  We  command  you  to  cause  the  chamber  of  our 
queen  in  the  aforesaid  Tower  to  be  wainscoted  without 
delay,  and  to  be  thoroughly  whitened  internally,  and  newly 
painted  with  roses ;  and  cause  to  be  made  a  wall z  in  the 
fashion  of  wainscote  between  that  chamber  and  the  ward- 
robe of  the  same  chamber,  and  let  it  be  entirely  covered 
externally  with  tile  ;  and  also  cause  our  great  chamber  in 
the  same  tower  to  be  entirely  whitewashed  and  newly 
painted,  and  all  the  windows  of  the  same  chamber  to  be 
made  anew  with  new  wood  and  bolts  and  hinges, 
and  to  be  painted  with  our  arms,  and  barred  with  new 
iron,  where  needful.  Moreover,  repair  and  mend  all  the 
glass  windows  in  the  chapel  of  St.  John  the  Baptist  within 
the  said  Tower,  where  necessary ;  and  repair  all  the  win- 
dows in  the  great  chamber  towards  the  Thames  with  new 
wood,  with  new  bolts  and  hinges,  and  bar  them  well  with 
iron  ;  and  in  the  corner  of  the  same  chamber  make  a  great 
round  turret  towards  the  Thames  so  that  the  drain a  of  the 
last  chamber  may  descend  into  the  Thames ;  and  make  a 
new  cowl b  on  the  top  of  the  kitchen  of  the  great  Tower. 
Westminster,  February  24. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Surrey.    We  order  you  to 

z  murus  ;  but  probably  nothing  more 
than  a  wooden  partition  is  signified. 

a  tuellus. 

b  fumericium — or  louver. 



cause  the  glass  windows  of  our  houses  and  chapel  at  Guild- 
ford, which  were  broken  by  the  storm,  to  be  repaired ;  and 
that  you  cover  the  same  houses  which  were  unroofed  by 
the  same  storm.    Kennington,  April  4. 

The  king  to  the  barons  of  the  Exchequer.  Allow 
Walter  cle  Burgh,  the  keeper  of  our  demesnes,  out  of  the 
issues  of  the  same,  26s.  which  he  expended  by  our  order 
in  making  a  certain  house  for  the  use  of  our  chaplain  at 
Kennington.  Also  9s.  8d.  which  he  spent  on  a  certain 
seat  for  the  use  of  our  queen  in  our  chapel  there,  and  in 
making  a  certain  lavatory  between  our  chamber  and  the 
queen's  chamber,  and  in  whitewashing  a  certain  privy- 
chamber  there.  Also  allow  him  12d.  which  he  expended 
in  barring  with  iron  certain  windows  in  our  chamber  there, 
and  8d.  which  he  spent  in  making  a  certain  candlestick 
to  be  put  in  our  chamber  there :  and  two  shillings  which 
he  spent  in  repairing  the  glass  windows  of  the  same 
chamber,  and  sixteen-pence  for  repairing  a  certain  Thames 
barge,  and  2s.  6d.  for  a  certain  table  bought  for  our  queen's 
use  there  ;  and  three  shillings  and  ninepence  which  he 
spent  in  removing  a  certain  stable  there  ;  and  making  a 
wall  from  our  great  gate  to  the  head  of  our  grange ;  and 
20d.  which  he  expended  in  repairing  our  salsary  there ; 
and  two  shillings  and  nine-pence  halfpenny  which  he  spent 
in  buying  board  to  cover  our  oven  there;  and  3s.  l^d.  for 
tile  bought  to  cover  our  hall  there ;  and  12d.  which  he  ex- 
pended in  making  a  pavement  between  our  chamber  and 
our  hall.    Windsor,  April  26. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Wiltshire.  We  command  you, 
without  delay,  to  cause  our  great  gate  at  Clarendon  to  be 
removed,  and  put  in  another  place,  as  Adam  Coc,  our 
Serjeant  at  Clarendon,  shall  tell  you  on  our  behalf;  so  that 
our  kitchens  and  our  stable  may  be  within  the  close  of  our 
court  there.    Woodstock,  May  8. 


The  king  to  his  bailiff  of  Woodstock.  We  order  you  to 
cause  the  oriol  before  the  door  of  our  queen's  chamber  at 
Woodstock  to  be  wainscoted,  and  the  old  windows  of  the 
same  chamber  to  be  made  anew  and  painted;  and  to 
lengthen  the  small  chamber  for  the  use  of  the  valets  of  the 
same  queen,  before  the  door  of  her  chamber,  by  thirteen 
feet ;  and  cause  a  certain  tablet  to  be  made  to  put  above 
the  altar  in  our  chapel  there.    Woodstock,  May  9. 

The  king  to  Walter  de  Burgh.  We  order  you  to  cause 
the  walls  of  our  court  at  Geddington  to  be  repaired,  and 
the  paintings  of  our  chamber,  above  our  bed,  which  are 
discoloured  by  the  rain,  to  be  re-painted;  and  roof  that 
chamber  where  it  shall  be  necessary,  and  rebuild  our  dove- 
cote which  is  pulled  down,  and  make  four  mews,  which  are 
needed  there,  to  mew  our  falcons.    Windsor,  May  22. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Kent.  We  order  you  to  make 
glass  windows  for  our  chapel  and  chamber  in  Dover  castle, 
and  cause  the  new  hall  of  the  same  castle  to  be  filled  with 
poor  people,  and  find  them  food  for  one  day  before  our 
coming  into  those  parts.    Westminster,  July  1. 

The  king  to  the  constable  of  Rochester  castle.  We 
command  you  to  cause  the  windows  in  the  oriol  before  the 
door  of  our  chamber  in  the  castle  aforesaid  to  be  repaired, 
where  necessary,  and  likewise  to  mend  and  renovate,  where 
necessary,  the  pent-house  which  is  between  our  hall  and 
chapel  there  ;  and  renovate  the  stair c  before  the  outer  gate 
of  the  tower  of  the  same  castle,  and  make  a  certain  pent- 
house above  the  stair  aforesaid,  and  cause  the  said  tower  to 
be  whitewashed  in  those  places  where  it  was  not  white- 
washed before ;  and  make  new  wooden  windows  in  the 
chapel  aforesaid.    Feversham,  July  13. 

c  Almost  all  the  references  to  stairs 
which  are  found  in  these  documents 
shew  that  they  were,  in  general,  built  ex- 

ternally :  see  for  example  the  next  para 




The  king  to  the  keeper  of  the  manor  of  Woodstock. 
We  command  you  without  delay  to  cause  to  be  made  a 
certain  iron  trellice  on  the  staircase  before  our  chamber, 
towards  our  herbary,  and  a  certain  wooden  lattice  in  the 
two  windows  before  the  chamber  of  our  queen,  and  cause 
the  pent-house d  above  those  windows  to  be  covered  with 
lead.  And  cause  also  the  apertures  of  the  two  pent-houses 
between  our  hall  and  the  queen's  chamber,  and  our  chapel, 
towards  the  herbary,  to  be  boarded e  and  two  white  glass 
windows  to  be  made  in  the  same  boards f.  Make  also 
two  glass  windows  in  the  gable  of  our  hall,  and  repair  the 
windows  of  the  same  hall  looking  east,  together  with  the 
painting  of  the  same  hall.  And  make  a  certain  chequer- 
board  in  the  same  hall,  containing  this  verse ; 

"  Qui  non  dat  quod  amat,  non  accipit  ille  quod  op  tat." 

And  likewise  repair  all  the  houses  of  both  our  courts, 
and  the  fountains  and  walls,  which  are  in  want  of  repair. 
Woodstock,  November  6. 

The  king  to  the  keepers  of  the  works  at  the  Tower  of 
London.  We  command  you  to  repair  the  granary  within 
the  same  Tower,  &c,  and  to  cause  all  the  leaden  gutters  of 
the  great  Tower,  through  which  rain  water  should  fall  from 
the  summit  of  the  same  Tower,  to  be  carried  down  to  the 
ground ;  so  that  the  wall  of  the  said  Tower,  which  has 
been  newly  whitewashed,  may  be  in  no  wise  injured  by 
the  dropping  of  rain  water,  nor  be  easily  weakened.  And 

d  In  illuminations  of  the  14th  century  has  been  printed  in  Walpole's  "  Anec- 

we  often  see  a  decorated  canopy  over  dotes  of  Painting  : "  ed.  Dallaway,  vol.  i. 
mural   windows  :   appenticiura    is   the         e  bordari. 
term  used  in  the  above  writ.    This  order         f  borduris. 


make  on  the  same  tower  on  the  south  side,  at  the  top,  deep 
alures  of  good  and  strong  timber,  entirely  and  well  covered 
with  lead,  through  which  people  may  look  even  unto  the 
foot  of  the  same  tower,  and  ascend,  and  better  defend  it, 
if  need  should  be.  And  also  whitewash  the  whole  chapel  of 
St.  John  the  Evangelist  in  the  same  Tower.  And  make  in 
the  same  chapel  three  glass  windows,  one,  to  wit,  on  the 
north  part,  with  a  certain  small  figure  of  Mary  holding  her 
child,  the  other  on  the  south  side,  with  [the  subject  of]  the 
Trinity,  and  the  third,  on  the  same  south  side,  with  St. 
John  the  Apostle  and  Evangelist ;  and  paint  the  cross  and 
beam  beyond  the  altar  of  the  same  chapel,  well  and  with 
good  colours.  And  cause  to  be  made  and  painted  two 
fair  images,  where  they  may  be  best  and  most  decently 
made  in  the  same  chapel,  one  of  St.  Edward  holding  a  ring 
and  giving  it  to  St.  John  the  Evangelist.  And  whitewash 
all  the  old  wall  around  our  aforesaid  Tower.  Windsor, 
December  10. 

The  king  to  the  keepers  of  the  works  of  Windsor  castle. 
We  command  you  without  delay  to  cause  a  certain  pent- 
house to  be  made  between  our  hall  and  our  kitchen  within 
the  bailey  of  our  castle  of  Windsor.    Windsor,  Dec.  21. 

The  king  to  Paulin  Peyvere  and  J.  de  Gatesdene,  keepers 
of  the  bishoprick  of  Winchester.  We  command  you  to 
complete  without  delay  the  works  of  the  new  gateway, 
and  the  new  bridge,  and  the  turrets  of  the  same  gateway ; 
and  to  joist  the  same  turrets  and  cover  them  with  lead  : 
and  cause  the  bretache  over  the  new  bridge  to  be  garreted8 
and  covered  with  lead ;  and  remove  also  the  old  bridge, 
and  cause  the  ditch  there  to  be  prepared  and  flooded ; 
and  pull  down  the  old  gateway  and  make  it  good  with  a 
wall  and  alures h.    And  cover  our  queen's  chapel  in  the 

g  garitari. 

h  alleriis. 



same  castle  with  lead,  and  roof  the  great  wardrobe  with 
its  pent-houses  with  shingle.  Also  pave  the  whole  of  our 
hall,  and  paint  the  roof1  of  our  demesne  chamber  with  the 
Old  and  New  Testament,  with  gilt  bosses  k,  and  renew  the 
other  paintings.  And  make  a  tablet  to  be  put  before  the 
altar  of  St.  Thomas  the  Martyr  in  our  chapel.  And  make 
two  glass  windows,  to  shut  and  open,  in  our  chamber 
opposite  our  bed :  and  pull  down  the  mantel  of  the  chim- 
ney in  our  queen's  chamber  and  afterwards  enlarge  it. 
Marlborough,  January  25. 

The  king  to  Walter  de  Tywe,  &c.  We  order  you  to  make 
a  new  stable  for  the  use  of  our  queen,  roofed  with  slate, 
and  a  certain  house  for  the  poultry,  and  another  house  for 
the  use  of  our  Salter,  likewise  roofed  with  slate.  Also 
cover  with  slate  all  the  houses  of  each  court  which  are  not 
slated.  And  cause  also  the  paintings  of  each  court1  to  be 
repaired,  where  needful,  and  all  the  windows  of  each  court 
to  be  barred  with  iron,  and  double  doors  to  be  made  to 
all  the  privy-chambers.    Woodstock,  March  5. 


The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Berkshire.  We  command 
you  to  pay,  out  of  the  issues  of  your  county,  ten  marks 
unto  Edward  our  glazier1"  at  Windsor.  Reading,  Novem- 
ber 21. 


The  king  to  the  bailiff  of  Kennington.  We  order  you 
to  repair  the  defects  of  the  roofs  of  our  hall  at  Kennington, 
and  of  our  kitchens  there,  where  necessary  ;  and  to  repair 

1  In  alto  depingi.  k  bociis. 

1  cuiia;  often  used  as  synonymous  with  aula.  vitreario. 


the  chimney  of  our  queen's  chamber,  and  likewise  the 
leaden  gutter  between  the  queen's  chamber  and  her  chapel ; 
and  put  in  order  likewise  our  two  little  meadows11  and  the 
walls  both  around  those  meadows  and  around  our  garden. 
Winchester,  February  18. 


The  wardens  of  the  archbishoprick  of  Canterbury  are 
ordered  to  buy  a  fair  stone  to  be  put  over  the  body  of 
Gerold  Fitz-Maurice  justiciar  of  Ireland ;  on  which  they 
are  to  cause  to  be  represented  the  shield  of  the  same 
Gerold  with  his  arms.    Rochester,  November  20. 

The  king  to  the  keepers  of  the  bishoprick  of  London. 
We  command  you  to  pay  out  of  the  issues  of  the  bishop- 
rick of  London  unto  master  Simon  our  carpenter,  and  the 
other  keepers  of  our  works  at  Windsor,  ten  marks  to  wains- 
cote  our  chambers  at  Windsor.    Windsor,  December  12. 

The  sheriff  of  Oxford  is  ordered  to  wainscote  the  king's 
hall  at  Oxford  to  the  extent  of  five  couples  (copula)  beyond 
the  king's  seat ;  and  to  make  in  the  same  hall,  on  the  north 
and  south  side,  two  fair  upright  windows  with  white  glass 
casements,  to  open  and  shut ;  and  to  make  before  the  door 
of  the  same  hall,  on  the  south,  a  fair  and  decent  porch ; 
and  if  the  other  windows  of  the  same  hall  are  in  need  of 
repair  he  is  to  repair  them.  He  is  to  wainscote  the  chancel 
of  the  king's  chapel  at  Oxford  throughout ;  to  remove  the 
leaden  windows  of  the  same  chapel,  and  put  glass  in  their 
stead.  He  is  also  to  wainscote  the  queen's  chapel,  and  to 
cause  to  be  well  painted  in  front,  behind  the  altar,  the 
images  of  the  Crucifixion,  of  Mary  and  John,  and  under 
the  beam  the  "  history"  of  the  Lord's  Supper.  Woodstock, 
February  11. 




The  bailiffs  of  Woodstock  are  ordered  to  close  up  the 
door  of  the  hall  at  Woodstock,  and  to  make  another  in  the 
aisle  of  the  same  hall,  near  the  south  angle,  with  a  great 
and  decent  porch ;  and  to  cause  the  three  windows  of  the 
same  hall  to  be  raised  with  masonry  in  the  fashion  of  a 
porch0 ;  and  on  the  other  side,  in  the  east  angle,  to  make 
another  door  where  one  used  to  be,  and  on  that  side  to 
build  a  kitchen,  with  a  pent-house  between  that  door  of 
the  hall  and  the  kitchen.  And  also  to  cause  the  queen's 
chapel  to  be  lengthened  by  twenty  feet,  towards  the  east, 
with  vaulting  above  and  beneath  ;  and  to  make  in  the 
king's  chapel  over  the  altar-table  the  images  of  the  Crucifix, 
St.  Mary,  St.  John  the  Evangelist,  and  two  angels  after  the 
fashion  of  Cherubim  and  Seraphim  ;  and  to  repair  the  iron 
lattice  where  needful  j  and  to  repair  also  the  crenelles  of 
the  king's  chamber  with  mortar,  and  to  whitewash  them  ; 
and  to  wainscote  the  privy-chamber  of  the  king  and  queen, 
and  to  make  a  small  kitchen  for  the  queen's  use  near  her 
chamber ;  and  to  roof  and  repair  the  houses  at  Evereswell 
where  necessary.    Woodstock,  February  19. 

The  king  to  the  keepers  of  the  works  at  Woodstock. 
We  command  you  to  cause  the  cloisters  round  the  foun- 
tains at  Evereswell  to  be  well  paved,  and  to  wainscote  the 
same  cloisters.  And  make  also  in  our  great  hall  at  Wood- 
stock a  certain  great  louvre p ;  and  pull  down  the  four 
windows  which  are  in  the  gable  of  the  same  hall  towards 
the  east,  and  in  their  stead  make  one  great  round  and 
becoming  window,  on  high,  with  glass  lights.  And  make 
also  a  certain  great  gate  nigh  the  chapel  at  Woodstock, 
towards  Evereswell,  and  beyond  that  gate  a  certain  decent 
and  befitting  chamber,  with  alures  reaching  to  the  door 
of  the  chapel  aforesaid,  and  paint  that  chapel  with  his- 

°  Probably  to  be  carried  into  the  roof. 

D  d 

p  fumerium. 


tories  as  we  enjoined  unto  William  de  St.  Omer  our  bailiff. 
Woodstock,  February  23. 

The  sheriff  of  Dorset  and  Somerset  is  ordered  to  cause 
the  tower  of  the  castle  of  Corfe  to  be  pargetedq  with 
mortar  where  needful,  and  to  whitewash  the  whole  of  it 
externally.    Clarendon,  March  10. 

The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  ordered  to  cause  the  under- 
written works  to  be  done  at  the  king's  houses  at  Claren- 
don ;  to  wit,  a  new  stable r  for  the  use  of  the  king  and 
queen,  which  is  to  extend  from  the  south  wall,  nigh  the 
gate,  along  even  unto  the  old  hall  which  is  now  the  stable 
of  the  king's  horses.  In  which  stable  there  are  to  be  two 
inner  close  chambers,  at  each  end  of  the  same  stable,  to 
contain  the  harness  of  the  king  and  queen,  and  two  privy- 
chambers  are  to  be  made  in  the  same  chambers.  And  the 
door  of  the  aforesaid  old  hall  is  to  be  removed  to  the 
corner  opposite  the  chapel,  and  to  be  made  with  a  fair 
porch ;  and  the  same  old  hall  is  to  be  made  into  a  chamber, 
with  a  chimney  on  the  south  side,  with  one  pillared  win- 
dow8; and  in  the  wall  opposite  the  same  chimney  there 
are  to  be  two  decently  pillared  windows,  and  one  win- 
dow in  the  gable,  without  a  pillar,  to  be  made  as  high 
as  possible  :  to  which  chamber  there  is  to  be  made  a  fair 
privy-chamber,  between  the  wall  and  that  chamber,  and  a 
grass-plot*.  And  nigh  the  king's  kitchen  he  is  to  make 
another  great,  and  square,  kitchen,  which  is  to  be  every 
way  within  the  walls  forty  feet ;  and  a  salsary  between  the 
wall  of  the  same  kitchen  and  the  wall  of  the  hall.  And  he 
is  to  make  a  "  herlebecheriau"  on  the  outside,  beside  the 
wall  of  the  kitchen  ;  and  to  roof  the  hall  where  necessary ; 
and  a  fair  porch  is  to  be  made  before  the  hall  door,  and 
the  small  glass  windows  of  the  same  hall  are  to  be  repaired 

•>  perjactari. 
1  herbarium. 

r  marescalcia.  s  fenestra  columpnata. 

u  The  meaning  of  this  word  is  doubtful. 



where  necessary  :  and  all  the  crests  of  all  the  chambers 
and  windows  are  to  be  leaded :  and  he  is  to  renew  the 
paintings  of  the  king's  chamber,  and  of  the  windows  and 
chamber  of  the  queen,  and  of  her  chapel,  and  likewise  of 
the  chapel  beside  the  almonry ;  and  a  porch  is  to  be  made 
before  the  door  of  the  same  chapel  by  the  almonry.  And 
he  is  to  wainscote  the  aforesaid  hall  beyond  the  dais  for  the 
space  of  five  couples,  and  to  well  and  strongly  bar  with 
iron  on  the  outside,  where  it  shall  be  necessary,  all  the 
glass  windows  of  the  chapel  of  the  king  and  queen.  And 
to  repair,  where  needful,  all  the  glass  windows  of  the 
chapel  of  the  king  and  queen ;  and  to  repair  the  wall  of 
the  king's  chamber  externally  with  mortar,  and  to  white- 
wash it ;  and  to  raise  the  wall  also  of  the  little  wardrobe, 
and  the  queen's  private  chamber  on  the  east  and  north  ; 
so  that  the  pillared  windows  of  the  oriol  may  be  removed 
into  that  wall.  And  to  make  a  chimney  in  that  small 
wardrobe  ;  and  to  remove  the  door  of  the  queen's  chamber 
into  the  angle  of  the  chamber;  the  [outer]  stairs  of  the 
chamber  are  to  be  removed,  and  a  staircase  made  in 
that  angle  to  ascend  into  the  aforesaid  oriol ;  and  he  is  to 
joist  that  oriol  with  cambred  joists*,  and  to  cover  those 
joists  with  lead  ;  and  to  make  a  fair  private  chamber,  well 
vaulted7,  as  well  in  the  upper  as  in  the  lower  story2,  to 
that  oriol  ;  and  to  wainscote  the  greater  and  lesser  cham- 
ber of  the  queen ;  and  to  make  a  pavement  of  tiles  in  the 
king's  demesne  chapel  and  in  that  oriol,  and  to  wains- 
cote it.  And  the  descending  trap9,  in  the  king's  chapel 
is  to  be  removed  and  a  staircase  made  in  the  north  angle. 
And  the  door  of  the  king's  wardrobe  is  to  be  moved  and 
placed  between  the  chimney  and  the  north  angle.  Claren- 
don, March  14. 

*  gistis  cambris. 
y  bene  voltatam. 

"  trapa  decendens. 


The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Northampton.  We  command 
you  to  cause  to  be  made  in  the  hall  at  Geddington  two 
windows  with  columns,  like  the  other  windows,  and  in  the 
window  which  is  in  the  gable  of  the  hall  make  a  white 
glass  window  with  the  image  of  a  king  in  the  middle  ;  and 
likewise  put  white  glass  windows  in  the  two  small  round 
windows  which  are  above  the  windows  in  the  hall.  And 
cause  the  wardrobe  of  our  queen  there  to  be  lengthened, 
and  windows  to  be  made  before  the  queen's  oriol,  and  a 
window  in  the  gable  of  the  chamber  in  which  the  countess 
of  Leicester  lay.    Stamford,  July  7. 

The  constable  of  Ludgershall  is  ordered  to  execute  all 
the  following  works  there  j  to  wit,  a  new  hall  in  place  of 
the  old  hall,  which  is  to  be  sixty  feet  long  and  forty  feet 
wide,  with  four  upright b  windows,  and  a  certain  pantry0 
and  butlery  at  the  end  of  the  same  hall ;  and  two  kitchens 
are  to  be  made,  one  for  the  king's  use,  the  other  for  the 
use  of  his  household  :  the  door  of  the  king's  wardrobe  there 
is  to  be  removed ;  and  the  king's  chamber  and  the  queen's 
chamber  to  be  wainscoted ;  and  the  stairs  of  the  king's 
chamber  to  be  put  up  ;  and  the  outer  chambers  there  to  be 
repaired  and  joisted,  &c.    Windsor,  May  8. 

The  king  to  his  treasurer  and  Edward  Fitz-Otho.  We 
command  you  strictly  enjoining,  and  even  as  you  wish 
our  love  towards  you  to  be  continued,  that  you  omit  in  no 
wise  but  that  the  chamber  which  we  ordered  to  be  made 
at  Westminster,  for  the  use  of  the  knights,  be  finished  on 
this  side  of  Easter,  even  though  it  should  be  necessary  to 
hire  a  thousand  workmen  a  day  for  it  j  and  make  the 
same  chamber  of  two  stories d,  and  in  the  same  manner, 
without  couples6,  as  the  privy-chamber  of  our  great  ex- 
chequer, and  cover  well  the  roof  of  the  same  chamber 

b  stantinas. 
0  panetria. 

ad  estagium. 
e  copulis :  rafter-ties, 


with  lead ;  so  that  the  view  of  the  windows  of  the  great 
hall  may  not  be  disturbed.  And  make  also  in  the  upper 
floor  two  chimneys,  and  one  chimney  beneath.  Also 
remove  the  offices  which  are  beside  the  hall  aforesaid,  and 
rebuild  them  between  our  same  exchequer  and  the  gate- 
way.   Woodstock,  May  17. 

The  king  to  his  treasurer,  &c.  Pay  out  of  our  treasury 
unto  Edward  of  Westminster,  one  thousand,  nine  hundred 
and  forty-nine  pounds,  thirteen  shillings,  and  five  pence 
halfpenny,  which  he  has  expended  by  our  order  in  the 
construction  of  our  new  chamber  beside  our  hall  at  West- 
minster, and  of  our  conduit,  and  in  our  other  works  there, 
which  we  enjoined  him  to  do.    Woodstock,  May  17. 

The  sheriff  of  Nottingham  is  ordered  to  wainscote  the 
king's  great  chamber  in  the  castle  of  Nottingham,  and  to 
make  a  becoming  glass  window  in  the  same,  and  to  cover 
the  wardrobe  of  the  same  chamber  with  lead,  and  to  make 
a  certain  aisle  between  the  stairs  of  the  king's  chamber, 
and  the  chamber  of  the  queen,  and  to  cover  it  with  lead ; 
also  to  wainscote  the  queen's  chamber,  and  to  cover  the 
chapel  in  her  chamber  with  lead,  and  to  make  a  glass 
window  in  it  j  and  to  make  anew  the  altar  and  sedilia  in 
the  new  chapel,  nearer  the  gable,  &c.  Nottingham,  July  16. 

The  sheriff  of  Nottingham  is  ordered  to  build  at  Clip- 
stone,  a  fair,  great  and  becoming  hall  of  wood,  and  a  kitchen 
of  wood,  and  a  wardrobe  for  the  queen's  use.  Clipston, 
July  21. 

The  sheriff  of  Surrey  is  ordered  to  cause  a  kitchen  to  be 
made  for  the  king's  use  at  Guildford ;  so  that  it  may  be 
ready  before  the  feast  of  St.  Edward.  Guildford,  Septem- 
ber 20. 

The  same  is  ordered  to  repair  the  gutters  of  the  king's 
houses  at  Guildford,  where  necessary,  and  to  make  a  door 
in  the  gable  of  the  hall  there,  between  the  pantry  and 


butlery,  by  which  the  king's  kitchen  may  be  entered,  and 
to  put  glass  lights  in  the  window  on  the  west  of  the  dais ; 
and  to  make  a  chimney  in  the  king's  larder  there  ;  so  that 
that  house  may  be  the  queen's  wardrobe,  when  she  shall 
come  there  ;  and  to  bar  the  windows  of  the  chamber  of  the 
king  and  queen  with  iron,  &c.    Chertsey,  September  26. 

The  bailiff  of  Kennington  is  ordered  to  cause  the  gate- 
way which  the  king  sent  from  Westminster  to  Kennington 
to  be  erected  in  the  manner  in  which  it  was  sometime 
built  within  the  king's  court  at  Westminster ;  and  also  to 
wainscot e  the  king's  chamber  there.  Westminster,  Octo- 
ber 3. 

The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  ordered  to  make  under  the 
new  wardrobe  of  the  queen  at  Clarendon,  four  windows, 
each  to  be  of  the  width  of  one  foot,  and  to  cause  them  to 
be  well  barred  with  iron ;  taking  care  that  those  windows 
be  so  high,  that  no  one  standing  on  the  areaf  can  see 
through  them.    Windsor,  June  15. 


The  constable  of  Marlborough  is  ordered  to  build  the 
queen's  chamber  at  Marlborough  with  an  upper  story,  with 
a  chimney  below  and  above;  so  that  the  same  chamber 
contain  twenty-four  feet  in  width  within  the  walls  of  the 
same  chamber ;  and  that  he  make  four  great  "  well-sitting" 
windows,  with  pillars,  in  the  same  chamber,  to  wit,  two  in 
each  gable,  and  other  two  on  the  two  sides  of  the  cham- 
ber aforesaid  :  and  he  is  to  make  also  an  alley  of  two  stories 
between  the  king's  chamber  and  the  chamber  of  the  queen. 
Westminster,  January  18. 

The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  ordered  to  make  a  pent-house 
from  the  great  gate  of  the  manor  of  Clarendon,  within 

f  aera. 


the  wall,  unto  the  chambers  on  the  north,  for  the  use  of 
the  poor ;  and  one  great  and  becoming  porch  for  the  king's 
hall ;  and  a  certain  cloister  (claustrum)  before  the  new- 
kitchen  ;  and  a  wall  round  the  queen's  new  chamber  to- 
wards the  park,  within  which  a  small  meadow  may  be 
made.    Chewton,  February  20. 

The  sheriff  of  Surrey  is  ordered  to  enclose  the  area 
which  the  king  has  purchased,  nigh  the  kitchen,  to  lengthen 
the  king's  court  at  Guildford,  with  a  wall  conveniently  an- 
swering to  the  other  wall  by  which  the  court  aforesaid  is 
enclosed  ;  and  to  repair  the  two  piers  of  the  king's  hall  at 
Guildford,  which  need  repair  because  they  are  out  of  the 
perpendicular.    Westminster,  March  2. 

The  sheriff  of  Oxford  is  ordered  to  put  new  glass  lights 
in  the  windows  of  the  west  gable  of  the  king's  hall  at  Ox- 
ford, and  in  the  new  windows  of  the  same  hall ;  and  to 
roof  the  king's  chapel,  where  necessary ;  and  to  make  a 
chimney  in  the  king's  wardrobe,  and  a  certain  house  for 
the  use  of  the  porter  there,  which  is  to  be  covered  with 
slate ;  and  to  close  up  the  door  of  the  queen's  private 
chamber  towards  the  grass-plot ;  to  roof  the  same  cham- 
ber where  necessary,  and  to  bar  the  windows  of  the  same 
chamber  with  iron.    Woodstock,  May  18. 

William  de  St.  Ouen  is  ordered  to  level  the  area  between 
the  queen's  chapel  and  the  larder  at  Woodstock,  to  enclose 
it  with  a  good  wall,  and  to  make  a  fair  cc  herbours"  in  it  ; 
and  to  repair  the  queen's  private  chamber  which  threatens 
to  fall ;  and  to  make  a  certain  chimney  in  the  chamber 
over  the  cellar  at  the  wells h;  and  likewise  to  make  an  alley 
from  the  queen's  kitchen  to  the  door  of  the  alley  leading  to 
the  queen's  chapel.    Westminster,  June  4. 

The  sheriff  of  Gloucester  is  ordered  to  repair  the  wall  of 
Gloucester  castle,  towards  the  town  forges  ;  and  to  put 

s  herbarium.  h  ad  fontes. 


glass  windows  in  the  king's  chapel,  in  the  queen's  chapel, 
and  in  her  chamber;  and  to  remove  the  door  of  the 
queen's  chamber  and  place  it  where  the  king  enjoined 
him  •  to  repair  the  old  chamber  with  a  chimney  before  the 
door  of  the  long  cellar,  under  the  queen's  chapel ;  and  to 
remove  the  door  of  the  old  chapel.    Stratton,  August  3. 


The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Oxford  and  Berks.  We 
command  you  to  roof  our  larder  and  kitchen  at  Oxford, 
where  needful,  and  to  raise  the  flue  of  the  chimney  of  the 
queen's  chamber;  and  to  renew  also  the  pictures  of  the 
tablet  before  the  altar  in  the  same  queen's  chapel ;  also  to 
close  up  the  old  windows  in  our  hall  there,  one  on  the 
north  side  and  the  other  on  the  south,  beside  the  new 
windows,  and  to  make  two  new  upright  windows  with 
glass  lights  in  their  stead.  Make  also  a  door  and  windows 
in  the  oriol  beyond  the  porch  of  our  hall  there.  Wal- 
lingford,  November  25. 

The  sheriff  of  Surrey  and  Sussex  is  ordered  to  make  a 
certain  chamber  at  Guildford,  for  the  use  of  Edward  the 
king's  son,  with  proper  windows  well  barred,  which  is  to 
be  fifty  feet  long  and  twenty-six  feet  wide  ,  .  .  .  with  a 

privy-chamber  so  that  the  chamber  of  the  same 

Edward  be  above  and  the  chamber  of  the  king's  noble 
valets  underneath,  with  fitting  windows,  and  a  privy- 
chamber,  and  a  chimney  in  each  chamber.  And  he  is  to 
make  under  the  wall  towards  the  east,  opposite  the  east 
part  of  the  king's  hall,  a  certain  pent-house  which,  al- 
though narrow,  shall  be  competently  long,  with  a  chimney 
and  private  chamber,  for  the  queen's  wardrobe;  and  to 
make  in  the  queen's  chamber  a  certain  window  equal  in 
width  to  the  two  windows  which  are  now  there,  and  as 



much  wider  as  may  be,  between  the  two  walls,  and  as 
high  as  becomingly  may  be,  with  two  marble  pillars ;  and 
to  wainscote  that  window  above,  and  close  it  with  glass 
windows  between  the  pillars,  with  panelsk  which  may  be 
opened  and  shut,  and  large  wooden  shutters1  internally  to 
close  over  the  glass  windows ;  and  to  cause  the  upper 
window  in  the  king's  hall  towards  the  west  nigh  the  dais 
to  be  filled  up  with  white  glass  lights,  so  that  in  one  half 
of  that  glass  window  there  be  made  a  certain  king  sitting 
on  a  throne,  and  in  the  other  half  a  certain  queen  likewise 
sitting  on  a  throne.    Reading,  February  3. 

The  bailiff  of  Kennington  is  ordered  to  make  a  chim- 
ney of  plaster  in  the  queen's  chamber  there.  Reading, 
February  10. 

The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  ordered  as  he  loveth  his  life 
and  chattels,  to  take  diligent  care  that  the  queen's  new 
chamber  at  Clarendon  be  finished  before  Whitsuntide, 
whencesoever  monies  for  the  completion  of  it  may  be  pro- 
cured ;  in  the  upper  story'11  of  it  he  is  to  make  a  chim- 
ney, and  to  repair  the  chimney  in  the  chamber  of  Alexan- 
der, and  the  roofs  of  the  king's  old  and  new  wardrobe, 
where  necessary.    Winchester,  February  19. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  ordered  to  stop  up  and 
repair  the  crevices  in  the  new  tower  in  the  king's  castle  at 
Winchester,  and  to  whitewash  that  tower  inside  and  out ; 
and  to  make  a  certain  house  nigh  the  great  tower,  and  in 
it  an  oven  ;  and  to  make  windows  in  the  same  great  tower, 
and  to  repair  the  privy-chambers  in  the  same ;  and  to 
make  doors  and  windows,  and  stairs  for  ascending  the 
walls ;  and  to  unroof  the  new  tower  in  the  bailey  of  the 
same  castle  towards  the  tower,  and  in  the  meanwhile  to 
cover  it  with  lead ;  and  to  buy  also  mats  for  the  chapel  of 
St.  Thomas,  and  to  make  an  image  of  St.  Edward  in  it. 

k  panellis.  1  fenestras  bordeas.  m  stadio. 

e  e 


And  to  cause  the  candlesticks  and  benches  in  the  queen's 
chamber,  and  the  Majesty  and  images  around  it,  to  be 
made  and  gilt :  and  to  enlarge,  lengthen,  heighten,  joist 
and  cover  with  lead  the  small  chamber  at  the  head  of  the 
same  chamber,  and  make  a  cistern  over  it ;  and  likewise 
to  make  a  chimney  in  it,  and  to  paint  a  certain  city  over 
the  door  of  that  chamber,  and  also  to  paint  and  gild  the 
heads  on  the  dais  in  the  king's  great  hall  there,  and  cover 
the  louvers11  on  it  with  lead ;  to  make  a  certain  lavatory 
in  the  queen's  chapel,  and  to  repair  the  alley  of  the  king's 
almonry  there ;  and  to  make  also  a  certain  chamber  nigh 
the  king's  stable  for  three  beds  and  to  put  harness  in,  and 
to  make  the  altar  of  the  king's  chapel  of  marble ;  and  to 
renew  the  pictures  on  the  doors  and  windows  of  the  king's 
hall,  and  to  wainscote  also  the  small  chamber  beside  the 
king's  wardrobe,  and  to  make  in  it  a  certain  chest  (ar- 
cJiiam)  for  the  king's  reliques  ;  and  block  up  also  the 
windows  of  the  king's  wardrobe,  and  make  a  certain  glass 
window  in  it  barred  with  iron.    Ludgershall,  March  3. 

R.  de  Mucegros  keeper  of  the  manor  of  Ludgershall  is 
ordered  to  make  an  oriol  before  the  door  of  the  king's 
chamber  there,  and  also  one  covered  alley  from  the  door  of 
the  aforesaid  chamber  to  the  door  of  the  hall ;  and  to  paint 
the  piers  of  the  same  [hall]  of  a  marble  colour,  and  the  his- 
tory of  Dives  and  Lazarus  in  the  gable  opposite  the  dais  ; 
and  to  make  also  an  almonry  of  five  posts0,  together  with  a 
wardrobe  belonging  to  the  chamber  of  the  same  almonry : 
so  that  the  walls  of  the  same  be  made  of  torchis  [torcJieicio) 
and  plaster.    Westminster,  March  17. 

R.  de  Mucegros  is  ordered  to  make  a  kitchen  in  Marl- 
borough castle  for  the  king's  use ;  a  certain  porch  before 
the  king's  hall ;  one  covered  alley  from  the  door  of  the  hall 
to  the  king's  kitchen  ;  one  window  in  the  hall,  one  chamber 

n  fumericios.       °  furcis ;  i.  e.  the  roof  was  to  be  supported  by  so  many  wooden  piers. 



for  the  use  of  the  chaplains  and  one  salsary.  Westminster, 
March  18. 

The  bailiff  of  Kennington  is  ordered  to  repair  the  glass 
windows  in  the  king's  chamber  and  chapel,  and  in  the 
chapel  of  the  queen  at  Kennington ;  to  cover  the  chambers 
of  the  king  and  queen  with  shingles,  and  to  repair  the  walls 
of  the  same  chambers.  He  is  also  to  make  a  door  to  the 
chamber  towards  the  wardrobe ;  two  leaden  gutters,  one 
crest  of  lead  in  the  salsary,  and  to  repair  the  walls  of  the 
same  salsary ;  and  also  to  make  mudp  walls  around  the 
grange  and  dairyq  there,  to  repair  the  ruined  kitchens,  and 
to  prop  upr  the  almonry.    Westminster,  April  9. 

The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  commanded  to  make  a  window 
on  the  south  side  of  the  king's  chapel  at  Clarendon ;  and 
to  renovate  the  painting  of  the  same  chapel  where  neces- 
sary; and  to  wainscote  the  king's  lower  chamber,  and  to 
paint  that  wainscote  of  a  green  colour,  and  to  put  a  bor- 
der to  its,  and  to  cause  the  heads  of  kings  and  queens 
to  be  painted  on  the  borders*;  and  to  paint  on  the  walls  of 
the  king's  upper  chamber  the  story  of  St.  Margaret  Virgin, 
and  the  four  Evangelists ;  and  to  paint  the  wainscote  of  the 
same  chamber  of  a  green  colour,  spotted11  with  gold,  and 
to  paint  on  it  heads  of  men  and  women ;  and  all  those 
paintings  are  to  be  done  with  good  and  exquisite  colours. 
Clarendon,  June  27. 

The  sheriff  of  Oxford  is  ordered,  on  the  day  on  which 
exsequies  shall  be  celebrated  in  the  town  of  Oxford  for  the 
soul  of  I.  late  queen  of  England,  the  king's  mother,  to  cause 
all  the  poor  clerks  of  the  university  of  Oxford  to  be  fed  in 
the  king's  hall  at  Oxford  ;  and  all  the  friars  preachers  and 
minors  of  the  same  town  to  be  fed  in  their  own  houses. 
Marlborough,  August  7. 

p  muros  luteos. 
8  listari  faciat. 

q  daeriam. 

"  auro  deguttari. 


The  same  is  ordered  to  make  a  kitchen  for  the  use  of  the 
king's  household  on  the  vacant  ground  between  the  larder 
and  the  king's  kitchen  at  Oxford.   Woodstock,  August  18. 

The  sheriff'  of  Buckingham  is  ordered  to  repair  the 
king's  hall,  chamber  and  wardrobe  at  Brill,  and  the  queen's 
chamber  and  wardrobe,  and  the  passage  between  the  hall 
and  kitchen,  where  necessary,  as  well  in  the  roofing  as 
otherwise;  and  to  cause  two  benchesx  to  be  made,  one 
for  the  king's  bed  there,  and  another  for  the  queen's  bed. 
Missenden,  September  13. 

The  bailiff  of  Kennington  is  ordered  to  cause  a  chair  and 
forms7  to  be  made  to  be  put  around  in  the  king's  chamber 
at  Kennington  ;  also  to  buy  a  Crucifix  with  Mary  and  John, 
to  be  put  in  the  king's  chapel  there,  and  two  becoming 
tablets  to  be  placed  before  and  above  the  altar  in  the 
same  chapel,  and  two  others  to  be  likewise  placed  in  the 
queen's  chapel ;  and  he  is  to  cause  a  barge  to  be  made  to 
carry  people  and  horses  over  the  Thames.  Westminster, 
October  10. 


The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  commanded  to  buy  a  certain 
iron  trivet  (caminum  ferreum)  for  the  king's  use  and  to 
deliver  it  to  Adam  Cok  the  king's  serjeant  at  Clarendon. 
Marlborough,  November  18. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  ordered  to  buy  mats 
(natas)  to  put  upon  the  forms  and  under  foot  in  the  king's 
chapel  at  Winchester.    Clarendon,  December  4. 

The  bailiff  of  Kennington  is  ordered  to  make  porches 
before  the  king's  wardrobe  and  the  queen's  wardrobe  at 
Kennington,  and  to  make  a  hayez  at  the  causeway  at  the 
head  of  the  poola  of  the  king's  stew  in  the  park  there ;  and 

*  scabella.  y  formulas.  z  haia.  a  stangni. 



to  buy  a  great  quantity  of  osiers  to  be  planted  at  the  head 
of  the  same  stew,  and  likewise  willows ;  and  to  plant  the 
ditch  without  the  park  with  willows,  and  to  make  a 
counter-ditch  round  the  haye  within  the  park,  where 
necessary,  that  the  wild  animals  may  not  get  out,  and  to 
make  a  certain  [causeway]  from  the  stable  to  the  barn. 
Westminster,  February  13. 

The  bailiff  of  Kennington  is  ordered  to  complete  the 
king's  stewb  at  Kennington  as  soon  as  he  can,  because 
John  the  ditcher  cannot  finish  that  stew  for  thirty-three 
marks,  as  he  covenanted  with  the  king.  Windsor, 
February  22. 

The  sheriff  of  Bucks  is  ordered  to  make  at  Brill,  nigh 
the  kitchen  towards  the  east,  another  kitchen,  and  [a  new] 
salsary,  towards  the  north,  and  an  oriol  with  a  stair0  before 
the  door  of  the  queen's  chamber,  and  to  put  new  glass 
windows  with  iron  work  in  the  gable  of  the  king's  chamber, 
as  the  king  enjoined  him.    Oxford,  April  18. 

The  sheriff  of  Oxford  is  commanded  to  make  a  proper 
chimney  in  the  wardrobe  [at  Oxford]  and  to  block  up  one 
half  of  the  window  towards  the  north,  and  to  lengthen  and 
repair  the  other  moiety  of  the  window;  and  to  make  a 
certain  esperum d  in  the  circuit  of  the  stairs  in  the  same 
wardrobe,  and  to  take  out  the  two  leaden  windows  in  the 
bodye  of  the  king's  chapel  and  replace  them  with  new  glass 
windows ;  and  to  construct  in  the  body  of  the  same  chapel, 
on  the  south  side,  a  certain  altar  in  honor  of  St.  Edward 
the  Confessor.    Woodstock,  April  28. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  ordered  to  lengthen  the 
queen's  wardrobe  [at  Winchester]  to  thirty  feet  within  the 
walls,  and  to  make  two  chimneys  in  that  wardrobe,  one  in 

b  vivarium. 
c  cum  stagio. 

d  It  is  sometimes  written  sperum  and 


e  corpore ;  i.  e.  the  nave. 


the  upper  storyf,  and  one  in  the  lower;  and  to  joist  the 
same,  and  roof  it  with  lead  and  crenellate  it;  and  to 
make  two  windows  barred  with  iron  in  it  towards  the 
little  meadow.    Winchester,  July  3. 

The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  commanded  to  remove  the 
wall  nigh  the  rock  towards  the  park  at  Clarendon,  and 
to  make  there  a  certain  house  for  the  use  of  the  king's 
chaplains ;  and  to  remove  the  gateway  there  and  make 
another  j  also  to  make  a  certain  house  in  which  dry  wood 
may  be  stored  for  the  king's  use,  and  to  lengthen  the 
king's  chandlery,  and  to  make  a  certain  chimney  in  the 
chamber  which  was  the  king's  napery,  and  a  certain  privy- 
chamber  ;  and  to  repair  the  paintings  of  the  king's  cham- 
ber.   Marlborough,  July  21. 

The  sheriff  of  Gloucester  is  ordered  to  make  two  but- 
tresses8 under  the  king's  chamber  in  Gloucester  castle. 
Guildford,  August  30. 

The  sheriff  of  Surrey  is  ordered  to  make  a  certain  hall 
and  a  certain  chamber  in  the  mote  of  the  king's  castle  of 
Guildford,  for  the  use  of  the  sheriff  of  Surrey  for  the  time 
being,  in  completing  which  he  may  expend  twenty  pounds. 
Guildford,  August  30. 

The  sheriff  of  Kent  is  commanded  to  wainscote  both 
chapels  in  the  king's  castle  of  Rochester,  and  also  to  make 
in  the  hall  of  the  same  castle,  in  the  northern  gable,  two 
glass  windows,  one  having  the  shield  of  the  king  and  the 
other  the  shield  of  the  late  count  of  Provence  ;  and  also  to 
make  two  small  glass  windows  on  each  side  of  the  same 
hall,  and  in  each  of  them  the  figure  of  a  king.  Rochester, 
March  20. 

f  stadio. 

e  pileria  butericia. 




The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  ordered  to  crest  with  lead  all 
the  passages11  at  Clarendon,  between  the  king's  hall  and 
chamber,  and  the  chamber  and  wardrobe,  and  the  chamber 
of  the  king  and  queen ;  and  likewise  to  crest  with  lead  all 
the  king's  houses  at  Clarendon  ;  and  to  make  a  fitting 
window  in  the  chamber  of  the  king's  seneschals  there. 
Clarendon,  December  20. 

The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  commanded  to  pull  down  the 
mantel  before  the  chimney  in  the  king's  chamber  at  Cla- 
rendon, and  to  make  a  new  mantel  there,  on  which  mantel 
he  is  to  cause  to  be  painted  the  Wheel  of  Fortune  and  Jesse ; 
and  to  cover  the  king's  pictures  in  the  same  chamber  with 
canvas  lest  they  should  be  injured ;  and  to  make  a  certain 
chimney  in  the  chamber  of  the  king's  seneschals  there,  and 
two  large  and  ample  windows.    Clarendon,  December  28. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Southampton.  We  command 
you  to  make  a  certain  beam  in  the  chapel  of  our  queen  in 
our  castle  of  Winchester,  and  to  place  thereon  a  cross  with 
Mary  and  John  ;  and  to  mend  and  roof  better  the  passage 
towards  the  queen's  chapel ;  and  to  make  twelve  tables 
and  sufficient  forms  in  our  chamber  there ;  and  to  repair 
and  roof  better  the  passage  towards  our  chapel ;  and  like- 
wise to  roof  the  priest's  chamber  beside  the  chapel  of 
St.  Thomas,  and  the  chamber  at  the  head  of  the  same 
chapel ;  and  moreover  to  renew  and  repair  the  paintings 
above  our  dais ;  and  to  make  two  chairs,  to  wit,  one  in  our 
chamber  and  another  in  the  chamber  of  our  queen.  Cla- 
rendon, December  28. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  ordered  to  make  a  door  to 
the  bell-tower1  nigh  the  king's  chapel  in  Winchester  castle ; 

h  aleyas.  1  clocherium. 


and  a  door  to  the  king's  "  herbour"  beside  the  same  cha- 
pel :  and  to  cause  to  be  painted  in  the  same  chapel,  over 
the  altar,  the  image  of  St.  Mary  ;  and  towards  the  south 
in  the  same  chapel  the  image  of  God  and  His  mother; 
and  moreover  to  make  a  joistedk  chamber  beyond  the  but- 
lery  and  pantry,  well  lighted,  and  to  make  a  chimney  in  it 
and  an  extreme1  chamber.    Winchester,  December  28. 

The  sheriff  of  Surrey  is  commanded  to  put  two  glass 
windows  in  the  queen's  chamber  at  Guildford,  and  also 
to  make  a  chimney  in  the  queen's  wardrobe  there,  and 
to  wainscote  over  the  "  herbour"  stairs  j  and  likewise  to 
wainscote  and  paint  the  queen's  small  wardrobe,  and  to 
make  a  certain  porch  before  the  door  of  the  king's  hall 
there.    Windsor,  April  24. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  ordered  to  cause  to  be 
painted  in  the  queen's  chapel  at  Winchester,  on  the  gable 
towards  the  west,  the  image  of  St.  Christopher,  who,  as 
he  is  elsewhere  depicted,  shall  bear  Christ  in  his  hands ; 
and  the  image  of  St.  Edward,  king,  how  he  delivered  his 
ring  to  a  certain  stranger,  whose  figure  is  likewise  to  be 
depicted.    Windsor,  May  2. 

The  keeper  of  the  manor  of  Woodstock  is  ordered  to 
make  a  chimney  in  the  chamber  over  the  wine  cellar  at 
Evereswell,  and  a  wardrobe  and  outer  chamber"1,  and  a 
house  at  the  entrance  of  the  gateway  at  Evereswell :  and 
an  interclose11  with  a  door  and  locks  at  the  entrance  of  the 
queen's  new  chamber  beneath :  and  an  interclose  in  the 
upper  outer  chamber  with  doors  and  locks ;  and  to  wains- 
cote both  chambers,  and  to  make  a  chimney  in  the  cham- 
ber in  which  William  de  Chesney  is  wont  to  sleep,  and  a 
standing  window  in  the  same  chamber ;  and  two  "  her- 
bours,"  one  on  each  side  of  the  king's  chamber ;  and 
to  paint,  in  all  the  chapels,  the  image  of  St.  Edward  with 

k  gistatam.  1  extremam.  m  camera  forinseca.  n  interclausum. 



the  stranger,  on  tablets  ;  and  to  make  a  hearth0  of  free- 
stone, high  and  good,  in  the  chamber  above  the  wine- 
cellar  in  the  great  court,  and  a  great  louver  over  the  said 
hearth ;  and  to  make  a  door  under  the  door  of  Edward 
the  king's  son,  and  two  great  louversp  in  the  queen's 
chamber,  and  a  great  and  high  "torchisq"  around  the  great 
kitchen  ;  and  two  glass  windows  in  the  king's  wardrobe  ; 
and  one  interclose  in  the  outer  chamber  of  the  same 
wardrobe ;  and  a  glass  window  at  the  entrance  of  the  hall 
porch  [on  which  is  to  be  represented]  a  king  crowned. 

The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  ordered  to  make  a  chimney  in 
that  house  which  was  built  at  Clarendon  to  hold  dry  fire- 
wood, and  two  standing  windows,  and  a  privy -chamber, 
as  the  king  wills  that  chamber  to  be  so  prepared  for  the 
use  of  his  knights.    Woodstock,  September  4. 


The  sheriff  of  Northampton  is  ordered  to  build  a  cer- 
tain chapel  for  the  queen's  use  at  Geddington,  with  glass 
windows,  and  to  put  iron  bars  in  the  king's  chamber  and 
the  queen's  chamber,  and  likewise  a  glass  window  in  the 
king's  chamber  and  another  glass  window  in  the  queen's 
chamber  ;  and  to  repair  the  king's  houses  and  the  ruins 
around  the  court ;  and  to  make  a  certain  soleretr  above 
the  gateway  there;  and  to  wainscote  the  queen's  chapel 
at  Northampton,  and  put  glass  windows  in  it,  and  one 
glass  window  in  the  queen's  chamber  there ;  and  to  make 
five  small  glass  windows  over  the  great  windows  in  the 
king's  hall  there.    Northampton,  December  4. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Wiltshire.    We  command  you 

°  astrum.  r  solerettum  ;  a  diminutive  of  sola- 

p  lovaria.  rium. 
q  torcheacium. 

F  f 


to  whitewash  our  great  hall  at  Clarendon,  and  to  make 
a  new  chair  in  our  seat ;  and  make  also  a  wardrobe  for  the 
use  of  our  queen  which  shall  contain,  with  the  chamber 
of  the  chaplains,  a  length  of  fifty  feet,  with  a  chimney  and 
a  private  chamber;  and  build  also  a  wall,  which  shall 
begin  from  the  chamber  of  Hugh  de  Nevill,  unto  the  head 
of  the  same  wardrobe,  with  a  stone  gateway  and  a  wicket8 
in  the  wall  aforesaid  ;  and  build  also  a  certain  wall  between 
our  park  and  the  aforesaid  wardrobe  and  chamber;  and 
also  renew  and  repair  the  painting  in  our  chapel,  &c. 
Clarendon,  February  25. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Southampton.  We  order  you 
to  repaint  the  whole  of  our  seat  in  our  hall  at  Winchester, 
and  everywhere  to  repair  the  crevices  in  the  same  hall ; 
and  also  to  repair  the  towers  of  our  castle,  and  to  cover 
the  tops  of  the  columns  of  the  same  hall,  towards  the 
chapel,  with  lead.    Guildford,  March  4. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Nottingham.  As  you  have 
signified  to  us  that  our  chamber  in  our  castle  of  Nottingham 
cannot  be  strengthened  with  a  sound  foundation,  unless 
the  roof  of  that  chamber  be  taken  down,  we  command  you 
to  remove  it  and  rebuild  it ;  so  that  a  decent  stone  table- 
ment*  be  made  on  the  wall ;  and  let  heads  be  sculptured 
on  the  ends  of  the  corbels  which  will  be  above  it.  Win- 
chester, March  2. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  ordered  to  build  a  chamber 
in  Winchester  castle,  between  the  hall  and  kitchen,  for  the 
use  of  the  king's  seneschals,  and  to  make  a  dovecote  behind 
the  queen's  chapel.    Winchester,  May  31. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Wiltshire.  We  order  you  to 
make  a  new  seat  for  our  use  in  our  hall  at  Clarendon,  and 
to  wainscote  the  space  of  five  couples  above  that  seatu,  and 

8  wychetto. 

1  tabulamentum. 

u  Evidently  to  prevent  rain  falling 
through  the  rafters. 



to  lead  and  crest  the  gutters  of  the  same  hall,  and  again 
to  repair  the  two  doors  of  the  same  hall,  and  to  roof  our 
chamber  there  towards  the  north ;  and  to  repair  our  ward- 
robe there,  which  threatens  to  fall ;  and  to  joist  and  plank 
our  outer  chamber,  and  the  chamber  of  Alexander,  and  the 
chamber  of  Hugh  de  Nevill  •  and  to  roof  the  chapel  of  our 
queen,  and  to  make  in  it  a  cross,  a  Mary,  and  the  image 
of  St.  John ;  and  to  whitewash  our  privy-chamber  exter- 
nally, and  to  make  a  certain  "  herbour"  under  our  chamber. 
Clarendon,  June  8. 

The  king  to  his  bailiff  of  Woodstock.  We  command 
you  to  crenellate  our  queen's  chamber  of  free-stone,  and  to 
raise  the  chimney  of  the  same  chamber  to  the  height  of 
eight  feet,  and  to  wainscote  the  lower  chamber,  and  to 
make  the  privy-chamber  in  the  fashion  of  that  chamber 
where  Bartholomew  Pecche  was  wont  to  sleep ;  and  to 
build  a  certain  chamber  at  the  gateway  of  Evereswell,  of 
the  length  of  forty  feet  and  of  the  width  of  twenty-two 
feet,  with  a  wardrobe,  privy-chamber,  and  a  chimney.  And 
to  repair  Rosamund's  chamber  unroofed  by  the  wind;  and 
to  make  a  door  to  our  queen's  wardrobe,  and  a  door  to  our 
old  larder.  Also  repair  the  bays  of  both  our  vivaries  and 
the  causeway  of  the  lower  vivary  nigh  the  "  closarium 
and  put  two  windows  of  white  glass  in  the  gable  of  our 
hall,  and  two  in  the  chamber  of  Edward  our  son,  and 
two  windows  in  our  old  larder,  barred  with  iron.  And 
make  leaden  spouts  about  the  alures  of  the  chamber  of  the 
same  Edward;  and  repair  all  the  houses  of  each  court 
where  necessary ;  and  bar  the  windows  of  the  porch  with 
iron ;  and  build  a  house  for  our  napery ;  and  pull  clown 
the  houses  of  William  our  chaplain,  and  rebuild  them 
between  the  hall  and  our  queen's  stable ;  and  make  an 
"  herbour"  in  the  place  of  the  aforesaid  houses.  Silverstone, 
July  29. 


The  sheriff  of  Northampton  is  commanded  to  wainscote 
[the  roof]  above  the  king's  seat  in  the  hall  of  the  castle  of 
Northampton  for  the  space  of  four  couples ;  and  to  put  bars 
to  the  windows  before  the  queen's  chapel,  and  new  doors 
to  the  same  chapel,  and  a  lattice  beyond  those  doors,  and 
two  glass  windows  in  the  queen's  chamber,  and  a  glass 
window  in  the  king's  wardrobe,  and  a  stair  in  the  tower ; 
and  to  make  a  privy-chamber  to  the  chamber  of  the  chap- 
lains nigh  the  door  of  the  king's  hall.  Northampton, 
August  2. 

The  same  is  ordered  to  build  a  small  wardrobe,  with  a 
chimney,  between  the  king's  chamber  and  the  private 
chamber  ;  and  to  lengthen  the  same  private  chamber  from 
the  said  wardrobe  by  fifteen  or  sixteen  feet,  and  to  lengthen 
and  enlarge  the  queen's  private  chamber,  and  the  ward- 
robe, between  her  chamber  and  the  private  chamber  j  and 
to  make  a  new  kitchen,  and  to  build  a  chamber  over  the 
gateway,  and  a  certain  small  chamber  with  a  chimney  and 
other  appurtenances,  nigh  the  king's  chapel,  for  the  use  of 
the  chaplains;  and  to  repaint  the  old  tablet  beyond  the 
altar  of  the  king's  chapel  in  the  manor  of  Geddington,  and 
to  make  a  small  form  in  the  king's  chamber.  Geddington, 
August  6. 

The  sheriff  of  Northampton  is  ordered  to  build  a  new 
kitchen  at  the  king's  manor  of  Cliff,  and  to  repair  the  old 
kitchen,  and  to  wainscote  the  king's  chapel,  as  far  as  the 
lower  beam  nearest  to  the  altar  extends,  and  to  paint  a 
certain  image  of  St.  Edmund  of  Pontigny  in  the  window 
over  the  altar,  and  to  make  a  certain  chimney  and  a  privy- 
chamber  in  the  king's  wardrobe  there ;  and  to  enclose  the 
whole  court  with  a  good  wall,  with  a  strong  and  becoming 
gateway ;  and  to  build  a  certain  wall  from  the  angle  of  the 
hall  to  the  new  kitchen,  and  from  that  kitchen  to  the 
stream ;  so  that  that  wall  may  enclose  the  vivary  which  is 



before  the  chapel.  And  he  is  to  build  a  strong  gateway 
between  the  hall  and  kitchen,  and  to  repair  the  vivary, 
and  to  put  windows  before  the  door  of  the  chapel.  Peter- 
borough, August  15. 


The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Wiltshire.  We  command  you 
to  build  at  Clarendon  a  certain  transverse  gateway  between 
our  queen's  wardrobe  and  Hugh  de  Nevill's  chamber,  and 
over  that  gateway  make  a  certain  fitting  chamber  for  the 
use  of  our  bailiff,  with  a  private  chamber ;  and  also  to 
make  there  a  chair  for  the  queen's  use,  and  a  window  in 
Hugh  de  Nevill's  chamber ;  and  to  build  a  house  for  the 
use  of  our  bailiff  in  which  he  can  keep  his  stock,  and  to 
make  a  granary  in  our  sewery  to  hold  bread  ;  and  a  glass 
window  in  the  chamber  before  the  well,  and  an  outer 
chamber  in  the  chamber  where  our  purveyors  sleep  :  and 
turn  the  door  of  the  same  chamber  outwards  towards  the 
courtyard;  and  repair  the  chimney  of  our  wardrobe,  and 
crest  our  outer  chamber  with  lead ;  and  cover  the  but- 
tresses of  our  hall  with  lead,  and  paint  our  seat  in  the 
same  hall,  and  the  piersx  and  timbers ;  and  pave  our 
chamber  with  plain  tile7;  and  level  the  chamber  of  our 
seneschals,  and  make  a  certain  stair  towards  the  privy- 
chamber  of  the  same  chamber ;  and  put  a  marble  altar  in 
the  queen's  chapel  there.    Clarendon,  December  21. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  ordered  to  make  a  be- 
coming chapel  near  the  king's  bed  in  the  castle  of  Win- 
chester, and  likewise  to  build  in  the  same  castle  a  vaulted 
chamber2  for  the  king's  knights,  with  a  privy-chamber; 
and  near  that  chamber  a  large  tower.  Winchester,  De- 
cember 29. 

*  postes. 

y  plana  tegula. 

1  cameram  ad  voutam. 


The  sheriff  of  Northampton  is  ordered  to  complete  the 
king's  works  at  Siiverstone  and  Geddington,  begun  by 
Simon  de  Trop  sometime  sheriff  of  Northampton  •  and  to 
remove  the  wainscote  in  the  king's  chamber  at  Geddington, 
and  put  it  in  the  chapel  there ;  and  to  put  another  wains- 
cote in  the  same  chamber,  as  far  as  it  extends  beyond  the 
king's  bed,  painted  green  with  golden  spots.  Woodstock, 
June  5. 

The  sheriff  of  Oxford  is  commanded  to  affix  two  iron 
candlesticks  to  the  columns  nearest  to  the  king's  plate?  in 
the  hall  at  Oxford,  to  hold  candles.    Woodstock,  June  7. 

The  king  to  the  bailiff  of  Woodstock.  We  command 
you  to  build  a  chapel  of  St.  Edward  with  a  wooden  altar, 
and  ornamented  glass  windows,  on  the  upper  story b  of  our 
queen's  new  chamber  at  Woodstock,  and  to  remove  the 
lead  from  the  middle  story,  and  place  it,  with  other  lead 
newly  bought,  on  the  said  chapel ;  and  build  two  good  and 
high  walls  around  our  queen's  garden0,  so  that  no  one  can 
get  in  ;  and  make  a  becoming  and  fair  "  herbour"  near  our 
vivary,  in  which  the  same  queen  may  walk,  with  a  certain 
gateway,  from  the  "  herbour"  which  is  beside  the  chapel  of 
Edward  our  son,  into  the  aforesaid  garden ;  and  paint 
images  of  the  Crucifix  and  the  Blessed  Mary,  and  of 
St.  John  the  Evangelist  on  the  tablets  and  walls  beside 
our  seat  in  the  upper  chapel,  and  bar  the  windows  of  the 
same  chapel  where  necessary.    Woodstock,  June  20. 

The  constable  of  Marlborough  is  ordered  to  make  a  new 
barbican  in  the  castle  of  Marlborough,  without  the  castle, 
behind  the  king's  chamber,  and  likewise  to  repair  the 
bridge  towards  the  dovecote :  and  to  lengthen  the  chamber 
behind  the  chapel  of  St.  Nicholas,  towards  the  priest's 
chamber,  with  an  oriol :  and  to  rebuild  the  chamber  be- 

a  disco ;  probably  an  error,  for  deisio,         b  stagio. 
dais.  c  gardinum. 



tween  the  old  wardrobe  and  the  aforesaid  chamber,  with 
a  certain  privy-chamber,  in  the  mote  of  the  tower;  and 
to  repair  the  houses  and  walls  of  the  castle  and  tower, 
where  necessary,  and  to  make  a  kitchen  within  the  new 
tower,  and  likewise  a  kiln  ;  and  to  raise  the  head  of  the 
great  vivary  there,  and  enclose  it  with  a  haye,  and  to 
repair  the  bays  of  the  same  vivary.  And  to  make,  in  the 
queen's  chapel  there,  a  Crucifix  with  Mary  and  John,  and 
Mary  with  her  child :  and  to  build  a  new  kitchen  in  the 
castle  of  Ludgershall,  and  a  salsary,  and  to  renovate  on 
all  sides  the  wall  of  the  same  castle  and  crenellate  it  •  and 
to  lengthen  the  passage  which  extends  from  the  hall  to  the 
king's  chamber  even  to  beyond  the  door  of  the  queen's 
chamber ;  and  to  make  a  kiln  for  the  works,  and  to  place  a 
Crucifix  with  Mary  and  John,  and  an  image  of  the  Blessed 
Mary  with  her  child,  in  the  king's  chapel  in  the  same 

Godfrey  de  Lyston  is  ordered  to  make  a  royal  seat  at 
the  middle  table  in  the  king's  hall  at  Windsor  castle,  on 
which  he  is  to  paint  the  figure  of  the  king  holding  a 
sceptre  in  his  hand  ;  taking  care  that  that  seat  be  be- 
comingly ornamented  with  gold  and  paint.  Clarendon, 
July  19. 

Godfrey  de  Lyston  is  ordered  to  build  a  certain  stone 
wall  ten  feet  high  from  the  door  of  the  king's  hall  at 
Windsor  to  the  galileed  of  the  new  chapel,  with  a  certain 
doorway,  not  too  large,  opposite  the  wardrobe;  and  to 
make  a  certain  wooden  barrier6  round  the  outer  part  of 
the  same  galilee,  so  that  horses  cannot  reach  the  same 
galilee.    Clarendon,  July  20. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Wiltshire.  We  command 
you  to  make  a  certain  baptistery  in  the  chapel  of  All  Saints 
at  our  manor  of  Clarendon,  and  to  put  a  bell-turret  on 

d  galilea.  e  barrura  lignea. 


that  chapel  with  two  bells  in  the  same.  And  in  the  same 
chapel  make  a  Crucifix  with  two  images  on  each  side,  of 
wood,  and  an  image  of  the  Blessed  Mary  with  her  child. 
And  let  the  chamber  of  our  queen  there  be  decently  paved. 
And  in  the  queen's  hall  let  there  be  made  a  certain  window 
[looking]  towards  the  "  herbour,"  well  barred  with  iron ; 
and  two  windows  to  the  same  queen's  chapel,  to  wit,  one 
window  on  one  side  of  the  altar  and  another  window  on 
the  other,  which  are  to  be  cleft  through  the  middle,  that 
they  may  be  shut  or  opened  when  necessary.  In  the 
chamber  of  the  friars  minor  let  there  be  made  images  of 
the  Holy  Trinity  and  of  the  Blessed  Mary,  with  a  certain 
glass  window,  and  repair  it  where  necessary.  And  make 
a  bench  round  our  great  "  herbour,"  nigh  the  wall,  and 
whitewash  the  wall  above  it.  In  Alexander's  chamber  let 
there  be  made  a  certain  wardrobe  with  a  privy-chamber ; 
and  roof  those  houses  well.  Make  an  "  herbour"  under 
our  chamber  towards  the  north,  and  likewise  in  our 
wardrobe  a  certain  window  towards  the  court ;  and 
lengthen  our  chandlery-house  there  by  four  or  five  couples. 
Gillingham,  July  30. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Dorset.  We  order  you  to 
finish  the  chapel  at  our  manor  of  Gillingham  in  the  form 
in  which  it  is  begun.  And  make  a  chimney  in  our  cham- 
ber there  under  that  chapel,  to  wit,  on  the  side  towards 
our  chamber.  And  make  a  certain  window,  with  a  column 
in  the  middle,  beside  that  chimney,  towards  the  east ;  and 
on  the  other  side,  in  the  angle  of  that  chamber,  make  a 
privy-chamber ;  and  in  the  aforesaid  chapel  above  let  there 
be  made  six  windows,  with  columns  in  the  middle.  And 
also  lengthen  our  queen's  chamber  by  fifteen  couples,  and 
remove  the  old  gable  of  the  same  chamber.  And  beyond 
those  fifteen  couples  let  there  be  made  a  chapel  of  nine 
couples  for  the  use  of  the  same  queen  ;  and  in  the  said 



lengthened  [part]  of  the  same  chamber  make  a  chimney, 
towards  the  court.  And  at  the  head  of  our  hall  there, 
towards  the  east,  let  there  be  made  a  chamber  forty  feet 
long,  and  twenty-two  feet  wide,  transversely,  towards  the 
north  with  a  chimney  and  privy-chamber.  Gillingham, 
July  30. 

The  king  to  the  same.  We  command  you  to  make  a 
chimney  in  our  queen's  chamber  in  our  castle  at  Sherbourn, 
and  a  certain  pent-house  from  the  door  of  that  chamber 
to  the  door  of  the  same  queen's  chapel.  And  repair  also 
the  roofing  of  the  said  castle,  and  let  the  north  wall  be 
repaired  and  rebuilt  where  necessary;  and  repair  the 
windows  there,  as  well  in  the  tower  as  elsewhere.  And 
make  new  doors  in  the  same  castle  where  there  are  none, 
and  it  is  necessary  doors  should  be ;  and  repair  the  others  ; 
and  wTell  repair  the  glass  windows  in  our  chapel  so  that 
they  may  be  shut  and  opened.    Montacute,  August  3, 

The  king  to  the  mayor  and  bailiffs  of  Bristol.  We 
command  you  to  put  glass  windows  in  our  hall  at  Bristol, 
a  royal  seat  in  the  same  hall,  and  dormant  tables f  around 
the  same ;  and  cause  the  chamber  beside  that  hall  to  be 
wainscoted :  and  let  glass  windows  be  made  in  the  chapel 
of  St.  Martin,  and  lengthen  three  of  the  windows  of  the 
same  chapel,  to  wit,  two  in  the  chancel,  and  one  in 
the  nave s,  that  it  may  be  better  lighted ;  and  let  it  be 
whitewashed  throughout.  Wainscote  the  wardrobe  under 
our  chamber,  and  let  double  iron  ties  be  made  for  the 
windows,  with  new  wooden  shuttersh;  and  repair  the 
flooring1  towards  the  privy-chamber.  And  let  glass  win- 
dows be  made  in  the  other  chapel,  and  build  a  stone 
chimney  in  our  chamber,  and  a  certain  stable  nigh  the 
wall  of  our  castle  there.    Let  double  bars  be  made  in  the 

f  tabulas  dormientes. 
s  navi. 

fenestris  ligneis. 
1  planchicium. 


window  nigh  our  wardrobe  and  the  privy -chamber,  and 
block  up  the  doors  of  the  chapel  beside  our  great  hall 
there,  and  make  a  door  in  the  chancel  towards  the  her- 
mitage1" ;  in  that  hermitage  make  an  altar  to  St.  Edward ; 
and  in  the  turret  over  that  hermitage  make  a  chamber  for 
the  clerks  with  appurtenances :  also  build  a  kitchen  and  a 
sewery  beside  the  aforesaid  hall ;  and  find  the  wages  of 
a  certain  chaplain  whom  we  have  ordered  to  celebrate 
divine  service  in  the  chapel  of  our  tower  there,  all  the  days 
of  our  life,  for  Eleanor  of  Brittany  our  cousin ;  to  wit, 
fifty  shillings  per  annum.    Berkeley,  August  28. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Gloucester.  We  command 
you  to  repair  the  leaden  roof1  on  our  tower  at  Gloucester, 
which  is  cut,  and  likewise  to  repair  and  crenellate  the  wall 
of  the  bailey  towards  the  south ;  and  to  put  glass  in  the 
upper  part  of  the  windows  in  our  chamber,  in  our  queen's 
chamber,  and  in  our  chapel ;  and  to  make  a  new  bell 
concordant  to  that  which  is  now  in  the  same  chapel ;  and 
to  put  a  stone  altar  in  the  same,  and  another  in  our  queen's 
chapel  there ;  and  repair  the  bridges  of  the  same  castle ; 
and  on  both  sides  of  the  stairs  descending  from  the  door 
of  our  chamber  towards  our  wardrobe  make  a  low  wallm, 
and  cover  that  staircase  with  lead.  And  repair  our  wears 
in  the  river  Severn.    Tewkesbury,  August  30. 

The  keeper  of  the  manor  of  Eeckenham  is  ordered  to 
lengthen  the  two  windows,  one  on  each  side  of  the  choir, 
in  the  king's  chapel  at  Eeckenham,  and  the  third  window 
over  the  altar;  that  they  may  be  lighter.  And  to  make 
anew  all  the  windows  in  the  king's  chamber,  and  well 
bar  them ;  and  to  repair  the  porch  before  the  door  of  the 
king's  chamber  there,  and  to  make  a  certain  pent-house 
over  the  stair  descending  from  that  porch ;  and  two  ward- 
robes with  privy-chambers,  to  wit,  one  nigh  the  king's 

k  reclusorium.  1  plumbaturam.  m  tabulatum. 



chamber  and  another  nigh  the  lower  chamber.  And  to 
build  a  kitchen  pertaining  to  the  hall.  Evesham,  Sep- 
tember 5. 


The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  ordered  to  make  two  glass 
windows  in  the  queen's  hall  at  Clarendon,  two  "  sporas" 
in  the  chamber  of  Alexander,  two  privy-chambers,  to  wit, 
one  on  one  side  of  the  court  at  Clarendon  and  another  on 
the  other  side  for  the  household ;  and  to  repair  the  king's 
houses  there  where  necessary ;  and  to  put  two  small  glass 
windows  in  the  chamber  of  Edward  the  king's  son ;  and  to 
make  two  frames11  in  the  queen's  chamber;  and  a  screen0 
in  the  chamber  of  the  aforesaid  Edward,  and  a  "  sporam" 
at  the  head  of  the  king's  chamber,  and  another  "  sporam" 
in  the  outer  chamber  of  the  king's  wardrobe  there.  Cla- 
rendon, November  28. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Wiltshire.  We  command  you 
to  put  a  glass  window  in  the  chamber  of  our  queen  [at 
Clarendon]  and  in  the  same  window  cause  to  be  made  a 
Maryp  with  her  child,  and  a  queen  at  the  feet  of  the  same 
Mary,  with  clasped  hands,  holding  in  her  hand  [a  label 
with]  "  Ave  Maria :"  and  enclose  the  house  of  master 
David  with  a  good  wall,  and  make  a  chimney  in  the  same 
house  and  a  wardrobe,  with  a  privy-chamber ;  and  build  a 
wall  from  the  house  of  the  aforesaid  master  to  the  house 
of  Robert  de  Stopham,  with  a  certain  gateway  towards 
the  park;  and  make  a  chimney  in  the  chamber  beyond 
the  rock,  and  cover  the  chamber  outside  the  chamber  of 
Alexander  with  shingle  and  chevron q  it ;  and  put  two  leaden 
"  pomellas"  on  our  hall,  and  a  standing  window  of  wood 
in  our  pantry :  and  make  a  chimney  in  the  chamber  under 

framas.  0  unum  es(  renum.  p  Mariola.  11  keveronari  facias. 


our  chapel,  and  wainscote  the  same  chamber,  and  make 
a  staircase  from  the  chapel  into  that  chamber ;  and  put 
two  forms  in  our  chamber,  and  a  "  sporum"  in  the  queen's 
chamber ;  and  make  a  door  to  close  up  the  entry  towards 
the  same  chamber,  and  a  glass  casement  in  the  window 
before  that  "  sporum,"  and  repair  other  defects.  Claren- 
don, December  7. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  ordered  to  cause  the  king's 
new  chapel  in  Winchester  castle  to  be  painted  with  the 
history  of  J oseph,  and  to  be  paved  with  tiles  ;  and  to  paint 
the  tablet  beside  the  king's  bed  with  the  figures  of  the 
guards  of  the  bed  of  Solomon  ;  and  to  pave  the  king's 
chamber  and  the  queen's  chamber  with  tiles,  and  to  put 
wooden  windows  in  the  oriol  of  the  queen's  chapel ;  to  re- 
pair the  privy-chamber  before  the  door  of  the  Jews'  tower, 
and  likewise  to  repair  the  long  chamber  beyond  the  stable 
in  the  tower  where  the  king's  wardrobe  used  to  be.  Win- 
chester, December  29. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  commanded  to  build,  at 
Freemantle,  a  hall,  a  kitchen,  and  a  certain  chamber  with 
an  upper  story r,  and  other  appurtenances,  and  a  chapel 
on  the  ground8,  for  the  king's  use :  and  a  certain  cham- 
ber with  an  upper  story,  with  a  chapel  at  the  end  of  the 
same  chamber,  for  the  queen's  use ;  under  which  chapel  he 
is  to  make  a  cellar  to  hold  the  king's  wines.  Newstead, 
January  2. 

John  de  Haneberg  is  commanded  to  crenellate  the 
queen's  chapel  at  Woodstock,  and  to  raise  the  chimney  in 
the  queen's  chamber  ;  and  to  make  a  certain  vault1  between 
the  king's  chamber  and  the  new  chapel ;  to  wainscote  and 
whitewash  the  same  chapel ;  to  put  glass  windows  in  the 
same  chapel,  and  to  build  a  certain  bell-tower,  with  two 
middling11  bells,  beside  the  house  of  the  chaplains ;  and  to 

r  cum  estagio.  8  ad  terrain.  *  voutam,  or  arch.  u  mediocribus. 



make  a  seat  in  the  queen's  chapel  for  her  use ;  to  cause 
the  picture  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  near  the  same  seat  to  be 
better  painted;  and  to  repair  the  glass  windows  of  the 
king's  old  chapel  there.    Woodstock,  February  3. 

John  de  Haneberg  and  Peter  de  Leigh  are  ordered 
to  make  a  certain  pent-house  at  the  head  of  the  king's  hall 
at  Woodstock  towards  the  east,  and  two  apertures  in  the 
crestx  of  the  same  hall,  and  a  round  window  in  the  gable 
of  the  same  hall  towards  the  east;  and  to  paint  the  door 
between  the  king's  chamber  and  the  new  chapel  of  a  green 
colour;  to  crenellate  the  king's  chamber  with  free-stone, 
and  to  bar  with  iron  the  windows  of  the  chapel  of  St.  Ed- 
ward.   Woodstock,  February  6. 

The  sheriff  of  Gloucester  is  ordered  to  build  a  chamber, 
with  a  chimney  and  a  privy-chamber,  over  the  king's  wine 
cellar  in  Gloucester  castle.    Winchester,  June  5. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Wiltshire.  We  command 
you  to  wainscote  our  chamber  under  our  chapel  [at  Claren- 
don] and  to  remove  the  wall  which  is  across  that  chamber, 
and  to  cause  the  "  history"  of  Antioch  and  the  combat7  of 
king  Richard  to  be  painted  in  the  same  chamber ;  and  to 
paint  that  wainscote  of  a  green  colour  with  golden  stars2. 
Make  also  in  the  same  chamber  a  certain  door,  and  a  pent- 
house direct  to  the  outer  chamber  which  is  now  made,  and 
rebuild  the  new  outer  chamber  belonging  to  the  same 
chamber,  under  our  chamber;  remove  the  plaster- work  of 
the  alure  towards  the  queen's  chamber,  and  repair  it  with 
a  good  stone  wall ;  and  cause  the  new  chamber  within  the 
park  to  be  whitewashed  and  bordereda ;  and  make  images 
of  the  Blessed  Mary,  St.  Edward  and  Cherubim,  and  place 
them  in  our  chapel ;  and  rebuild  the  chimney  in  our 
queen's  hall,  with  two  marble  columns  on  each  side  of  the 
chimney  ;  and  sculpture  the  mantel b  of  that  chimney  with 

x  crista.  y  duellum.  1  scintillis.  a  listari.  b  mantillum. 


the  twelve  months  of  the  year :  and  make  a  "  sporum"  in 
our  queen's  chamber,  and  a  "  sporum"  in  our  chamber, 
at  our  head  ;  and  also  pave  our  chapel  throughout,  and 
put  iron  kevils  with  chains  to  shut  the  glass  windows. 
Make  also  a  privy-chamber  to  the  chamber  beyond  the 
rock ;  and  provide  two  good  ropes c  for  the  well  and  for 
hauling  timber.  Make  also  a  glass  window  towards  the 
kitchen,  and  a  paling  around  the  "  herbour"  where  Geoffrey 
de  Lezinan  our  brother  lay ;  and  also  make  two  "  sporos" 
in  the  queen's  high  chamber,  and  pave  that  chamber ;  and 
bar  the  window  of  our  pantry  with  iron  ;  and  make  and 
paint  a  door  to  the  spiral-staird  towards  our  wardrobe, 
and  glass  windows  for  the  same  stair ;  and  renovate  the 
chimney  of  our  chandlery,  and  complete  in  the  stable  two 
walls  of  plaster-work6 ;  crest  with  lead  the  common  privy- 
chamber  outside  the  great  gate,  and  repair  our  houses  at 
Clarendon  where  needful.    Marlborough,  July  2. 

The  constable  of  Marlborough  castle  is  ordered  to  cleanse 
the  great  ditch  round  Marlborough  castle  and  to  repair  it 
with  new  bays.  And  to  make  a  bell-turret  on  the  western 
end  of  the  chapel  of  St.  Nicholas  there,  and  new  lists  be- 
tween the  aforesaid  chapel  of  St.  Nicholas  and  the  king's 
kitchen  ;  and  a  great  round  window  over  the  king's  seat 
in  the  great  hall  there,  and  to  crenellate  the  wall  of  the 
castle  between  the  king's  chamber  and  the  great  tower. 
He  is  to  make  also  a  certain  great  chamber  at  Ludgershall, 
for  the  use  of  Edward  the  king's  son,  with  two  chimneys 
and  two  privy-chambers ;  and  to  remove  the  old  kitchen 
to  beside  the  new  kitchen  behind  the  king's  hall  there ; 
and  to  make  an  image  of  the  Blessed  Mary  with  her  child 
in  the  chapel  of  St.  Leonard  there.    Marlborough,  July  3. 

The  king  to  the  keepers  of  Woodstock.  We  command 
you  to  wainscote  the  chamber  under  our  new  chapel,  and  to 

c  cabulas.  d  viceam  ;  Fr.  vis.  e  plastritio. 



crenellate  our  great  chamber  with  free-stone  ;  and  to  make 
two  chains,  and  a  glass  window  in  a  certain  window  in  the 
hall;  and  two  outer-chambers,  one  to  the  queen's  stable  and 
the  other  to  our  stable  ;  and  to  repair  our  houses  there, 
where  necessary,  and  build  a  buttress f  to  prop  up  our  new 
chapel.    Abingdon,  July  18. 

The  king  to  Godfrey  de  Liston.  We  order  you  to  cause 
our  chamber  and  the  two  chapels  in  our  park  at  Windsor 
to  be  painted ;  and  wainscote  to  be  put  above  our  dais,  and 
a  louver g  to  be  made  in  the  hall  there  to  carry  off  the 
smoke.    Windsor,  July  30. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  ordered  to  roof  the  pent- 
house which  is  between  the  great  gate  in  Winchester  castle 
and  the  chapel  of  St.  Judoc,  and  the  chamber  of  Rosamund ; 
and  to  make  a  pent-house  before  the  door  of  the  Jews' 
tower ;  and  to  repair  the  ditch  between  the  great  tower 
and  the  bailey.    Wolvesham,  July  24. 

The  bailiff  of  Havering  is  commanded  to  build  a  chim- 
ney in  the  queen's  chamber,  and  to  complete  her  two 
wardrobes  with  their  appurtenances ;  to  cause  a  Mary 
with  her  child  and  the  Annunciation  of  the  Blessed  Mary 
to  be  painted  in  the  queen's  chapel,  and  to  put  buttress- 
columns11  outside  that  chapel ;  and  to  cause  the  four 
Evangelists  to  be  well  painted  in  the  king's  chamber ;  to 
make  two  glass  windows  writh  shields  of  the  king's  arms 
in  the  king's  low  chapel,  and  to  build  a  bell-turret  with 
two  bells  above  that  chapel :  to  cause  the  four  Evangelists 
to  be  painted,  with  other  pictures,  in  the  queen's  chamber; 
to  make  in  the  low  chapel  a  candlestick,  with  a  beam 
across  the  chancel,  for  wax  lights,  and  to  make  a  lectern  : 
and  to  complete  the  alures  and  crenelles  of  the  chambers 
of  the  king  and  queen ;  to  pull  down  and  rebuild  the 
king's  almonry,  and  to  build  a  certain  house  for  the  use 

f  botericium.  g  funiatorium.  h  columpnis  botericiis. 


of  the  chaplains,  with  a  privy-chamber ;  to  lengthen  the 
king's  stable  and  roof  the  whole  of  it  with  shingles ;  and 
to  make  a  fair  lectern  in  the  queen's  chapel ;  to  raise  and 
improve  the  porch  at  the  entry  of  the  alures ;  to  enlarge 
the  pantry  and  butlery,  and  to  make  a  salsary,  a  larder 
and  chandlery,  and  a  chimney  in  the  king's  great  ward- 
robe ;  and  to  strengthen  the  king's  chamber  externally 
with  buttress-columns  of  free-stone  ;  to  make  a  "  sporam" 
in  the  queen's  chamber ;  to  put  wainscote  above  the  dais 
in  the  king's  hall,  and  to  make  a  fair,  large  and  well- 
sculptured  chair ;  to  repair  the  chimney  in  the  chamber  of 
Edward  the  king's  son  ;  to  make  a  porch  before  the  door  of 
the  same  chamber,  and  from  that  porch  a  passage1  to  the 
alley  between  the  king's  chamber  and  the  hall ;  and  a 
certain  passage  from  the  same  porch  to  the  knights'  cham- 
ber ;  and  to  make  a  certain  "  herbour"  between  the  king's 
chamber  and  that  of  the  aforesaid  Edward ;  to  paint  the 
tablet  before  the  altar  in  the  lower  chapel,  and  to  cause 
three  other  tablets  to  be  made  and  painted ;  to  wit,  one 
before  the  altar  in  the  upper  chapel  and  two  narrow  ones 
to  be  placed  above  the  altar  aforesaid  ;  and  to  paint  the 
same  chapels ;  to  wainscote  the  upper  chapel ;  and  to 
build  a  gateway  towards  the  park,  with  a  certain  house 
over  it  with  a  privy-chamber ;  to  make  a  moveable  chairk, 
in  the  king's  chamber,  and  a  wide  table  to  be  put  at  the 
head  of  the  king's  bed ;  to  deepen  the  wine-cellar,  and 
block  up  the  windows  of  the  same  towards  the  sun ;  to 
make  a  porch  before  the  door ;  and  to  wainscote  the  king's 
wardrobe  and  "  cernam."    Waltham,  August  26. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Surrey  and  Sussex.  We  com- 
mand you  to  repair  the  pillars1  of  our  hall  at  Guildford 
which  are  defective,  and  to  raise  them  with  good  Reigate 
stone,  and  to  repair  the  same  hall  where  necessary;  to 

1  alea.  k  catliedram  mobilem.  1  postes. 



roof  the  sewery  and  butlery,  and  to  make  a  new  window 
in  each  ;  and  to  heighten  the  entire  roof  of  our  chamber  by 
five  feet,  and  to  raise  the  walls  of  the  same,  so  that  three 
glass  windows  may  be  made  in  them,  like  the  new  window 
lately  made  in  the  same  bed-chamber;  those  windows  to 
be  well  barred  ;  and  to  roof  the  same  bed-chamber  with 
shingles ;  and  to  wainscote  it.  Wainscote  also  the  tre- 
sancem  between  the  hall  and  the  aforesaid  bed-chamber 
and  cover  it  above  with  earth11,  and  make  better  windows 
in  the  same  tresance ;  and  paint  the  wainscoted  chambers 
of  a  green  colour.  Wainscote  the  lower  wardrobe  of  the 
bed-chamber  of  Edward  our  son,  and  make  in  it  a  stone 
vault  in  which  our  chests  and  reliques  may  be  put ;  and  let 
the  wall  between  the  said  bed-chamber  and  the  almonry  be 
crested ;  make  a  window  in  the  small  wardrobe  nigh  our 
great  gate ;  and  a  new  lattice  before  the  chapel  of  St.  Ste- 
phen ;  and  in  the  chapel  of  St.  Catharine  paint  decently 
her  image,  and  her  "  history,"  above  the  altar,  without 
gold  or  azure  ;  and  build  a  wall  round  the  said  chapel 
where  there  was  before  a  paling,  and  strengthen  the  wall  of 
the  castle  with  buttresses0  and  underpinning,  and  white- 
wash it ;  and  repair  the  lead  on  the  tower,  and  whitewash 
the  same  tower ;  and  repair  all  the  houses  as  well  in  the 
castle  as  in  the  court,  as  well  in  gutters  as  in  the  roofs ; 
and  build  three  mills  in  the  park,  to  wit,  one  for  hard 
corn,  another  for  malt,  and  a  third  for  fulling.  Also  pull 
down  the  wall  outside  our  great  bed-chamber,  and  remove 
it  the  width  of  fifteen  feet  from  the  said  bed-chamber,  and 
rebuild  it  of  the  same  height  that  it  now  is  ;  and  between 
the  same  bed-chamber  and  the  said  wall  make  a  certain 
"  herbour,"  and  in  the  tresance  between  the  hall  and  the 
said  bed-chamber  make  a  door  to  enter  into  the  said  her- 
bour ;  and  glaze  the  high  window  in  the  wardrobe  of  the 

tresancia.  n  desuper  terrari  facias.  0  columpnas  et  subpositiones. 

H  h 


queen's  bed-chamber,  and  with  the  chips  coming  from  the 
oaks  felled  to  make  the  aforesaid  mills,  make  a  kiln  for  the 
works  aforesaid.    Guildford,  September  17. 

The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  ordered  to  new  roof  the 
queen's  chapel,  and  to  repair  the  louver p  above  the  king's 
hall  at  Clarendon  which  is  injured  by  the  wind.  West- 
minster, October  11. 


The  bailiffs  of  Woodstock  are  ordered  to  paint  the 
queen's  chamber  at  Woodstock  of  a  green  colour,  and  to 
border q  it  with  red  colour;  and  to  make  a  tablet  in  the 
king's  chapel  before  the  altar,  and  another  smaller  tablet 
above  the  altar ;  and  a  pent-house  before  the  door  of  the 
chamber  of  Edward  j  and  another  pent-house  beside  the 
queen's  kitchen,  and  a  garden  at  Evereswell ;  and  five  locks 
for  the  doors,  and  a  deer-leap r  in  the  park.  Woodstock, 
Nov.  2. 

The  bailiffs  of  Feckenham  are  commanded  to  wainscot e 
the  king's  chapel  at  Feckenham,  and  to  double  its  length, 
and  to  repair  the  windows  of  the  same  chapel ;  to  whitewash 
the  king's  chamber  and  the  queen's  chamber;  and  to  repair 
the  great  staircase  between  the  hall  and  the  king's  chamber, 
and  to  glaze  the  small  windows  of  the  hall ;  to  make  a  new 
kitchen,  great  and  good,  and  a  wardrobe  great  and  good, 
and  a  privy- chamber  to  the  same ;  and  to  make  a  privy- 
chamber  in  the  king's  chamber,  on  the  north,  towards  the 
garden.    Feckenham,  November  19. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Nottingham.  We  command 
you  to  block  up  the  cowled  windows s  on  the  south  side  of 
the  great  hall  of  our  castle  of  Nottingham,  and  to  cover 
them  externally  with  lead;   and  make  a  certain  great 

p  fumatorium.  q  listari.  r  sanatorium.  s  fenestras  culiciatas. 



louver4  on  the  same  hall,  and  cover  it  with  lead;  and 
make  the  wooden  dais  in  the  same  hall  of  free  plaster"; 
and  cause  to  be  painted  before  the  altar  in  our  chapel  a 
certain  tablet  with  the  "  history"  of  St.  William,  and  over 
the  same  altar  another  tablet  of  the  "  history"  of  St.  Ed- 
ward ;  and  in  the  passagex  make  wooden  windows,  bound 
with  iron,  to  shut;  and  wainscote  the  wardrobe  in  the 
queen's  chamber;  and  cause  to  be  painted  in  the  chapel 
of  St.  Catharine,  before  the  altar  a  tablet,  and  above  the 
altar  another  with  the  "  history"  of  the  same  virgin,  and 
paint  the  judgment  to  be  dreaded  in  the  gable  of  the  same 
chapel ;  and  whitewash  that  chamber,  wardrobe  and  chapel 
on  every  side  and  point  them  lineally y,  and  make  good 
cowled  windows  before  the  door  of  our  chamber  over  the 
stairs,  and  make  a  new  and  becoming  door  to  the  same 
chamber;  and  wainscote  that  chamber,  and  put  wooden 
stalls  in  it  on  every  side,  and  chairs ;  and  make  an  "  es- 
porum"  before  the  door;  and  fix  iron  candlesticks  in  the 
wall,  and  roof  the  houses  beyond  the  great  gate  with  lead. 
Nottingham,  December  12. 

The  sheriff  of  Nottingham  is  ordered  to  make  a  ward- 
robe for  the  queen's  use  at  Clipstone,  and  a  privy-chamber 
in  the  queen's  great  chamber,  and  another  privy-chamber 
at  the  head  of  the  hall ;  and  to  buy  a  chalice,  vestments, 
books  and  other  necessary  ornaments  for  the  new  chapel ; 
and  to  remove  the  high  bench  and  the  other  benches  in 
the  new  hall,  and  the  small  chimney  in  the  great  chamber ; 
and  to  make  a  chimney  in  the  king's  wardrobe,  through  a 
mantel,  and  through  another  mantel  in  the  queen's  ward- 
robe by  one  and  the  same  flue2.    Worksop,  December  13. 

The  sheriff  of  Nottingham  is  ordered  to  remake  all  the 
wooden  windows  in  the  king's  great  hall  and  great  cham- 

1  fumerium.  u  franco  piastre  *  alea. 

7  liuealiter  pertractari  facias.  z  per  unum  et  idem  tuellum. 


ber  at  Nottingham,  and  to  bind  them  with  iron,  and  to 
make  a  certain  great  glass  window  without  the  door  of  the 
same  chamber,  with  the  image  of  St.  Martin  stretching 
forth  his  cloak  to  the  beggar.   Nottingham,  January  15. 

The  sheriff  of  Nottingham  is  ordered  to  cause  the  his- 
tory of  Alexander  to  be  painted  round  the  queen's  chamber 
at  Nottingham.    Same  date. 

The  same  sheriff  is  commanded  to  make  a  certain  pas- 
sage"1 at  Clipstone  from  the  entry  of  the  king's  chamber 
to  the  gable  of  the  hall,  and  another  passage  to  the  new 
chapel,  and  a  chamber  on  the  other  side  of  the  same  hall, 
with  a  privy-chamber  and  other  necessaries :  he  is  also  to 
whitewash  the  king's  chamber,  and  to  block  up  the  window 
between  the  chimneys  of  the  same  chamber,  and  to  bar  the 
other  windows  in  the  said  chamber  with  iron ;  to  put  glass 
windows  in  the  queen's  chapel,  to  wainscote  and  border 
the  same  chapel,  and  likewise  the  new  chapel :  and  to 
build  a  great  gate  with  a  certain  chamber  above  it,  and  a 
privy-chamber  :  and  to  remove  the  wall  at  the  foot  of 
the  king's  bed,  and  make  a  certain  privy-chamber  for  the 
king's  use,  covered  with  shingles ;  and  to  glaze  all  the 
windows  in  the  privy -chambers  of  the  king  and  queen. 
Same  date. 

The  sheriff  of  Northampton  is  ordered  to  wainscote  the 
king's  chapel  at  Cliffe  over  the  altar  to  beyond  the  steps 
before  the  same  altar ;  and  to  make  a  certain  dormant 
table  in  the  great  hall  there,  and  a  certain  wardrobe  for  the 
queen's  use,  with  a  privy-chamber ;  and  to  roof  well  the 
tresance  between  the  king's  chamber  and  the  privy-chamber 
of  the  same  chamber.    Cliffe,  January  18. 

The  same  sheriff  is  ordered  to  glaze  with  white  glass 
the  windows  in  the  king's  great  hall  at  Northampton 
castle,  on  the  north  side,  which  are  nearest  to  the  entry  of 




the  queen's  chamber,  and  to  cause  the  history  of  Lazarus 
and  Dives  to  be  painted  in  the  sarae  ;  and  to  make  a  cer- 
tain chair  in  the  middle  of  the  bench  of  the  same  hall  for 
the  king's  use,  and  to  pull  down  the  ridgeb  [of  the  roof] 
of  the  chapel  in  the  tower  of  the  same  castle,  and  to  cause 
it  to  be  again  raftered,  planked  and  covered  with  lead  ;  and 
to  raise  and  crenellate  the  wall  round  the  same  chapel ;  to 
crest  the  crenelles  of  the  tower  there,  and  to  board  the 
aluresc  round  the  same  tower;  and  to  buy  a  missal  of  the 
value  of  two  marks  for  the  king's  chapel.  Silverstone, 
January  27. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Northampton.  We  command 
you  to  wainscote  our  queen's  chapel  at  Geddington  and  to 
crest  it  with  lead ;  to  buy  an  image  of  the  Blessed  Mary 
and  another  of  St.  John  the  Evangelist  to  be  placed  on 
each  side  of  the  crucifix  there,  and  to  paint  the  same  chapel 
of  a  green  colour,  scintillated  with  gold ;  and  to  raise  the 
wall  of  our  wardrobe  and  the  chimney  of  the  same  ward- 
robe ;  to  make  a  chair  in  the  middle  of  the  great  bench  in 
our  great  hall  there,  and  a  new  wardrobe  with  a  chimney 
and  privy-chamber  for  our  queen's  use  there ;  and  a  pent- 
house to  extend  from  our  queen's  chamber  to  the  same 
wardrobe ;  and  block  up  the  window  which  is  in  the  gable 
of  our  queen's  chamber  there,  and  make  a  new  window 
over  the  pent-house d  of  the  same  chamber  ;  and  a  door  in 
the  queen's  chamber  towards  the  wardrobe  aforesaid ;  and 
block  up  the  doorway  from  the  privy-chamber  to  the  same 
chamber,  and  make  a  door  outside  our  queen's  chamber 
leading  to  the  privy-chamber;  and  put  three  windows  in 
the  new  wardrobe ;  and  plaster  and  wainscote  our  ward- 
robe there ;  wainscote  our  chamber,  and  paint  it  of  a  green 
colour,  scintillated  with  gold ;  and  take  off  the  lead  which 
is  upon  the  same  chamber,  and  recover  it  with  new ;  and 

b  culmen.  0  aleas.  d  apenticium. 


make  a  chapel  in  the  oriol  beyond  the  door  of  our  cham- 
ber, and  three  glass  windows  in  the  same  chapel;  wains- 
cote  the  same  chapel,  and  paint  it  of  a  green  colour, 
scintillated  with  gold ;  and  paint  our  [other]  chapel  there 
of  a  green  colour,  scintillated  with  gold;  and  make  a 
certain  enclosure6  between  the  chancel  and  the  body  of 
the  chapel,  with  a  door  in  the  middle,  and  two  seats  on 
each  side  of  that  door ;  and  make  a  pent-house  from  the 
chapel  aforesaid  to  the  cloister*,  towards  our  hall;  and 
rebuild  a  gateway  in  the  entry  towards  our  hall,  and 
make  a  chamber  above  it ;  and  build  a  new  kitchen 
beside  the  other  kitchen,  and  put  forms  in  our  chamber, 
and  in  our  queen's  chamber,  and  in  our  chapel  there,  and 
in  our  queen's  chapel ;  and  a  chestg  in  our  chamber  and 
another  in  our  queen's  chamber ;  and  cover  our  mews  there 
with  shingle.    Silverstone,  January  27. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Northampton.  We  order  you 
to  build  a  certain  wall  at  Silverstone  between  our  queen's 
chapel  and  our  chamber,  with  a  doorway  in  the  same  wall ; 
and  to  make  a  certain  cloister  from  the  door  of  our  chamber 
to  the  other  cloister  going  towards  the  queen's  chapel ;  and 
to  put  forms  in  the  queen's  chapel  and  in  our  chamber, 
and  to  make  two  upright  windows  in  our  hall  there;  to 
remove  the  great  bench  in  the  same  hall  and  to  put  a  new 
stone  bench  in  the  same  place ;  and  to  make  a  chair  in  the 
middle  of  that  bench  for  our  use ;  and  to  make  two  up- 
right windows  in  our  great  wardrobe  there  ;  and  a  gateway 
to  the  old  cloister  to  lead  towards  the  same  wardrobe ;  and 
put  a  certain  iron  bar  across  the  chimney  in  our  queen's 
chamber  to  support  the  same  chimney  ;  and  make  forms 
and  tables  in  the  chamber  of  Edward  our  son  j  and  repair 
our  houses  there  where  necessary.    We  also  command  you 

e  clausum. 

f  claustrum. 

s  scrinium. 



to  make  a  great  and  wide  chimney  in  our  chamber  at 
Brigstock.    Woodstock,  February  1. 

The  king  to  the  wardens  of  his  works  at  Woodstock. 
We  command  you  to  roof  with  lead  our  bell-turret  at 
Woodstock,  the  pent-house  over  the  door  of  our  great  hall, 
and  the  other  pent-house  over  the  doorway  of  our  old 
chapel ;  and  to  make  a  pent-house  from  our  kitchen  to  the 
stable  at  the  head  of  the  said  hall,  and  another  pent-house 
from  the  queen's  kitchen  to  the  door  of  her  chamber ;  and 
a  chamber,  with  a  privy-chamber  and  a  chimney,  between 
our  chamber  and  the  wine-cellar ;  and  to  build  two  chim- 
neys, to  wit,  one  in  the  chamber  of  the  clerks,  and  another 
at  Evereswell;  and  make  a  canopyh  above  our  seat  in  the 
hall,  with  a  royal  seat ;  and  wainscote  beyond  the  alures  of 
our  new  chapel  even  to  the  crenelles  over  the  same  chapel ; 
and  make  two  upright  windows  in  the  house  which  is 
called  "  Hardel,"  and  a  glass  window  with  an  image  of 
the  Blessed  Mary  in  the  new  chapel,  and  the  figure  of  an 
angel1  over  the  sacristy k  of  the  same  chapel ;  and  make 
two  apertures  in  the  great  hall,  and  a  vivary  in  our 
garden  ;  and  paint  the  old  chapel  with  the  story  of  the 
woman  taken  in  adultery,  and  how  the  Lord  wrote  on 
the  ground,  and  how  the  Lord  smote  St.  Paul1,  and  paint 
something  concerning  St.  Paul ;  and  likewise  paint  the 
"  history"  of  the  Evangelists  in  the  upper  part  of  the  same 
chapel.    Woodstock,  February  1. 

Godfrey  de  Liston  is  ordered  to  procure  wheresoever  he 
can  within  his  bailiwick,  or  elsewhere,  either  by  gift  or 
purchase,  a  great  beech-tree,  to  make  tables  for  the  king's 
kitchens  at  Westminster,  and  to  send  it  by  water  to  West- 
minster, so  that  it  may  be  there  before  the  next  coming 
Easter.    Westminster,  March  20. 

h  tabernaculum. 

1  imaginem  angelicam. 

k  sacrarium. 

1  dedit  alapham  Sancto  Paulo. 


The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  ordered  to  pave  the  chamber 
under  the  king's  chapel  at  Clarendon,  and  to  make  and 
paint  new  windows  in  the  king's  chamber  there,  and  to 
roof  the  queen's  chamber.    Clarendon,  July  15. 

The  king  to  the  same.  We  command  you  to  pave  our 
queen's  chamber  at  Clarendon,  and  the  chamber  under  the 
same  queen's  chapel,  and  to  make  three  windows  in  the 
stair  of  the  same  chamber,  and  two  windows  in  the  stair 
of  our  chamber,  in  the  descent,  and  to  glaze  a  certain 
window  at  the  foot  of  same  stair;  and  to  make  a  cer- 
tain privy-chamber  in  the  house  where  the  foresters  sleep, 
and  a  certain  privy-chamber  in  the  cellar,  against  the  wall 
of  the  same  cellar ;  and  three  "  espora"  in  the  chambers  of 
the  lord  Edward  where  necessary  ;  and  to  gild  the  two 
angels  and  the  two  tablets  in  our  chapel ;  and  to  remake 
and  improve  the  queen's  "herbour;"  and  to  build  a  cer- 
tain house  where  the  tools  of  master  David  may  be  put ; 
and  a  certain  "  herlebecheria"  beside  the  great  kitchen ; 
and  cover  the  wall  beside  the  great  gateway  with  free- 
stone.   Clarendon,  July  9. 

The  king  to  the  keepers  of  his  manor  at  Woodstock. 
We  order  you  to  make,  at  the  manor  aforesaid,  a  house 
under  our  chamber  there,  and  a  wall  between  our  kitchen 
and  our  larder;  and  to  turf  our  "  herbary"  there;  and  to 
buy  a  fair  table  to  be  placed  in  the  queen's  chamber  there; 
and  likewise  to  put  two  painted  tablets  with  the  figures  of 
two  bishops  in  our  great  chapel ;  and  a  tablet  painted 
with  the  figure  of  the  Blessed  Mary  in  the  chapel  of  St. 
Edward.  And  make  a  chimney  in  our  queen's  kitchen 
there.    Woodstock,  August  19. 


The  king  to  his  bailiffs  of  Southampton.  We  command 
you  to  buy  in  our  town  of  Southampton,  for  our  use,  two 



hundred  Norway"1  boards  of  fir",  and  deliver  them  without 
delay  to  our  sheriff  of  Southampton,  to  wainscote  therewith 
the  chamber  of  our  beloved  son  Edward  in  our  castle  of 
Winchester.    Marlborough,  November  13. 

The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  commanded  to  make  a  house 
at  Clarendon  to  hold  the  bailiff's  stock,  and  another  house 
to  make  the  king's  household  bread  in,  and  for  making 
wafers0,  and  to  keep  the  household  flour;  and  a  pent- 
house under  the  chamber  of  Alexander,  for  the  livery  of  the 
victuals  of  Edward  the  king's  son ;  and  a  small  pantry  for 
the  queen's  use;  and  a  window  in  the  king's  wardrobe, 
with  a  pillar,  and  seat,  and  a  bench  to  put  the  king's  re- 
liques  upon ;  that  window  to  be  glazed  with  white  glass  : 
he  is  ordered  to  enclose  the  garden  with  a  paling ;  to  paint 
the  queen's  chimney,  and  to  repair  the  painting  of  her 
chapel ;  also  to  make  a  chamber  beside  the  cellar  towards 
the  park ;  and  to  repair  the  chimney  of  the  chamber  over 
the  rock ;  and  to  double  the  length  of  the  rock,  and  repair 
the  descending  steps  of  the  same  rock.  Clarendon,  De- 
cember 1. 

The  bailiff  of  Gillingham  is  commanded  to  make  a  ditch 
round  the  whole  of  the  king's  court  at  Gillingham,  and  to 
enclose  it  with  a  wall  of  the  height  of  a  man,  which  is  to 
be  built  of  small  stone  and  common  cementp;  to  make 
a  bridge  leading  towards  the  gateway ;  a  new  wardrobe, 
with  a  privy-chamber,  to  the  great  chamber  towards 
the  kitchen,  with  a  chimney  in  the  same  chamber;  to 
whitewash  and  illuminate  the  whole  chamber;  and  to 
roof  the  entire  hall;  to  build  a  sufficient  almonry-house, 
with  a  privy-chamber;  likewise  to  wainscote  and  illumi- 
nate"1 the  king's  chapel  and  chamber ;  and  to  put  windows 
on  every  side  in  the  king's  chapel;  and  to  cause  to  be 

bordos  cle  Norwagia. 

n  sapio.  °  wafras. 

1  illuminari ;  i.  e.  to  paint. 


painted  on  the  glass  windows  three  images ;  to  wit,  of  the 
Blessed  Mary,  St.  Edward  king  and  confessor,  and  St. 
Eustace  ;  to  make  benches  and  forms  in  the  same  chapel ; 
to  complete  the  queen's  chapel,  with  an  altar  in  honour  of 
St.  Edward  king  and  martyr,  and  St.  Edward  king  and 
confessor,  with  glass  windows  on  every  side  in  the  same 
chapel,  in  which  are  to  be  painted  the  figures  of  St.  Edward 
king  and  martyr  and  St. Edward  king  and  confessor;  and  to 
wainscote  and  illuminate  the  same  chapel,  and  likewise  the 
queen's  chamber  ;  under  which  he  is  to  make  a  new  ward- 
robe for  the  queen's  use  with  a  chimney  and  a  privy-cham- 
ber j  he  is  to  finish  the  new  kitchen  with  a  round  opening1' ; 
to  wainscote,  whitewash  and  illuminate  the  chamber  of 
Edward  the  king's  son ;  and  to  make  doors  and  windows 
to  the  same  where  necessary ;  to  build  a  chamber  for  the 
use  of  the  chaplains,  under  the  same  roof  with  the  alms- 
house ;  and  a  house  for  the  porter  over  the  gateway  ;  and 
to  place  a  great  table  in  the  king's  chamber.  Gillingham, 
December  10. 

The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  ordered  to  make  a  certain 
chamber  of  hewn  stone  over  the  rock  where  the  king's 
wines  are  at  Clarendon,  and  to  place  woodwork8  on  the 
walls  of  the  chambers  of  Edward  the  king's  son,  and  the 
king's  brothers,  to  which  lights4  may  be  fastened.  Cla- 
rendon, December  14. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  commanded  to  repair  the 
hercesu,  in  the  king's  chapel  in  Winchester  castle,  on  which 
the  wax  tapers  should  be  placed,  together  with  the  chains 
of  the  king's  thuribles.    Southampton,  December  18. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  ordered  to  cause  an  image 
of  the  Blessed  Mary  with  her  child  to  be  made  on  the 
front  of  the  chapel  of  St.  Thomas  in  Winchester  castle ;  to 
paint  the  queen's  wardrobe  with  green  paint  and  golden 

cum  rotunda  vacuacione.  s  tabulatus.  *  luminaria.  u  hercias. 



stars ;  and  to  paint  a  certain  angel  on  the  other  side  of  the 
aforesaid  chapel ;  and  the  figures  of  the  prophets  round 
the  same  chapel ;  to  paint  in  the  glass  window  in  the  same 
chapel  the  figure  of  St.  Edward  with  the  ring ;  to  pave  the 
chamber  of  Edward  the  king's  son  with  flat  tile ;  to  put 
forms  round  the  king's  chamber,  and  glass  windows  in  the 
chapel  of  St.  Catharine  on  the  top  of  the  same  castle ;  to 
make  mats  for  the  king's  chapel ;  to  wainscote  the  said 
chapel  of  St.  Catharine ;  to  widen  the  doorway  of  the 
king's  hall  for  the  entrance  of  carts,  and  to  make  a  house 
for  the  use  of  the  chaplains,  dwelling  in  the  same  castle,  in 
a  fitting  place.    Winchester,  December  28. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  ordered  to  make  in  the 
king's  upper  wardrobe  in  Winchester  castle,  where  the 
king's  cloths  are  deposited,  two  cupboards x,  one  on  each 
side  of  the  chimney,  with  two  arches7,  and  a  certain  inter- 
close2  of  board  across  the  same  wardrobe.  Guildford, 
January  1. 

The  sheriff  of  Northampton  is  commanded  to  repair  the 
king's  houses  at  Geddington  and  Silverstone ;  and  to  make 
a  certain  glass  window  in  the  king's  hall  at  Northampton, 
with  the  figures  of  Lazarus  and  Dives  painted  in  the  same, 
opposite  the  king's  dais,  which  may  be  closed  and  opened. 
Merton,  Jan.  8. 

Godfrey  de  Lyston  is  ordered  to  repair  the  stalls  and 
mangers  in  the  king's  stable  at  Kennington,  to  make  a  new 
manger a  in  the  same  stable ;  to  repair  the  walls  and  doors 
of  the  same  stable ;  and  to  make  a  new  window  in  the 
queen's  wardrobe  there.    Westminster,  Marcli  2. 

The  king  to  the  bailiff  of  Havering.  We  command  you 
to  wainscote  our  upper  chapel  at  Havering,  and  to  put  a 
certain  image  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary  in  the  lower 
chapel,  and  two'glass  windows  with  the  shields  of  Provence 

x  armariola.  y  archeris.  z  interclusum.  a  manjuram. 


in  the  same  chapel;  and  wainscote  over  our  seat  in  the 
hall;  buy  two  tables  with  the  forms  belonging  to  them 
for  our  chamber;  build  a  new  chapel  twenty-eight  feet 
long  and  fifteen  feet  wide  for  our  queen's  use,  with  a  spurb 
at  the  entry  of  the  said  chapel ;  and  break  the  wall  be- 
tween the  two  lower  wardrobes  of  the  queen ;  and  make  a 
certain  door  there  ;  and  place  a  spur  well  carved  in  our 
queen's  chamber,  and  a  table  with  forms  in  the  same  cham- 
ber ;  and  plaster  and  whitewash  our  queen's  wardrobes,  and 
make  two  spurs  in  the  same,  and  a  "  wyuram"  in  our 
wardrobe ;  and  repair  the  chimney  in  the  chamber  of 
Edward  our  son,  and  remove  the  wardrobe  of  the  same 
Edward  towards  the  west ;  make  a  louver0  in  the  house  of 
our  chaplains,  and  build  a  chandlery  and  napery  adjoining  : 
and  an  almonry  of  the  length  of  fifty  feet  and  the  width  of 
twenty-two  feet,  and  a  salsary  with  an  oven,  contiguous  to 
the  aforesaid  almonry,  and  a  gateway  towards  the  park 
and  a  house  over  it ;  and  repair  the  roof  of  the  stable,  and 
enlarge  that  stable  by  thirty  feet,  and  roof  that  stable  and  - 
all  the  other  houses  to  be  newly  built  there  with  shingles, 
and  repair  the  columns  and  walls ;  and  likewise  build  a 
certain  wTall  round  our  court  there  with  rag  stone.  Haver- 
ing, April  8. 


The  sheriff  of  Oxford  is  ordered  to  repair  and  roof  the 
king's  houses  and  walls  outside  the  castle  of  Oxford,  to  wit, 
the  king's  chamber  and  chapel,  the  kitchen,  salsary,  scullery, 
poultry,  the  great  gateway,  the  chamber  of  Edward  the 
king's  son,  the  queen's  wardrobe,  and  the  further  chamber 
of  the  servants.    Windsor,  January  25. 

The  sheriffs  of  London  are  commanded  fo  buy  two  thou- 

b  sporo. 




sand  boards  and  to  deliver  them  to  the  constable  of  Wind- 
sor castle,  to  make  therewith  certain  wainscotes  in  the  same 
castle.    Westminster,  February  28. 


The  sheriff  of  Sussex  is  ordered  to  deliver  one  hundred 
pounds  to  the  wardens  of  the  king's  works  at  Guildford 
to  pay  off  certain  arrears  due  for  the  same  works,  and  for 
wainscoting  the  king's  chapel,  the  queen's  chapel,  the 
king's  chamber  and  the  other  chambers  newly  built  there ; 
and  for  making  two  great  windows  in  the  king's  chapel ; 
in  barring  the  windows  of  the  king's  new  chamber  with 
iron ;  making  the  porch  to  the  hall  of  stone ;  for  painting 
in  the  hall  there,  opposite  the  king's  seat,  the  story  of 
Dives  and  Lazarus ;  making  a  certain  figure  with  beasts  on 
the  same  seat ;  and  lengthening  the  chamber  of  the  king's 
chaplains  there.    Guildford,  January  3. 

The  farmers  of  the  manor  of  Woodstock  are  ordered  to 
repair  the  chimney  of  the  queen's  inner  wardrobe  at  Wood- 
stock ;  to  buy  a  certain  image  of  the  Blessed  Mary  for  the 
chapel  of  the  king's  chamber  there ;  to  repair  the  painting 
in  the  king's  chamber,  where  necessary ;  to  make  a  cer- 
tain pent-house  between  the  queen's  kitchen  and  the  new 
chamber  towards  the  cellar,  with  a  porch  before  the  door 
of  the  same  chamber ;  to  make  a  certain  wardrobe  beside 
the  chamber  of  the  king's  seneschals ;  to  block  up  the  two 
doors  of  the  same  chamber,  and  to  make  a  new  door  in  the 
same  where  it  is  needed ;  to  make  a  certain  hedge  round 
the  king's  vivary  in  the  garden,  and  another  hedge  between 
the  chamber  at  the  gate  at  Evereswell  and  the  king's  chapel 
at  the  wells ;  and  to  repair  the  near  bay  of  the  stable. 
Woodstock,  February  20. 

The  sheriff  of  Surrey  and  Sussex  is  ordered  to  white- 


wash  the  king's  hall  at  Guildford  within  and  without,  and 
to  paint  of  a  marble d  colour  the  pillars,  with  the  arches  of 
the  same ;  and  to  paint  the  two  gables  of  the  same ;  and 
to  whitewash  and  quarry6  the  king's  chamber ;  to  paint  the 
ceiling  in  the  same  of  a  green  colour  becomingly  sten- 
cilled f  with  gold  and  silver  j  to  whitewash  within  and 
without  the  king's  chapel,  the  queen's  chapel  and  chamber, 
and  the  queen's  great  wardrobe ;  to  repair  the  painting  in 
the  queen's  chamber ;  to  rebuild  a  certain  oriol  before  the 
door  of  the  king's  hall  there,  and  to  make  a  certain  new 
cloister  with  marble  columns  in  the  king's  garden.  Wind- 
sor, May  5. 

The  sheriff  of  Kent  is  allowed  £28.  13*.  Id.  which  he 
expended  by  the  king's  order  in  making  a  certain  stair  with 
a  door  and  oriol  on  the  right  side  of  the  king's  chapel  at 
Rochester,  so  that  strangers  and  others  might  enter  that 
chapel,  without  passing  through  the  middle  of  the  king's 
chamber,  as  they  used  to  do.    Windsor,  May  8. 

The  bailiffs  of  Gloucester  are  ordered  to  pave,  with  all 
despatch,  the  king's  chamber  and  the  queen's  chamber  in 
Gloucester  castle,  with  tile,  and  to  roof  the  stairs  to  the 
entry  of  the  chamber  of  Edward  the  king's  son.  Winches- 
ter, June  24. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Southampton.  We  order  you 
to  wainscote  our  pantry  and  cellar  in  our  castle  at  Win- 
chester ;  to  remove  the  earth  from  the  ditch  of  the  same 
castle,  under  our  tower,  to  behind  the  hall,  and  to  examine 
and  repair  the  walls  of  the  same  castle  where  repair  is 
needed  ;  to  make  the  postern-gate  of  new  timber  ;  likewise 
to  make  a  certain  house  over  our  oven  in  the  same  castle  ; 
to  repair  the  painting  in  our  chamber  and  our  queen's ;  to 
wainscote  the  wardrobe  of  the  same  queen,  and  to  renew 
the  painting  in  the  chapel  nigh  oar  bed ;  and  to  remove 

d  marbrari.  c  quaiellari.  1  extencellari. 



the  earth  from  the  path  between  the  castle  gate  and  the 
barbican  ;  and  repair  the  common  privy-chamber  in  the 
same  castle  which  threatens  to  fall ;  to  make  a  stair  from 
the  doorway  of  Rosamund's  chamber  to  the  chapel  beside 
our  bed,  and  to  crenellate  well  the  buttress-column8  from 
the  bottom  of  the  ditch  of  the  tower  to  the  top  of  the  same 
tower  ;  to  complete  the  town-wall  to  the  said  tower ;  to 
repair  anew  the  doors  and  windows  of  the  same  tower; 
to  wainscote  the  chapel  of  St.  Catharine  in  the  high  tower ; 
and  make  a  glass  window  in  the  chapel  of  St.  Thomas  with 
a  figure  of  the  [Divine]  Majesty,  and  under  the  Majesty  a 
figure  of  St.  Edward  holding  in  his  hands  a  certain  king 
offered  to  the  Majesty  ;  and  to  make  a  figure  of  St.  George 
on  the  wall,  in  the  entry  of  the  hall,  with  two  leaden  win- 
dows ;  to  wainscote  the  chamber  in  which  Guy  de  Lezinan 
our  brother  lay  ;  and  to  rebuild  the  two  rotten  bretaches 
in  the  same  castle  and  cover  them  with  lead.  Winchester, 
June  29. 

The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  ordered  to  paint  the  doors 
and  windows  of  the  king's  chamber  at  Clarendon,  and  the 
tablet  over  the  altar  of  the  king's  chapel  at  the  same  place ; 
to  make  a  glass  window  in  the  king's  wardrobe  there,  and 
to  repair  the  other  glass  windows  of  the  houses  at  that 
place  where  necessary ;  to  make  a  privy-chamber  in  the 
house  of  Robert  de  Stopham  there ;  to  buy  a  rope  with  a 
bucket  for  the  well  there,  and  a  carrate 11  of  lead  to  repair 
the  gutters  of  the  same  place ;  to  repair  the  houses  over 
the  rock,  the  king's  almonry  and  the  aisles1  of  the  king's 
hall,  where  necessary ;  and  to  make  a  chimney  in  the 
queen's  chamber  in  the  castle  of  Devizes.  Poterne, 
July  12. 

The  bailiff  of  Woodstock  is  ordered  to  cause  the  king's 
chamber,  the  queen's  chamber  and  all  the  king's  chapels  at 

s  columpnam.  h  carrata.  1  alas. 


the  manor  of  Woodstock  to  be  paved,  and  to  make  a  cer- 
tain chamber  with  a  chimney  at  the  well  at  Evereswell. 
Woodstock,  August  20. 


The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Surrey  and  Sussex.  We 
order  you  to  build  a  certain  stone  gateway  at  Guildford, 
and  a  certain  solar  above  that  gateway,  of  the  length 
of  thirty-two  feet,  within  the  walls,  and  of  the  width  of 
eighteen  feet ;  and  a  becoming  wardrobe  to  the  same 
solar;  and  remove  the  chimney  in  the  chamber  of  our 
chancellor  there,  and  put  it  farther  towards  the  north  ; 
and  remove  the  "halder"  of  the  same  chamber  and  put 
it  elsewhere ;  and  whitewash  and  wainscote  that  chamber 
over  the  chancellor's  bed ;  and  make  four  glass  windows 
in  the  gable  of  our  hall ;  mend  a  window  in  the  chapel  of 
St.  Catharine,  and  raise  and  repair  the  chimney  in  our 
queen's  chamber.  Whitewash  and  repair,  where  needful, 
the  tower  of  our  castle  there,  and  repair  and  whitewash 
the  walls  of  the  bailey  of  the  same  castle.  And  do  all 
these  works  by  the  view  and  counsel  of  master  John  of 
Gloucester  our  mason,  and  master  Alexander  our  carpenter. 
Winchester,  November  23. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  commanded  to  wainscote 
the  king's  privy-chamber  in  Winchester  castle ;  to  renovate 
the  painting  of  the  queen's  chamber,  and  of  a  certain  tablet 
in  her  chapel,  and  of  the  windows  of  the  king's  hall  which 
are  [painted]  with  his  arms ;  to  make  a  pavement  of  tiles 
on  the  upper  step  of  the  king's  hall,  towards  the  east ;  to 
re-paint  a  certain  tablet  in  the  chapel  of  St.  Thomas  ;  to 
bar  all  the  windows  of  the  king's  small  chapel  with  iron ; 
to  examine  and  repair  all  the  gutters  in  Winchester  castle ; 
to  lengthen  the  house  of  the  king's  chaplains  by  twenty-four 



feet,  so  that  a  cellar  and  solar  may  be  made  of  that  [new] 
length ;  and  he  is  to  wainscote  that  cellar  for  the  use  of  the 
king's  chaplains  ;  to  make  a  small  oven,  for  pasties k,  beside 
the  king's  oven ;  to  remove  and  melt  the  lead  over  the 
gateway,  and  cover  it  with  new  lead,  and  to  put  a  table- 
men t1  on  the  wall  over  the  chaplain's  house ;  to  make  other 
repairs  where  necessary,  and  to  pull  down  and  rebuild  the 
great  tower  in  the  aforesaid  castle,  which  threatens  to  fall. 
Winchester,  November  28. 

The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  ordered  to  repair  the  king's 
chamber  at  Clarendon  where  necessary ;  to  renovate  the 
paintings  of  the  tablets  in  the  king's  chapel  there ;  to  en- 
close the  pent-house  which  is  between  the  king's  chamber 
and  the  chamber  of  Alexander,  with  boards ;  to  wainscote 
the  chamber  nigh  the  park,  over  the  bed ;  to  make  a  cer- 
tain small  oratory  in  it ;  to  repair  the  doors  and  windows 
of  the  same  chamber,  and  all  the  other  defects  of  the  king's 
court  at  Clarendon.    Clarendon,  December  7. 


The  sheriff  of  Surrey  is  to  build  a  gateway  with  a  chim- 
ney at  Guildford,  as  the  king  lately  enjoined  unto  master 
John  his  mason;  and  to  make  a  salsary  and  a  larder,  for 
the  king's  use,  under  one  roof ;  likewise  to  make  a  house 
to  store  the  king's  fire-wood ;  to  pave  the  king's  chapel,  the 
queen's  chapel,  the  king's  chamber  and  the  queen's  cham- 
ber there  ;  to  make  a  certain  house  for  a  stable  between 
the  king's  hall  and  kitchen ;  to  block  up  the  outer  and 
inner  doorway  of  the  chamber  under  the  oriol,  and  to 
make  a  door  from  the  king's  wardrobe  into  that  chamber 
under  the  oriol ;  to  make  a  small  house  to  heat  the  queen's 
food ;  and  two  pent-houses,  one,  to  wit,  from  the  chamber 

"  pastillos.  i  tabu! amentum. 

K  k 


of  Edward  the  king's  son  towards  the  kitchens,  and  an- 
other from  the  chamber  of  the  chaplains  towards  the 
kitchens ;  and  to  repair  all  the  other  houses  there  as  well 
of  the  almonry  as  others.    Guildford,  November  25. 


The  bailiff  of  Woodstock  is  ordered  to  pave  the  king's 
new  chapel  at  Woodstock,  by  the  advice  of  master  John  of 
Gloucester,  the  king's  mason ;  to  paint  the  king's  seat  in 
the  same  chapel,  as  the  king  enjoined  him;  likewise  to 
pave  the  queen's  chapel  there;  to  repair  the  passage  be- 
tween the  stair  of  the  king's  chamber  and  the  queen's 
lower  chamber,  and  all  other  houses  there;  to  pull  down 
and  rebuild  the  roof  of  the  chaplains'  chamber  there ;  to 
lengthen  the  queen's  stable  to  the  entrance  gate  into  the 
park ;  to  make  the  small  window  near  the  great  door  of  the 
hall  after  the  fashion  of  the  other  windows  of  the  same  hall; 
to  repair  Rosamund's  chamber  at  Evereswell  where  neces- 
sary ;  and  to  make  a  new  door  to  the  king's  cellar  in  place 
of  that  which  is  pulled  down.    Woodstock,  June  16. 

A  payment  to  John  Pollard  of  37s.  9 d.  for  making  nine 
thousand  tiles  to  repair  a  certain  hearth m  in  the  king's 
kitchen  at  Windsor.    Windsor,  June  22. 


The  constable  of  Marlborough  castle  is  ordered  to  build 
a  new  stable  in  Marlborough  castle,  where  the  old  one 
stood ;  to  put  two  large  glass  windows  in  the  two  windows 
of  the  king's  chamber  towards  the  west ;  a  glass  window 
in  the  queen's  small  wardrobe ;  and  glass  windows  in  the 
chamber  beside  the  king's  hall ;  to  remove  the  shingles  from 

m  astrum , 



the  roof  of  the  king's  great  kitchen  and  to  cover  it  with 
stone ;  to  make  a  louver11  over  the  same  kitchen,  and  cover 
it  with  lead ;  to  take  the  thatch  off  the  outer  chamber  in 
the  high  tower,  and  cover  it  with  the  shingles  of  the  said 
kitchen,  and  to  crest  it  with  lead ;  to  cover  the  angles  and 
crests  of  the  roof  on  the  high  tower  with  lead,  and  to  crest 
the  tresance  between  the  king's  chapel  and  the  stair  of  his 
chamber.    St.  Paul's,  London,  May  11. 

The  treasurer  and  chamberlains  of  the  Exchequer  are 
ordered  to  pay  Martin  de  Campo  Florido,  clerk  of  the  king's 
receipt,  and  master  John  of  Gloucester,  the  king's  mason, 
one  hundred  and  twenty-six  pounds,  seventeen  shillings 
and  eight-pence  half-penny ;  which  they  expended  by  the 
king's  order  in  repairing  the  king's  chimney  at  Westminster 
which  threatened  to  fall ;  and  in  repairing  the  conduit  of 
water  which  is  carried  under  ground  to  the  king's  lavatory 
and  to  other  places  there;  and  likewise  in  the  repair  of 
the  king's  houses  there ;  and  in  making  a  certain  conduit 
through  which  the  refuse  of  the  king's  kitchens  at  West- 
minster flows  into  the  Thames ;  which  conduit  the  king 
ordered  to  be  made  on  account  of  the  stink  of  the  dirty 
water  which  was  carried  through  his  halls,  which  was 
wont  to  affect  the  health  of  the  people  frequenting  the 
same  halls.    Westminster,  June  4. 

The  bailiff  of  Havering  is  ordered  to  wainscote  and  crest 
the  queen's  chapel  at  Havering,  and  to  well  earth  the 
flooring0  of  the  same  chapel;  to  make  alures  round  the 
same  chapel,  and  glass  windows  ;  and  to  place  a  Crucifix 
with  Mary  and  John  in  it.    Merton,  June  22. 

Richard  Fremantle  is  commanded  to  make  in  Windsor 
castle  between  the  almonry  and  the  turret  in  which  John 
Maunsel  used  to  sleep,  for  the  use  of  the  bishop  of  Laodicea, 
a  certain  pent-house-chamberp,  of  the  length  of  fifty  feet, 

"  fumerellum.  °  planchicium.  p  cameram  appenticiam. 


and  a  chimney  of  plaster  to  the  same,  and  a  certain  ward- 
robe  fifteen  feet  long.    Windsor,  August  16. 

The  king  to  the  sheriff  of  Surrey.  We  order  you  to 
pave  well  our  chamber,  the  queen's  chamber  and  the  cloister 
at  Guildford  ;  to  make  two  doors  and  a  bench  in  the  same 
cloister;  two  glass  windows  in  the  pent-house  which  is 
beside  the  queen's  little  meadow ;  to  complete  the  wall 
of  our  hall-porch ;  to  make  a  certain  wall  near  our  kitchen 
with  a  gateway  ;  to  repair  as  well  the  glass  as  other  win- 
dows of  our  hall  and  chapel  and  other  houses  there,  and 
likewise  the  gutters  of  the  same  houses,  and  the  roofs  of 
the  aforesaid  chapel,  of  the  pantry,  butlery,  and  all  our 
other  houses  there.    Guildford,  August  19. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  ordered  to  renew  the 
painting  of  the  hall  in  Winchester  castle,  and  the  painting 
of  the  chamber  and  table  of  the  queen  ;  to  repair  the  glass 
windows  of  the  king's  chapel  beside  his  chamber,  the 
gutters  of  the  chamber  of  the  chaplains,  and  a  pillar  in  the 
oriol  towards  the  queen's  chapel.    Winchester,  August  26. 

The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  commanded  to  repair  the 
painting  of  the  king's  chapel  and  chamber  at  Clarendon ;  to 
paint  the  images  of  the  same  chapel,  and  to  new  paint  and 
well  pave  the  queen's  chapel,  and  to  repair  the  windows  of 
the  same  chapel ;  he  is  also  to  joist  and  cover  with  lead 
the  queen's  tower.    Ludgershall,  September  10. 

Richard  Freemantle  is  ordered  to  build  a  certain  wall 
before  the  gateway  of  the  king's  garden  at  Windsor;  to 
remove  the  gardener's  house  there,  and  to  put  it  in  a  more 
fitting  place  towards  the  east,  and  to  cover  it  with  tile. 
Windsor,  October  6. 


The  same  is  commanded  to  make  glass  windows  on  each 
side  of  the  king's  seat  in  the  hall  at  Windsor,  with  certain 



figures,  which  the  king  enjoined  him  to  paint  in  them  :  and 
he  is  to  make  an  intercloseq  of  board  on  each  side  of  the 
great  altar  in  the  king's  chapel  at  Windsor,  with  proper 
doors  ;  and  he  is  to  paint  that  interclose  and  doors  as 
the  king  enjoined  him.    Woodstock,  December  14. 

The  sheriff  of  Surrey  is  commanded  to  make  at  the  head 
of  the  table  in  the  king's  hall  at  Guildford,  towards  the 
entry  of  the  king's  chamber,  a  certain  spurr  of  wood  ;  and 
to  paint  there  the  figure  of  St.  Edward,  and  the  figure  of 
St.  John  holding  a  ring  in  his  hand  ;  and  likewise  to  paint 
the  same  figures  on  the  wall  beside  the  king's  seat  in  the 
chapel  at  Guildford ;  and  to  cause  a  certain  figure  of  the 
Blessed  Mary  to  be  made  and  placed  in  the  queen's  chapel 
there.    Tower  of  London,  February  13. 

The  sheriff  of  Dorset  is  ordered  to  wainscote  the  king's 
chapel  and  the  queen's  chapel  at  Gillingham,  over  the 
altars  of  the  same  chapels ;  and  to  make  a  certain  bench8 
between  the  king's  hall  and  kitchen  to  arrange  the  king's 
dinner  on.    Winchester,  June  13. 


Aymon  Thurumbert  is  commanded  to  wainscote  the 
new  chamber  contiguous  to  the  queen's  chamber  in  Windsor 
castle,  like  the  king's  other  chambers  there  are  wainscoted ; 
and  to  paint  that  wainscote  of  a  green  colour  with  gold 
stars.    Merton,  December  23. 


The  king  to  the  bailiff  of  Kennington.  We  order  you 
to  make  a  certain  chimney  in  our  chamber  at  Kennington, 
and  to  cause  the  twelve  months  of  the  year  to  be  painted 
on  every  side  of  that  chimney.    Missenden,  December  16. 

q  interclusiim  ;  now  called  a  parclose.  r  espurrum.  *  scabelliam. 


The  constable  of  Winchester  castle  is  ordered  to  roof 
and  repair  the  king's  houses  in  the  great  tower,  the  Jews' 
tower,  and  in  the  tower  of  St.  Katherine,  and  the  principal 
chamber  of  the  donjon  which  was  wont  to  be  the  king's 
wardrobe,  and  the  houses  of  the  other  towers,  and  the 
king's  hall  and  chamber;  to  repair  a  certain  chamber  of 
two  stories  for  the  use  of  the  chaplains  •  to  paint  all  the 
doors  and  windows  of  the  king's  hall  and  chamber  with 
his  arms ;  to  make  a  certain  window  of  white  glass,  and  to 
cause  the  nativity  of  the  blessed  Mary  to  be  painted  in  it. 
Westminster,  February  11. 


The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  ordered  to  pull  down  the 
long  house  beside  the  great  gateway  of  the  manor  of 
Clarendon,  and  to  make  in  its  stead  a  chamber  with  a 
chimney,  and  an  outer  chamber  for  the  use  of  the  king's 
esquires ;  to  build  a  small  gate  nigh  the  same  gateway ; 
a  good  and  strong  prison ;  a  house  for  the  use  of  the  car- 
penters working  there  ;  and  a  chimney  in  the  chamber 
over  the  king's  cellar  in  the  rock  at  the  manor  aforesaid ; 
to  put  two  large  windows  in  the  chamber  of  Alexander ; 
four  Evangelists  in  the  glass  windows  of  the  king's  hall ;  to 
make  a  deer-leap  in  the  park  there ;  to  build  a  long  house 
of  which  a  pantry  and  butlery  may  be  made  for  the  queen's 
use  and  that  of  Eleanor  the  consort  of  Edward  the  king's 
eldest  son ;  a  kitchen  for  the  use  of  the  same  queen,  with 
a  certain  alure  between  that  kitchen  and  the  same  queen's 
chamber ;  a  certain  outer  chamber  to  the  chamber  of  the 
seneschal  of  the  aforesaid  queen ;  to  build  a  wall  of  stone 
and  lime  around  the  aforesaid  manor  where  the  wall  is 
deficient ;  to  lengthen  the  chamber  of  the  aforesaid  senes- 
chal, and  to  cover  the  queen's  chamber  with  lead  where 



necessary ;  and  to  repair  the  ancient  wall  and  all  the 
king's  other  houses  there.    Clarendon,  December  17. 

The  sheriff  of  Surrey  and  Sussex  is  commanded  to 
build  within  the  courtyard  of  the  king's  manor  of  Guildford 
a  certain  chamber  with  an  upper  story1,  and  a  chimney, 
wardrobe  and  outer  chamber,  and  a  certain  chapel  at 
the  head  of  the  same  chamber,  with  an  upper  story,  and 
glass  windows  befitting  the  same  chamber  and  chapel,  for 
the  use  of  Eleanor  the  consort  of  Edward  the  king's  eldest 
son ;  and  a  chamber  with  an  upper  story  and  chimney, 
outer  chamber,  and  glass  windows  befitting  the  same  cham- 
ber, for  the  use  of  the  knights  of  the  king's  consort,  A. 
queen  of  England;  and  to  make  a  new  pent-house  there, 
and  to  repair  and  improve  the  queen's  "  herbour"  there, 
as  the  king  enjoined  unto  William  Florentyn  his  painter. 
Westminster,  January  19. 


The  sheriff  of  Wiltshire  is  commanded  to  remake  anew 
the  spuru  in  the  king's  hall  at  Clarendon,  at  the  door 
on  the  south  side  of  the  same  hall ;  and  to  repair,  without 
delay,  the  aisles,  windows  and  oriols  of  the  same  hall, 
and  the  passages  from  the  outer  gate ;  to  make  a  new  glass 
window  in  the  king's  wardrobe;  to  repair  the  gutter 
between  the  queen's  wardrobe  and  the  chamber  of  the 
king's  chaplains,  and  the  stairs  of  the  rockx  nigh  the  king's 
wine  cellar,  &c.    Clarendon,  December  10. 

The  sheriff  of  Southampton  is  directed  to  build  an  oriol y 
between  the  new  chamber  and  the  queen's  chapel  in  Win- 
chester castle,  of  the  width  of  the  same  chamber,  and  a 
passage2  to  the  oriol  of  the  aforesaid  chapel  with  four 
glass  windows,  and  other  small  openings  of  glass ;  and  a 

1  stadio.         u  espoerun.  x  la  Roche.  y  auriolum.  2  aleiam. 


chimney  in  the  aforesaid  oriol  to  heat  the  queen's  victuals ; 
and  to  build  under  the  aforesaid  oriol  two  walls  from 
the  said  chamber  to  the  chapel  aforesaid,  and  a  gate  by 
which  carts  can  enter  and  go  out ;  and  two  offices  for  the 
pantry  and  butlery,  and  a  privy-chamber  beside  the  chamber 
aforesaid ;  to  widen  the  chimney  in  the  same  chamber  from 
one  window  to  the  other;  and  to  repair  the  "herbour,"  as 
the  king  enjoined  him  orally.   Winchester,  December  27. 

The  same  is  ordered  to  make  a  privy-chamber  beside 
Rosamund's  chamber  in  Winchester  castle;  another  to 
the  chamber  of  the  king's  chaplains ;  a  certain  gate  beside 
the  chapel  of  St.  Thomas  at  the  entrance  of  the  king's 
"  herbour ;"  to  put  four  glass  windows  in  the  queen's  new 
wardrobe ;  three  "  pomellos"  covered  with  lead  on  the 
hall  and  the  king's  wardrobe ;  to  wainscote  the  queen's 
wardrobe  aforesaid ;  to  carve  and  paint  an  image  of  St. 
Edward  and  place  it  over  the  door  of  the  king's  hall ;  to 
plaster  the  floor  {area)  of  the  queen's  chamber ;  to  make  a 
certain  privy-chamber  to  the  same  chamber,  in  the  fashion 
of  a  turret  with  a  double  vaultinga,  and  a  chimney  in  the 
same ;  to  renovate  the  paintings  of  the  frontals  before  the 
altars  in  the  king's  chapel,  and  all  the  other  paintings  of 
the  king's  houses  and  chapels  there.  Westminster,  July  26. 


The  sheriff  of  Northampton  is  ordered  to  complete  the 
chair  in  the  king's  hall  at  Northampton  castle  lately  begun, 
and  to  cause  it  to  be  carved  as  the  king  enjoined  him 
orally.    Westminster,  November  18. 

a  duplici  vousura. 




Henry  de  Pateshull  the  king's  treasurer  is  ordered  to 
cause  the  boarding  at  the  back  of  the  king's  seat  in  the 
chapel  of  St.  Stephen  at  Westminster,  and  the  boarding  at 
the  back  of  the  queen's  seat  on  the  other  side  of  the  same 
chapel,  to  be  painted  externally  and  internally  of  a  green 
colour ;  and  to  paint  beside  the  seat  of  the  same  queen  a 
certain  cross  with  Mary  and  John,  opposite  the  king's 
cross  which  is  painted  beside  the  king's  seat.  Winchester, 
February  7. 

The  same  is  ordered  to  cause  the  king's  great  chamber 
at  Westminster  to  be  painted  of  a  good  green  colour,  in 
the  fashion  of  a  curtain,  and  to  paint  in  the  great  gable  of 
the  same  chamber  that  verse b, 

Ke  ne  dune  ke  ne  tune,  ne  prent  ke  desire ; 

and  also  to  paint  the  king's  small  wardrobe  of  a  green 
colour  in  the  fashion  of  a  curtain  ;  so  that  the  king  at  his 
next  coming  there  may  find  the  aforesaid  chamber  and 
wardrobe  so  painted  and  ornamented.    Mere  well,  May  30. 


Odo  the  goldsmith  is  ordered  to  displace  without  delay 
the  painting  which  was  commenced  in  the  king's  great 
chamber  at  Westminster,  under  the  great  history  of  the 
same  chamber,  with  panels  containing  the  species  and 
figures  of  lions,  birds  and  other  beasts ;  and  to  paint  it  of  a 
green  colour  in  the  fashion  of  a  curtain,  so  that  that  great 
history  may  be  preserved  unhurt.    Windsor,  August  14. 

k  ludum. 

L  1 


H.  de  Pateshull  the  king's  treasurer  is  ordered  that  with 
the  marble  which  he  has  in  his  custody,  and  which  ought 
to  be  retained  for  the  use  of  Thomas  de  Multon,  he  do 
cause  to  be  made  becomingly  the  steps  before  the  altar  in 
the  chapel  of  St.  Stephen  at  Westminster ;  and  with  the 
rest  of  the  same  marble  to  make  the  steps  before  the  altar 
in  the  queen's  chapel  at  Westminster,  when  it  shall  be 
completed  ;  and  if  that  marble  should  not  be  sufficient 
for  both  works,  then  to  cause  those  steps  to  be  made  of 
painted  tile ;  he  is  likewise  to  cause  the  small  chapel  at 
Westminster  to  be  decently  paved  with  painted  tile,  and  to 
paint  at  the  back  of  the  king's  seat,  in  the  same  chapel, 
the  history  of  Joseph  ;  he  is  also  to  wainscote  well  and  to 
ornament  the  queen's  chamber,  and  the  wardrobe  under 
that  chamber ;  and  to  cause  a  window  of  white  glass  to  be 
made  and  placed  in  the  window  barred  with  iron  which  is 
in  the  farthest  chamber  of  the  same  wardrobe  ;  so  that  that 
chamber  may  not  be  so  windy0  as  it  used  to  be.  West- 
minster, February  10. 


Edward  Fitz-Otho  is  ordered  to  cause  the  small  wardrobe, 
in  which  the  king's  robes  hang,  to  be  wainscoted,  and  the 
privy-chamber  to  be  plastered ;  and  to  buy  good  plants  of 
pears,  and  deliver  them  to  the  constable  of  Windsor. 
Windsor,  February  12. 

The  same  is  ordered  to  board  the  privy-chamber  of  the 
chaplains  like  a  ship.    Windsor,  March  3. 





The  keepers  of  the  works  at  Windsor  are  ordered  to 
paint  the  Old  and  New  Testament  in  the  king's  chapel,  and 
to  wainscote  the  king's  cloister  there.    Bordeaux,  April  10. 

The  justices  of  Ireland  are  directed  to  cause  to  be  built 
in  Dublin  castle  a  hall  containing  one  hundred  and  twenty- 
feet  in  length  and  eighty  feet  in  width,  with  sufficient 
windows  and  glass  casements,  after  the  fashion  of  the  hall 
at  Canterbury ;  and  they  are  to  make  in  the  gable  over  the 
dais  a  round  window  thirty  feet  in  circumference ;  and  also 
to  paint  over  the  same  dais  a  king  and  a  queen  sitting  with 
their  baronage  ;  and  they  are  to  build  a  great  portal  at  the 
entry  of  the  same  hall.    Bordeaux,  April  24. 

The  archbishop  of  York  is  commanded  to  cause  the 
works  to  proceed,  as  well  in  winter  as  summer,  until  the 
king's  chapel  at  Windsor  be  finished  ;  and  to  cause  to  be 
made  there  a  high  wooden  roof  in  the  fashion  of  the  roof  of 
the  new  work  at  Lichfield,  so  that  it  may  appear  to  be 
stone-work,  with  good  wainscoting  and  painting;  and  to 
cover  that  chapel  with  lead ;  to  cause  four  gilded  images  to 
be  made  in  the  same  chapel,  and  to  put  them  in  the  places 
in  which  the  king  had  ordered  such  images  to  be  placed ; 
and  he  is  to  build  a  stone  turret  in  front  of  the  same  cha- 
pel in  which  three  or  four  bells  may  be  hung.  Bordeaux, 
August  20. 


The  keepers  of  the  works  at  Windsor  are  directed  to 
cause  the  high  chamber,  on  the  wall  of  the  castle  beside  the 
king's  chapel,  in  the  upper  bailey  of  the  castle,  to  be  wains- 
coted by  day  and  night,  so  that  it  may  be  ready  and  be- 
comingly wainscoted  by  Friday,  when  the  king  shall  come 


there,  with  radiated  and  coloured  boards,  and  that  nothing 
be  found  reprehensible  in  that  wainscote.  They  are  also 
to  make  a  white  glass  window  in  each  gable  of  the  same 
chamber ;  outside  the  interior  window  of  each  gable ;  so  to 
wit,  that  when  the  inner  windows  shall  be  closed  those 
glass  windows  may  appear  outside.  Westminster,  No- 
vember 24. 


Edward  Eitz-Otho  is  ordered,  as  he  would  avoid  the  ire 
and  indignation  of  the  king,  to  cause  to  be  made  without 
delay  a  certain  passaged  to  extend  from  the  round  lavatory6 
in  the  king's  court  at  Westminster  to  the  door  which  leads 
towards  the  chapel  of  St.  Stephen  there,  so  that  that  pas- 
sage may  be  ready  before  the  Nativity.  Marlborough, 
November  29. 

The  constable  of  the  tower  of  London  is  ordered  to 
deliver  to  Edward  Eitz-Otho  as  much  lead  as  shall  be 
necessary  to  cover  a  certain  great  porch  which  the  king  has 
directed  to  be  made  between  the  lavatory  and  the  door  en- 
tering into  the  smaller  hall  at  Westminster.  Earringdon, 
December  3. 

The  same  Edward  is  commanded  to  cause  that  porchf, 
which  is  to  be  such  as  may  become  so  great  a  palace,  to  be 
made  between  the  lavatory  before  the  king's  kitchens  and 
the  door  entering  into  the  smaller  hall :  so  that  the  king 
may  dismount  from  his  palfrey  in  it  at  a  handsome  frontg ; 
and  walk  under  it  between  the  aforesaid  door  and  the 
lavatory  aforesaid ;  and  also  from  the  king's  kitchen  and 
the  chamber  of  the  knights  ;  and  he  is  to  cover  it  with  the 
aforesaid  lead ;  and  to  take  care  that  he  has  so  many 
carpenters  and  workmen  for  this  purpose,  that  it  may  be 
wholly  finished  before  the  king's  coming,  to  the  king's 

d  aleam.  e  lotorio.  f  porticus.  ?  ad  honestam  frontem. 



knowledge,  otherwise  he  is  not  to  expect  the  king's  arrival 

Edward  of  Westminster  is  ordered  to  have  the  king's 
marble  seat  in  the  great  hall  at  Westminster,  and  likewise 
the  aqueduct,  ready  before  Easter.    St.  Alban's,  March  11. 

The  king  to  Edward  of  Westminster.  As  we  remember 
you  said  to  us  that  it  would  be  little  more  expensive  to  make 
two  brass  leopards  to  be  placed  on  each  side  of  our  seat  at 
Westminster,  than  to  make  them  of  incised  or  sculptured 
marble,  we  command  you  to  make  them  of  metal  as  you 
said;  and  make  the  steps  before  the  seat  aforesaid  of 
carved  stone.    Dumesley,  March  13. 


The  king  to  Edward  Eitz-Otho.  Since  the  privy-chamber 
of  our  wardrobe  at  London  is  situated  in  an  undue  and 
improper  place,  wherefore  it  smells  badly,  we  command  you 
on  the  faith  and  love  by  which  you  are  bounden  unto  us, 
that  you  in  no  wise  omit  to  cause  another  privy-chamber 
to  be  made  in  the  same  wardrobe  in  such  more  fitting 
and  proper  place  as  you  may  select  there,  even  though 
it  should  cost  a  hundred  pounds.  So  that  it  may  be  made 
before  the  feast  of  the  Translation  of  St.  Edward,  before  we 
shall  come  thither.  This,  however,  we  leave  to  be  done 
at  your  discretion.    Clarendon,  June  24. 


The  sheriff  of  York  is  ordered  to  cause  to  be  made  in 
the  chamber  of  the  archbishop  at  York,  in  which  the  king 
will  pass  the  night,  a  door  between  the  chimney  of  the 
same  chamber  and  the  queen's  chamber  there;  and  a 
privy-chamber  of  the  length  of  twenty  feet  through  the 


same  door,  with  a  deep  pith :  and  to  make  as  well  in  the 
king's  as  in  the  queen's  chamber  a  screen  between  the 
door  and  the  king's  bed,  and  the  bed  of  the  same  queen. 
Westminster,  October  31. 


The  sheriff  of  Nottingham  and  Derby  is  ordered  to  break 
without  delay,  the  wall  at  the  foot  of  the  king's  bed  in  the 
king's  chamber  at  Clipston,  and  to  make  a  certain  privy- 
chamber  for  the  king's  use,  and  cover  it  with  shingles. 
Westminster,  October  21. 


The  king  in  the  presence  of  master  William  the  monk 
of  Westminster,  lately  ordained  and  provided  at  Win- 
chester, for  making  a  certain  picture  at  Westminster,  in 
the  wardrobe  where  the  king  is  wont  to  wash  his  head,  of 
the  king  who  was  rescued  by  his  dogs  from  the  sedi- 
tion plotted  against  the  same  king  by  his  subjects  ;  con- 
cerning which  picture  the  king  has  sent  other  letters  to 
Edward  of  Westminster.  And  Philip  Luvel  the  king's 
treasurer  and  the  aforesaid  Edward  of  Westminster,  are 
ordered  to  pay  without  delay  to  the  same  master  William, 
the  expense  and  cost  of  making  the  same  picture.  Win- 
chester, June  30. 


Master  John  of  Gloucester,  the  king's  mason,  and  the 
wardens  of  the  works  at  Westminster  are  ordered  to 




supply  five  figures  of  kings  cut  in  free-stone,  and  a  certain 
stone  to  be  placed  under  the  feet  of  an  image  of  the  Blessed 
Mary,  to  the  wardens  of  the  works  of  the  church  of  St. 
Martin,  London,  for  the  same  works,  of  the  king's  gift. 
Westminster,  May  11. 




In  many  towns,  both  in  Erance  and  in  Germany,  will  be 
found  remains  of  houses  of  the  thirteenth  century  ;  usually 
they  have  undergone  much  alteration,  particularly  in  the 
ground  floor,  so  that  original  entrances  are  but  seldom 
extant.  It  would  seem,  however,  that  in  general  the 
ground  floor  was  used  for  store-houses,  or  in  some  cases 
shops,  and  in  Erance  was  often  built  with  an  open  arcade, 
and  that  the  chief  dwelling  room  was  on  the  first  floor. 
The  town  houses  of  this  century  are  usually  found  to  have 
narrow  fronts,  and  in  Germany  and  the  north  of  Erance 
high  gables ;  they  are  often  of  three  or  four,  and  some- 
times of  five  stories.  Examples  of  houses  of  this  kind 
may  be  found  at  Treves ;  one  large  one  of  transition  Ro- 
manesque style  is  not  far  from  the  Black  Gate,  and  remains 
of  lesser  ones  in  a  street  leading  northwards  from  the  old 
Rath-haus,  now  the  hotel  called  the  Rothes  Haus.  Some 
of  these  have  the  chimney  partly  projecting  from  the  centre 
of  the  front,  and  corbelled  off  in  an  ornamental  manner  a 
little  above  the  level  of  the  first  floor.  A  house  at  Laon, 
(in  the  Rue  des  Chanoines,)  which  is  very  late  in  this  cen- 
tury, and  has  been  but  little  altered,  appears  to  have  had 


a  cellar,  and  over  this  three  stories.  The  first,  or  principal 
floor,  has  a  range  of  three  windows,  each  of  two  square- 
headed  lights  ;  over  these  are  very  tall  crocketed  canopies 
of  much  elegance,  enclosing  tracery  of  an  early  character. 
In  this  room  is  a  fire-place,  the  only  one  of  which  traces 

Another  class  of  houses  of  this  century  is  that  of 
those  with  towers  ;  of  these,  probably  the  most  remarkable 
examples  remaining  are  at  Ratisbon.  In  that  city  are 
several  of  this  date,  more  or  less  complete.  The  most 
perfect  seems  to  be  that  in  the  Waller  Strasse,  which  street 
is  said  to  derive  its  name  from  the  family  to  whom  this 
house  belonged.  It  has  a  tall  narrow  front  of  four  stories ; 
all  the  lower  part  has  been  altered,  but  in  the  fourth  story 
the  two  original  windows  remain  ;  each  is  of  two  lights, 
separated  by  a  shaft,  the  one  has  trefoiled  arches,  while 
those  of  the  other  are  plain  pointed.  The  front  finishes 
with  a  cornice,  and  is  not  gabled  towards  the  street.  The 
tower  ranges  with  the  front  of  the  house,  and  is  tall  and 
slender.  It  has  no  less  than  nine  stories ;  in  each  is  a 
window  of  two  lights,  divided  by  a  shaft,  excepting  in  the 
third  story,  in  which  the  window  is  of  three  lights,  and 
the  ninth,  in  which  there  are  two  small  separate  windows. 
These  windows  are  of  the  most  studied  variety,  no  two 
being  quite  alike.  This  building  seems  to  be  quite  of 
the  end  of  the  century,  unless,  as  may  be  the  case,  some 
of  the  windows  are  later  insertions. 

An  example  of  considerably  earlier  date,  and  very  little 
altered,  remains  at  Gondorf  on  the  Moselle.  It  is  oblong 
in  plan,  with  a  tower  ranging  with  one  of  the  ends.  It  is 
of  four  stories  besides  the  space  in  the  roof,  and  has  stepped 
gables  at  each  end.  The  windows  of  the  ground  floor  and 
original  entrance  have  been  destroyed  or  altered ;  those  of 
the  first  and  second  floors  are  of  two  lights,  while  those  of 

m  m 



the  third  are  single  lights  trefoiled ;  at  one  end  is  a  small 
projecting  oriol.  There  seem  to  have  been  no  vaulted 
floors,  and  the  stairs  appear  to  have  been  of  wood,  and 
carried  in  flights  against  the  wall  at  the  end  at  which  the 
tower  stands.  The  tower  is  entered  by  doors  leading 
from  several  of  the  stories ;  the  windows  in  it  are  either 
mere  loops,  or  plain  square  openings.  Its  proportions  are 
tall  and  slender,  and  it  rises  considerably  above  the  house. 
There  are  remains  of  fire-places  on  the  ground  and  the  first 
and  second  floors.  It  measures  internally  about  42  ft.  by 
28  ft.  Houses  of  a  similar  character  are  said  to  exist  at 
Metza,  and  perhaps  at  Toulouse. 

Of  houses  of  the  first  class  there  are  remains  more 
or  less  considerable:  at  Beauvais,  Bourges,  Autun,  Puyb, 
Tournay  (?)  Limogesb,  St.  Yrieixc,  Chagny  (?)  Cluny,  &c. 

At  Laon,  besides  the  house  above  mentioned,  are  some 
considerable  remains  in  a  narrow  street  leading  out  of  the 
Rue  des  Chanoines ;  the  most  remarkable  portions  are  two 
immense  chimneys  with  circular  shafts. 

Of  thirteenth  century  houses  of  greater  size  and  less 
simple  plan,  but  few  remains  appear  as  yet  to  have  been 
noticed.  One  fine  example  exists  in  the  bishop's  palace  at 
Laon,  now  used  as  the  Palais  de  Justice.  The  most  striking 
part  of  this  is  a  large  building  of  three  stories ;  the  two 
lower  ones  have  only  small  pointed  windows,  but  the  upper, 
which  possibly  formed  a  great  hall,  has  two  sets,  each  of 
three  windows,  of  large  size ;  they  probably  contained 
tracery,  but  modern  casements  have  been  placed  in  every 
window.  On  the  north  side  the  two  lower  stories  have 
buttresses,  the  upper  three  semicircular  turrets,  one  at  each 

L'  Art  en  Allemagne  par  H.  Fortoul, 
vol.  ii.  p.  486. 

b  Annales  Archeologiques,  March, 

A  very  fine  example  is  engraved 

and  described  in  the  Annales  Archeo- 
logiques, March,  1846,  in  the  article 
"  Architecture  civile  du  Moyen  Age," 
by  F.  de  Verneilh. 








end,  and  the  third  between  them,  but  not  in  the  middle. 
On  the  south  side,  which  looked  into  a  court,  the  ground 
floor  has  an  open  arcade,  the  arches  supported  by  plain 
circular  columns.  The  ends  of  this  building  have  tali 
gables  ornamented  by  stiff  crockets.  To  the  west  of  this 
is  a  long  range  of  building,  also  of  three  stories,  with  plain 
square  loops  on  the  north  or  exterior  side.  East  of  the 
main  corps-de-logis  is  a  lesser  range  of  building,  gabled 
north  and  south,  i.  e.  at  right  angles  to  the  former ;  it 
appears  also  to  have  had  three  stories,  although  much  less 
lofty.    It  seems  to  be  of  somewhat  earlier  date. 

Near  Bree,  in  the  arron dissentient  of  Laval,  (Mayenne,) 
is  the  Manoir  de  la  Courbe,  which  is  said  to  date  from  the 
end  of  the  twelfth  or  the  earlier  part  of  the  thirteenth  cen- 
tury. It  is  described  as  having  a  court  entered  by  a  gate- 
tower;  at  the  bottom  of  the  court  is  the  main  building, 
flanked  by  a  tower  at  each  end,  one  round  the  other  poly- 
gonal. The  remains  of  two  large  halls  are  also  mentioned, 
the  one  about  52  feet  by  26,  the  other  about  62  feet 
by  30d. 


The  interior  of  the  gigantic  circular  keep-tower  of  the 
castle  of  Coucy  retains  many  fragments  of  the  painting 
with  which  its  walls  were  decorated,  and  these  appear  to 
be  coeval  with  the  building,  which  is  believed  to  have 
been  erected  by  Enguerrard  III. 

The  patterns  are  painted  on  a  coat  of  plaster,  of  a  pale 
buff  colour ;  the  markings,  imitative  of  the  joints  of  stone- 
work, are  in  white  lines,  with  a  central  line  of  red.  The 
patterns  are  of  a  chocolate  colour  (possibly  originally  red) 
with  darker  shading  and  a  white  border.    The  patterns 

d  Guide  du  Voyagcur  dans  la  France  Monumentale,  p.  589. 



are  varied  in  each  window  ;  one  of  the  most  perfect  is 
represented  in  the  cut,  which  is  of  one  of  the  windows  on 
the  first  floor. 


This  fire-place  is  on  the  ground  floor  of  a  house  of  late 
Romanesque  character,  (all  the  arches  circular,)  at  Carden, 
on  the  Moselle :  the  front  of  the  hood  is  formed  of  a  mas- 
sive beam  of  woode  plastered  over,  and  the  plaster  retains 
traces  of  red  paint.  The  upper  part  of  the  hood  is  so 
thickly  coated  with  plaster,  that  it  would  be  difficult  to 
ascertain  its  material.  The  chimney  shaft  is  carried  up  in 
the  wall,  projecting  only  a  little  on  the  outside ;  it  finishes 
about  8  ft.  from  the  ground  with  an  ornamental  corbelling, 
and  rises  square  above  the  roof,  but  only  3  to  4  ft.  above 
the  eaves. 


This  city  contains  a  number  of  examples  of  the  Domestic 
architecture  of  the  middle  ages,  some  of  which  are  as 
early  as  the  twelfth  century  ;  a  house  in  the  Rue  St.  Croix 
has  a  fine  window  of  two  lights  of  transition  Norman  cha- 
racter; the  arches  are  round,  but  the  mouldings  are  late,  and 
the  dripstone  has  the  tooth-ornament  under  it.  Another 
house  at  the  corner  of  a  street  has  an  arcade  on  the  front 
of  the  first  floor,  the  arches  of  which  are  round-headed, 
some  of  them  stilted ;  they  appear  to  be  of  this  period,  but 
may  possibly  be  work  of  the  sixteenth  century,  as  the 
imitation  of  old  work  at  that  period  in  France,  is  often  so 
good  as  to  render  it  difficult  to  distinguish  it. 

e  In  the  Annales  Archeologiques  for     ring  in  a  house  at  St.  Yrieix. —  (Haute 
March  1846,  a  similar  instance  of  a  man-  Vienne.) 
tel-piece  of  wood  is  mentioned  as  occur- 








S.e   — - 

li.  Bonei,  net. 









A  house  in  the  Rue  Briconnet  is  a  good  example  of  the 
early  part  of  the  thirteenth  century ;  it  has  a  gable  end  to 
the  street,  with  two  small  lancet  windows  in  the  gable ; 
under  these  on  the  principal  floor  is  a  range  of  three 
windows  of  two  lights,  with  pointed  arches,  and  a  con- 
nected dripstone  and  string  over  them ;  the  lights  them- 
selves are  square  topped,  and  have  a  transom  high  up  to 
fix  the  casement :  the  whole  of  this  work  appears  to  be 
original ;  the  lower  part  of  the  house  is  mutilated ;  another 
range  of  windows  on  the  side  of  the  house  is  very  similar 
to  those  just  described,  except  that  the  arches  are  carried 
on  shafts.  Another  house,  in  the  Rue  de  Rapin,  is  probably 
half  a  century  later  than  those  just  mentioned.  The  windows 
are  very  good,  with  trefoil  heads,  and  elegant  shafts,  at- 
tached to  a  narrow  pier,  or  solid  mullion,  at  the  back  of 
which  is  a  projection  in  the  stone- work,  with  a  hole  through 
it  for  the  bolt  to  fix  the  casement  or  shutter. 


The  city  of  Angers  abounds  in  remains  of  the  Domestic 
architecture  of  the  middle  ages,  some  of  which  are  of  the 
twelfth  and  thirteenth  centuries.  The  hospital  of  St.  John, 
built  about  1160  by  Henry  the  Second,  king  of  England,  and 
count  of  Anjou,  remains  for  the  most  part  in  the  same  state 
in  which  it  was  left  by  him.  The  hall  is  a  very  fine  build- 
ing :  it  is  divided  into  three  aisles,  by  very  light  pillars,  carry- 
ing Transition  arches  and  vaults  slightly  domical.  It  is  eight 
bays  in  length,  each  bay  has  a  separate  vault,  there  are 
therefore  twenty-four  of  these  small  domes,  but  they  are  so 
low  as  not  to  interfere  with  the  external  roof.  They  have 
bold  round  ribs  on  the  groins  of  the  eight  cells  into  which 
each  dome  is  divided,  as  at  the  cathedral. 



But  these  round  ribs  occur  only  in  the  eastern  part  of  the 
cathedral,  which  was  built  after  1200.  The  chapel  is  of 
precisely  the  same  character,  and  equally  good,  with  very 
light  pillars,  and  vaults,  as  in  the  hall.  The  windows  are 
all  round-headed.  The  doorways  are  also  round-headed, 
but  richly  moulded,  of  very  late  Norman  character.  The 
effect  of  the  chapel  has  been  much  injured  by  altering  the 
position  of  the  altar,  blocking  up  the  original  entrance,  and 
making  a  new  one  in  a  bad  situation.  The  east  end  is 
square,  but  the  vaults  are  arranged  so  as  to  give  the  effect 
of  an  apse.  The  cloister  is  good  late  Norman,  or  rather 
Transition  ;  two  sides  of  it  are  perfect. 

The  barn  is  a  very  fine  one  of  the  same  period.  It  is 
divided  into  three  aisles  by  two  ranges  of  round-headed 
arches,  on  double  shafts.  The  windows  are  in  couples,  with 
a  diamond-shaped  opening  in  the  head.  The  doorway  is 
round-headed,  and  opens  on  an  external  stone  staircase. 
The  mouldings  are  of  late  Norman  character.  The  cellar 
under  it  is  large,  but  very  plain,  with  a  good  plain  vault. 
The  other  buildings  of  the  monastery  are  modern. 

Near  the  hospital  is  the  building  called  the  Hospice,  of 
about  the  same  age,  which  still  retains  a  rich  late  Norman 

In  the  Rue  des  Penitentes  is  another  house  of  nearly  the 
same  period,  though  the  work  is  not  so  rich :  it  is  built  of 
a  dark-coloured  slate,  the  material  of  the  country,  with 
dressings  of  white  stone,  and  has  evidently  been  origi- 
nally cased  with  stone,  but  the  greater  part  of  the  casing 
has  been  stripped  off.  The  principal  windows  are  of  two 
lights  with  diamond-shaped  openings  in  the  head.  This 
house  is  of  three  stories,  with  the  gable  end  to  the  street. 









Merindol,  del. 


Scale,  20  feet  to  an  in;h      A.  B  line  of  section 

O  Jewitt,  «c. 







At  a  short  distance  from  the  church,  and  separated  from 
it  by  some  other  buildings,  is  the  kitchen,  commonly  called 
the  octagon  chapel  or  tower  of  Evrault.  It  is  a  very  good 
and  rare  example  of  a  kitchen  of  the  twelfth  century.  The 
general  form  resembles  that  at  Glastonbury,  but  this  one  is 
much  more  ancient.  The  ground-plan  is  octagonal.  The 
first  story  is  square,  raised  on  four  lofty  arches,  each  across 
two  sides  of  the  octagon  ;  above  the  square  story  the  plan  is 
again  octagonal,  but  much  reduced  in  size ;  the  octagon  is 
formed  by  squinches  across  the  angles  of  the  square,  and  on 
these  is  carried  the  spire,  terminating  in  an  open  smoke 
louvre.  There  are  shafts  in  the  angles  of  the  octagon  on 
the  ground,  alternately  high  and  low ;  the  low  ones  carry 
the  springing  of  the  arches  as  usual,  the  high  ones  are  con- 
nected with  the  points  of  the  arches,  to  which  they  serve  as 
buttresses :  the  four  large  arches  cross  the  alternate  angles, 
and  the  tall  shafts  being  in  these  angles,  are  connected  with 
the  points  of  the  arches  by  short  open  ribs.  Under  each  of 
the  large  arches  are  two  small  ones,  which  serve  as  the 
openings  of  the  fire-places,  each  of  which  had  its  separate 
chimney-flue,  the  lower  part  of  which  remains.  The  capi- 
tals are  of  late  Norman  character,  with  plain  foliage ;  the 
arches  are  quite  plain,  and  square  in  section.  The  smoke 
louvre  at  the  top  has  trefoiled  openings,  but  it  is  not  so  old 
as  the  rest,  and  may  be  of  the  fourteenth  century.  The 
exterior  has  a  series  of  small  apses,  with  a  shaft  in  each 
recess.  There  are  openings  into  the  spire.  Between  the 
top  of  the  apsidal  vaults  and  the  springing  of  the  spire  there 
is  an  interval  of  modern  masonry,  and  it  is  here  that  the 
shafts  of  the  chimneys  have  been  cut  off.  It  would  appear 
that  they  were  originally  carried  up  in  straight  shafts,  re- 



sembling  pinnacles  round  the  base  of  the  spire,  but  there  is 
no  positive  evidence  of  this.  The  flues  cannot  be  traced 
more  than  a  few  feet  from  the  lower  opening,  but  two 
artists  who  have  furnished  sections  of  the  building  have 
both  drawn  the  flues  straight  up  as  far  as  the  base  of  the 
spire,  where  they  appear  to  be  cut  off.  The  masonry  of 
the  spire  is  of  small  stones  of  an  early  appearance. 


This  town  has  several  early  Domestic  buildings  of  in- 
terest ;  the  building  called  "  Le  Cite"  is  partly  of  the 
twelfth  century,  though  on  Roman  foundations.  In  the 
Rue  Defarge  is  a  curious  house  of  the  twelfth  century, 
said  to  have  been  at  one  period  a  convent,  but  originally 
built  as  a  merchant's  house  ;  the  upper  story  is  nearly 
perfect,  with  a  cornice  enriched  with  the  square  billet 
ornament ;  under  this  is  a  range  of  four  windows,  under 
round-headed  arches,  with  the  scallop  ornament ;  the  jambs 
are  ornamented  with  a  peculiar  kind  of  zigzag,  and  a  shaft 
attached :  the  small  sub-arches  of  the  four  lights  are  also 
enriched  in  the  same  manner ;  the  three  central  shafts  are 
destroyed,  (restored  in  the  drawing;)  at  each  end  of  this 
front  is  a  small  doorway,  which  is  carried  down  below  the 
level  of  the  string  under  the  windows ;  the  approach  to 
these  doorways  appears  to  have  been  by  a  wooden  stair- 
case or  step  ladder,  as  there  are  no  marks  of  an  external 
staircase,  but  the  lower  story  of  the  house  has  been  mo- 
dernized. There  is  an  engraving  of  this  house  in  Didron's 
Annales  Archeologiques. 









This  little  town  is  of  singular  interest  to  the  antiquary, 
it  appears  to  have  been  nearly  deserted  from  the  time  that 
its  trade  was  ruined  in  the  fourteenth  century,  by  the 
building  of  the  two  neighbouring  Bastides  or  free  towns  of 
Libourne  and  St.  Toy.  Scarcely  a  house  seems  to  have 
been  built  since  that  time,  and  one  half  of  the  existing 
houses  are  more  or  less  in  ruins.  The  bishop's  palace  is  a 
very  fine  and  interesting  remain  of  the  character  of  the 
twelfth  century,  though  said  to  be  of  later  date.  Another 
house  has  portions  clearly  of  the  twelfth  century,  in  which 
is  a  very  fine  and  rich  window.  The  very  curious  subter- 
ranean church,  excavated  in  the  solid  rock,  and  divided 
into  nave  and  aisles,  and  chapels,  all  of  the  twelfth  cen- 
tury, does  not  belong  to  our  province. 


The  small  town  on  this  celebrated  mount  has  been  so 
repeatedly  destroyed  by  fire  that  no  portion  of  medieval 
work  remains,  but  among  the  Domestic  buildings  of  the 
abbey  are  some  valuable  portions  •  the  windows  of  the  li- 
brary are  particularly  good,  they  are  of  two  lights,  square- 
headed,  with  a  trefoil  of  plate  tracery  in  the  tympanum 
over  them.  The  wonderful  pile  of  building  called  the 
"  Merveille,"  may  almost  be  considered  as  of  a  Domestic 
character.  It  is  situated  nearly  on  the  summit  of  the  rock, 
and  is  of  three  stories ;  the  lowest  or  basement  consists  of 
a  long  series  of  dark  vaulted  chambers,  originally  used  for 
stables,  and  for  depositing  fire-wood  :  the  first  floor  or 
principal  story  consists  of  two  very  fine  halls,  each  divided 
into  three  parts,  like  nave  and  aisles  ;  one  is  called  the 
Hall  of  the  Knights,  the  other  the  Refectory  of  the  Monks, 
the  latter  is  of  a  somewhat  lighter  character  than  the 

n  n 


former,  but  there  are  not  many  years'  difference  between 
any  parts  of  this  magnificent  building.  Over  the  Refec- 
tory is  the  dormitory,  and  over  the  Hall  of  the  Knights  is 
the  cloister,  which  is  thus  nearly  the  highest  point  of  the 
whole  structure,  and  is  about  three  hundred  feet  above  the 
level  of  the  sands.  This  cloister  has  an  inscription  cut  in 
the  wall  recording  its  completion  in  1226;  this  was  the  last 
part  finished,  the  crowning  work  of  the  whole  glorious  pile, 
but  the  whole  was  probably  built  within  thirty  or  forty  years 
of  that  time.  In  each  of  the  halls  are  two  fine  fire-places. 
The  whole  is  of  a  half  monastic  half  Domestic  character. 


This  city  contains  many  remains  of  medieval  Domestic 
architecture ;  (the  magnificent  choir  of  the  cathedral,  with 
the  ancient  nave  called  the  Basse-CEuvre,  do  not  come  within 
the  sphere  of  the  present  work.)  Among  the  houses  is  one 
of  the  end  of  the  thirteenth  century,  which  affords  a  re- 
markably fine  example  of  a  facade  of  a  town  house  of  that 
period,  the  gable  end  to  the  street,  with  three  windows, 
having  pointed  arches,  with  two  lights  under  each,  the 
lights  trefoil-headed,  and  having  a  pierced  trefoil  of  bar- 
tracery  over  them.  These  windows  are  surmounted  by 
pyramidal  canopies,  with  crockets  and  finials,  and  a  crock* 
eted  string  continued  horizontally.  The  lower  part  of  the 
house  is  modernized. 


In  Italy  there  are  numerous  examples  of  the  Domestic 
architecture  of  the  thirteenth  century,  but  the  author  has 
not  been  able  to  procure  any  accurate  account  of  them, 
and  the  limits  of  this  work  obviously  preclude  the  pos- 
sibility of  entering  into  much  detail  on  the  remains  of 
other  countries. 



DOL.     12th  century. 




No.  I. 

The  London  Assise  of  1189  from  the  11  Liber  de  Antiquis  Legibus" 

"  Hie  subnotatur  quomodo  procedendum  sit  in  civitate  in  placito, 
quod  vocatur  Assisa. 

Anno  Domini  M°.  C°.  lxxxix.,  scilicet,  primo  anno  regni  illustris 
Regis  Ricardi,  existente  tunc  Henrico  filio  Aylewini  Maiore,  qui  fuit 
primus  Maior  Londoniarum,  provisum  fuit  et  ordinatum  per  discretos 
viros  Civitatis  ad  contentiones  pacificandas,  que  quandoque  oriuntur 
inter  vicinos  in  civitate  super  clausturis  inter  terras  eorum  factis  vel 
faciendis  et  rebus  aliis ;  ita  quod,  secundum  quod  tunc  provisum  fuit 
et  ordinatum,  debent  tales  contentiones  pacificari.  Dicta  vero  pro- 
visio  et  ordinatio  vocata  est  Assisa. 

Ad  quam  assisam  prosequendam  et  ad  effectum  producendam  electi 
sunt  xii  viri  de  civitate  in  pleno  Hustingo  et  ibidem  jurati  quod  ad 
illam  exequendam  fideliter  intendent,  et  ad  summonitionem  Maioris 
venient,  nisi  causa  rationabili  sint  impediti.  Necesse  est  tamen  quod 
major  pars  predictorum  xii  virorum  intersint  cum  Maiore  ad  pre- 
dictum  negotium  exequendum. 

Sciendum  est  quod  qui  petit  assisam  debet  earn  petere  in  pleno 
Hustingo,  et  Maior  assingnabit  ei  diem  infra  illos  octo  dies,  quod  per 
predictos  xii  viros  vel  per  maiorem  partem  illorum,  sicut  predictum 
est,  assisa  ilia  terminetur. 

Si  vero  Hustingus  non  sedeat,  ut  tempore  quo  sunt  Nundine  Sanc- 
ti  Botulfi,  et  tempore  messium,  et  tempore  quo  Nundine  sunt  apud 
Wyntoniam,  et  aliquis  habeat  necesse  ad  dictam  assisam  petendam, 
gratis  ei  debet  concedi  a  Maiore,  aliquibus  de  civibus  cum  Maiore 
presentibus,  et  terminari,  sicut  predictum  est,  per  predictos  xii  viros 
juratos  vel  per  majorem  partem  illorum,  et  semper  in  presentia 



Predicta  vero  provisio  et  ordinatio,  que  Assisa  vocata  est,  talis  est, 
ut  subnotatur. 

Quando  contigit  quod  duo  vicini  voluerint  hospitare  inter  se  de 
lapide,  quilibet  eoruni  debet  prebere  pedem  et  diinidium  de  terra  sua 
et  sic  construent  communi  custo  murum  lapideum  inter  se  spicitudine 
trium  pedum  et  altitudine  sexdecim  pedum.  Stillicidium  autem  inter 
se,  si  voluerint,  facient  communi  custo  ad  aquam  de  domibus  suis  re- 
cipiendam  et  conducendam,  sicut  melius  viderint,  expedire.  Si  vero 
noluerint,  potest  quilibet  eorum  per  se  facere  stillicidium  ad  aquam 
stillantem  de  domo  sua  recipiendam  super  terram  suam  propriam, 
nisi  illam  possit  in  vicum  regium  perducere. 

Possunt  etiam,  si  in  unum  consenserint,  predictum  murum  com- 
muni custo  exaltare  quantum  voluerint;  et  si  contigerit  quod  qui- 
dam  velit  murum  ilium  exaltare,  alter  vero  non,  bene  licet  volenti 
super  pede  suo  et  dimidio,  quantum  voluerit,  exaltare  et  super  partem 
suam  edificare  sine  dampno  alterius,  de  proprio  custo  suo ;  et  aquam 
stillantem,  recipiet,  sicut  predictum  est. 

Et  si  ambo  voluerint  in  muro  arcus  habere,  fiant  arcus  in  utraque 
parte  profunditatis  tantummodo  unius  pedis,  ita  quod  spissitudo  muri 
inter  arcus  sic  continet  unum  pedem.  Si  autem  unus  voluerit  arcum 
habere,  alter  vero  non ;  tunc  ille  qui  arcum  habere  voluerit,  inveniet 
liberam  petram  et  illam  excidi  faciet,  et  arcus  de  communi  custo 

Et  si  aliquis  velit  de  lapide  hospitare  per  assisam,  et  vicinus  ejus 
paupertate  coactus  non  poterit  vel  forsitan  noluerit,  tunc  prebere 
debet  per  assisam  volenti  hospitare  tres  pedes  de  terra  sua,  et  alter 
faciet  murum  super  terram  illam  proprio  custo  suo  spissitudinis  trium 
pedum  et  altitudinis  sexdecim  pedum  ;  et  ille  qui  terram  prebet,  debet 
habere  dimidium  murum  absolutum,  et  desuper  pannam  suam  ponere 
et  edificare.  Et  facient  stillicidia  ad  aquam  de  domibus  suis  stillan- 
tem recipiendam  et  conducendam  sicut  predictum  est.  De  muro 
vicinorum  communi  custo  constructo  semper  autem  licet  volenti  par- 
tem suam  proprio  custo  exaltare  sine  dampno  alterius.  Si  vero  arcus 
habere  voluerint,  fiant  in  parte  utraque,  sicut  predictum  est.  Sed 
tamen  ille,  qui  invenerit  terram,  inveniet  liberam  petram  et  illam  ex- 
cidi faciet,  et  alter  de  proprio  custo  suo  illam  assedeat. 

Hec  autem  assisa  non  conceditur  alicui  per  quod  husseria,  introi- 
tus  vel  exitus,  vel  schopa  ad  nocumentum  vicini  sui  extrecietur  vel 

Conceditur  etiam  hec  assisa  qui  illam  petierit  de  terra  vicini  sui, 
licet  ilia  fuerit  hospitata,  si  non  fuerit  hospitata  de  lapide. 



Si  vero  aliquis  habeat  proprium  murum  lapideum  super  terrain 
suam  propriam,  altitudinis  sexdecim  pedum,  vicinus  ejus  debet  facere 
stillicidium  sub  severunda  domus,  que  sita  est  super  murum  ilium, 
et  in  illo  aquam  stillantem  de  dicta  domo  recipere,  et  illam  conducere 
super  terram  suam  propriam,  nisi  illam  conducere  possit  in  vicum 
regium,  et  nicliil  tamen  habere  in  predicto  muro,  quando  edificaverit 
juxta  murum  ilium.  Et  si  non  edificaverit,  semper  tamen  debet 
aquam  stillantem  de  domo  super  murum  ilium  edificata  super  terram 
suam  recipere  et  conducere  sine  dampno  illius  cujus  mums  est. 

Item  nullus  illorum,  qui  habent  communem  murum  lapideum  inter 
se  constructum,  potest  nec  debet  aliquid  de  parte  sua  illius  muri 
prosternere  vel  attenuare,  nec  in  ilia  arcus  ponere  sine  assensu  et 
voluntate  alterius. 

Item  de  cameris  necessariis,  que  sunt  in  domibus  civium,  ita 
statutum  est  et  ordinatum,  quod  fovea  in  tali  camera  facta,  si  vallata 
est  muro  lapideo  debet  apertio  dicte  fovee  distare  spacio  duorum 
pedum  et  dimidii  a  terra  vicini  sui,  licet  habeat  inter  se  murum  com- 
munem. Si  autem  non  sit  muro  vallata,  debet  distare  per  spatium 
trium  pedum  et  dimidii  a  terra  vicini  sui.  Et  super  talibus  foveis 
assisa  prebetur  et  conceditur  unicuique  qui  earn  petierit,  et  tarn  de 
antiquis  quam  de  novis,  nisi  facte  fuissent  ante  provisionem  et  ordina- 
tionem  predictam,  que  facta  fuit  anno  primo  regni  Kegis  Eicardi, 
sicut  predictum  est ;  ita  quod  per  visum  predictorum  xii  virorum,  vel 
per  maiorem  partem  illorum  discussum  sit  si  tales  fovee  rationabiliter 
facte  sint  an  non. 

Item  si  aliquis  habuerit  fenestras  versus  terram  vicini  sui,  licet 
fuerit  in  seisinam  de  visu  predictarum  fenestrarum  per  longum  tem- 
pus  et  etiam  si  predecessores  sui  fuerunt  in  seisinam  de  predictis 
fenestris,  tamen  bene  potest  vicinus  suus  visum  illarum  fenestrarum 
opturare,  edificando  ex  opposito  illarum  fenestrarum,  vel  ponendo 
ibidem  super  terram  suam,  sicut  melius  viderit  sibi  expedire ;  nisi 
ille  qui  habet  fenestras  possit  ostendere  aliquid  scriptum,  per  quod 
ille  vicinus  non  poterit  visum  illarum  fenestrarum  opturare. 

Item  si  aliquis  habeat  corbellos  in  muro  vicini  sui,  qui  murus  totus 
est  predicti  vicini,  ille  non  potest  predictos  corbellos  amovere,  ut  illos 
in  aliquo  alio  loco  predicti  muri  ponat,  nisi  assensu  illius,  cujus 
murus  est,  nec  plures  corbellos  quam  antea  habuit,  in  predicto  muro 

Sciendum  est  quod  si  aliquis  edificet  juxta  tenementum  vicini  sui 
et  visum  sit  dicto  vicino  ilium  injuste  et  ad  dampnum  tenementi  sui 
ibidem  edificare,  bene  potest  edificationem  illam  impedire,  datis  vadio 



et  plegio  Vicecomitibus  Civitatis  de  prosequendo ;  et  tunc  cessabit 
ilia  edificatio  quousque  per  xij  viros  predictos  vel  per  maiorem  partem 
illorum  discussum  sit,  si  edificatum  fuerit  injuste  vel  non.  Et  tunc 
necesse  est  ut  ille,  cujus  edificatio  impeditur,  petat  assisam. 

Die  auteni  statuto  et  xij  viris  predictis  sunimonitis,  debet  Maior 
Civitatis  cum  predictis  viris  super  tenementa  illorum  inter  quos  as- 
sisa  petitur,  accedere,  et  ibidem  secundum  visum  predictorum  xij  vi- 
rorum  aut  maioris  partis  illorum,  auditis  hinc  hide  querimonia  con- 
querentis  et  responso  adversarii  sui,  illud  negotium  terminare. 

Potest  autem  uterque  pars  ad  diem  statutum  se  assoniare,  et  ha- 
bebunt  diem  a  die  ilia  in  quindenam  in  eodem  loco. 

Si  vero  pars  conquerens  fecerit  defaltam,  adversarius  suus  recedet 
sine  die,  et  plegii  conquerentis  in  misericordia  vicecomitum.  Si 
autem  ille,  de  quo  querimonia  facta  fuerit,  fecerit  defaltam,  nichilo- 
minus  procedet  assisa  et  per  considerationem  predictorum  xii  vi- 
rorum  vel  per  maiorem  partem  illorum ;  et  quod  per  illos  judicatum 
fuerit  debet  per  vicecomites  illi  qui  fecit  defaltam  intimari,  ut  quod 
judicatum  fuerit  infra  xl  dies  proximo  sequentes  ad  effectum  perdu- 

Et  sciendum  est  quotiens  predictum  judicium  infra  xl  dies  non 
fuerit  perfectum  et  super  hoc  querimonia  facta  fuerit  Maiori  Lon- 
doniarum,  tunc  debent  duo  viri  de  assisa  vel  tres  per  preceptum 
Maioris  ibidem  accedere,  et  si  viderint  quod  ita  sit,  tunc  erit  ille 
contra  quern  assisa  processit  in  misericordia  vicecomitis  et  vicecomes 
proprio  custu  ipsius  illud  judicium  statim  perducere  ad  effectum 

Item  si  quis  habet  murum  inter  se  et  vicinum  suum  construetum, 
in  summitate  muri  panha  sua  et  meremio  suo  totum  coopertum,  licet 
vicinus  suus  habeat  in  predicto  muro  corbellos  vel  trabes  ad  susten- 
tandum  solarium  suum,  vel  etiam  arcus  sive  almaria,  qualicunque 
modo  ipse  vicinus  ille  habuerit  in  predicto  muro,  vel  ex  concessione 
illius  qui  murum  habet  coopertum  seu  antecessoris  sui  vel  etiam  illis 
ingnorantibus,  tamen  nichil  amplius  potest  in  predicto  muro  exigere 
nec  habere  quam  habet  in  seisinam,  sine  assensu  illius  qui  murum 
habet  coopertum,  et  debet  recipere  aquam  stillantem  de  domo  super 
murum  edificata  sub  severunda  dicte  domus,  sicut  predictum  est  in 
hoc  libro,  et  conducere  proprio  custu  suo. 

Item  si  quis  habet  duas  partes  unius  muri  et  vicinus  habeat  nisi 
tertiam  partem,  tamen  ille  vicinus  potest  super  partem  suam  pannam 
suam  ponere  et  editicare  ita  libere  sicuti  ille  qui  habet  duas  partes 
muri  illius ;  et  eodem  modo  debent  fieri  stillicidia  inter  ipsos,  sicut 



prenotatum  est  in  hoc  libro  de  illis  qui  habent  inter  se  muram  in 
toto  communem,  sed  tamen  quod  ilia  pars  sit  altitudinis  xvi  pedum. 

Item  sciendum  est  quod  predicta  assisa  non  procedit,  nisi  testifi- 
catum  fuerit  quod  ille  versus  quern  assisa  petitur,  fuerit  summonitus. 
Et  si  testificatum  fuerit,  tunc  apparente  petente  assisam  et  xii  viris 
de  assisa  vel  maiore  parte  illorum  cum  Maiore  Civitatis  procedat  as- 
sisa, si  ipse  summonitus  venerit  an  non.  Potest  tamen  ipse  assoniare 
se  ad  predictam  diem  et  habebit  diem  usque  ad  quindenam,  sicut  pre- 
dictum  est. 

Item  sciendum  est  quod  si  testificatum  fuerit  per  vicecomites  quod 
ille  versus  quern  assisa  petitur  non  fuerit  in  civitate  ;  tunc  eodem  die 
remanet  assisa,  et  dicetur  per  vicecomites  illis,  qui  in  tenemento  ma- 
nent,  de  quo  assisa  petitur,  quod  ille,  cujus  tenementum  est,  sit  pre- 
monitus  ut  veniat  a  die  ilia  in  quindenam,  et  tunc,  si  venerit,  an  non 
venerit,  nec  se  assoniaverit,  procedat  assisa. 

Item  si  contingat  quod  homines  de  assisa  non  venerint  super  ter- 
rain, de  qua  assisa  petitur,  per  aliquod  impedimentum,  tunc  necesse 
erit  ut  ilia  assisa  de  novo  petatur  vel  in  Hustingo,  vel  illo  modo,  quo 
pro  diversitate  temporum  fieri  solet,  sicut  in  hoc  libro  prenotatur. 
Si  ipsi  autem  super  terram  venerint,  presentibus  partibus  litigantium, 
et  maior  pars  xii  virorum  absens  fuerit,  licet  tunc  assisa  remaneat, 
possunt  tamen  continuare  diem  ilium  usque  in  crastinum  vel  ad  quern 
diem  voluerint  infra  quindenam  sequentem. 

Memorandum,  quod  temporibus  antiquis  major  pars  civitatis  hos- 
pitata  fuit  de  lingno,  et  domus  cooperte  de  stramine  et  stipula,  et 
de  hujusmodi  coopertura ;  ita  quando  aliqua  domus  igne  fuerit  accensa, 
maxima  pars  Civitatis  illo  ingne  fuit  combusta,  sicut  contingebat  anno 
primo  regni  Hegis  Stephani,  ut  in  cronicis  in  hoc  libro  prescriptis 
notatur,  scilicet,  quod  de  ingne,  qui  accensus  fuit  ad  pontem  Londo- 
niarum,  combusta  fuit  ecclesia  Sancti  Pauli,  et  deinde  processit  ille 
ignis  comburendo  domus  et  edificia  usque  ad  ecclesiam  Sancti  de- 
mentis Danorum.  Postea  multi  cives  ad  evitandum  tale  perieulum 
pro  posse  suo  edificaverunt  in  fundis  suis  unam  domum  lapideam 
spiscis  tegulis  coopertam  et  munitam  contra  sevitiam  ignis,  uncle 
sepe  contingebat  quod,  quando  ignis  accensus  fuerit  in  Civitate  et 
multa  edificia  vastaverit  et  pervenerit  ad  talem  domum,  non  potens 
ille  aliquid  nocere,  ibidem  remansit  extinctus,  sic  quod  multe  domus 
vicinorum  per  illam  domum  ab  igne  fuerunt  omnino  salvate. 

Ideo  in  predicta  ordinatione,  que  assisa  vocatur,  ordinatum  fuit  et 
provisum,  ut  Cives  libenti  animo  hospitarent  de  petra,  quod  unus- 
quisque,  qui  habuerit  murum  lapideum  super  terram  suam  propriam 



altitudinis  xvi  pedum,  ilium  possideat  ita  libere  et  digne,  sicut  in  hoc 
libro  predictum  est,  videlicet,  quod  vicinus  suus  semper  debet  recipere 
aquam  de  domo  super  murum  ilium  edificata  super  terram  suam,  et 
illam  conducere  proprio  custu  suo.  Et  si  voluerit  bospitare  juxta  dic- 
tum murum,  debet  stillicidium  suum  sub  severunda  dicte  domus 
facere  ad  aquam  recipiendam,  ita  quod  dicta  domus  remaneat  secura 
et  defensibilis  contra  sevitiam  ignis  advenientis,  et  sic  per  earn  multe 
domus  vicinorum  possunt  salvari  et  a  violencia  ingnis  indempnes  con- 

Si  quis  voluerit  murum  totum  super  terram  suam  propriam  edifi- 
care,  et  vicinus  suus  petat  adversus  eum  assisam,  in  electione  illius 
erit,  aut  communicare  construendo  communem  murum  inter  ipsos, 
aut  edificare  murum  super  terram  suam  propriam,  et  ilium  habere  et 
possidere  ita  libere  et  digne,  sicut  predictum  est.  Potest  tamen  vici- 
nus suus,  si  voluerit,  juxta  predictum  murum  alium  talem  murum 
edificare  et  ejusdem  altitudinis.  Et  tunc  quidem  fient  stillicidium 
aut  stillicidia  inter  ipsos  eodem  modo,  sicut  predictum  est  de  communi 

Memorandum,  quod  quotiens  viri  de  assisa  venerint  super  terram 
de  qua  assisa  petitur,  partibus  litigantium  presentibus,  semper  debet 
unus  de  predictis  exigere  versus  quern  assisa  petitur,  si  sciat  aliquid 
dicere  per  quod  assisa  debeat  remanere.  Et  si  dixerit  quod  non, 
statim  procedit  assisa.  Si  autem  dixerit  se  habere  cartam  ipsius,  qui 
petit  assisam  vel  alicujus  antecessoris  sui,  et  illam  proferat,  ilia  sta- 
tim allocetur  ei.  Set  si  dicat  quod  ipse  habebit  illam  cartam  ad  diem 
et  terminum,  tunc  dabitur  ei  dies  ad  quindenam,  ad  quern  diem  po- 
terit  se  assoniare  et  habebit  diem  usque  ad  aliam  quindenam.  Ad 
quam  diem,  si  proferat  illam  cartam,  allocabitur  ei,  et  si  ad  predictum 
diem  non  venerit,  seu  venerit  et  cartam  non  produxerit,  statim  sine 
ulteriori  dilatione  procedat  assisa. 

Memorandum  quod  hec  assisa  omnibus  modis  ut  prenotatur  in  hoc 
libro,  procedit  et  agendo  et  defendendo  tarn  versus  illos  qui  sunt  infra 
etatem  quam  versus  alios  qui  sunt  de  plena  etate ;  ita  quod  propter 
tenerem  etatem  alicujus  assisa  predicta  non  impeditur.  Set  quia 
talis  non  habet  discretionem  quod  sciat  agere  vel  defendere  in  aliquo 
placito,  necesse  est  ut  custos  illius  et  ipse  conjunctim  submoneantur, 
ita  quod  custos  suus  omnino  respondeat  pro  eo  omnibus  modis,  quibus 
placitaret,  si  causa  ilia  esset  sua  propria,  et  tunc  quod  hide  factum 
fuerit  per  judicium  sine  reclamatione  illius,  qui  fuerit  infra  etatem, 
quando  ad  etatem  pervenerit,  firmum  et  stabile  permanebit. 

Item  si  quis  fecerit  pavimentum  in  vico  regio  ad  nocumentum  Ci- 



vitatis  et  vicini  sui  injuste,  bene  potest  ille  vicinus  illud  prohibere  per 
ballivos  Civitatis,  et  ita  remanebit  quousque  per  viros  de  assisa  sit 
discussum  et  terminatum. 

Et  sciendum  quod  non  pertinet  ad  viros  de  assisa  ad  emendam  ali- 
quam  occupationem,  de  qua  aliquis  habuerit  pacificam  seisinam  per 
unum  annum  et  unum  diem. 

London  Assise  of  1212  from  MS.  Add.  (Brit.  Mus.)  14,252, 
fo.  133  b  to  134  b. 

Quedam  consider atio  facta  per  consilium  proborum  virorum,  factum 
ad  sedandam  iram  et  pacificandam  civitatem,  et  contra  incendium  cum 
Dei  adjutorio  muniendam. 

In  primis  consiliunt  quod  omnes  scotale  defendantur,  nisi  de  illis 
qui  habuerint  licentiam  per  commune  consilium  civitatis  apud  Giide- 
halT.  preter  eos  qui  volunt  edificare  de  petra  ut  civitas  sit  secura. 
Ita  quod  id  quod  hide  exibit  tradatur  duobus  probis  hominibus  et  per 
eos  ponatur  in  emendationem  edificii.  Et  quod  nullus  pistor  forniat, 
vel  braciatrix  braciat,  de  nocte,  neque  de  arundine,  vel  stramine,  vel 
stipula,  nisi  tantum  de  bosco. 

De  carpentariis. 

Item  carpentarii  non  capiant  nisi  tres  denarios  et  conredium  in  die, 
vel  quatuor  denarios  et  obolum  sine  conredio  pro  omnibus. 

De  cementariis  et  aliis  operariis. 

Item  cementarii  et  tegularii  capiant  idem  pretium.  Servdentes 
autem  predictorum  cementariorum  et  tegulatorum  accipiant  tres  obo- 
los  cum  conredio  vel  tres  denarios  pro  omnibus.  Sculptores  lapidum 
liberorum  duos  denarios  et  obolum  cum  conredio,  vel  quatuor  denarios 
pro  omnibus.  Item  dealbatores  et  luti  appositores,  et  torchiatores, 
duos  denarios  cum  conredio,  vel  tres  denarios  et  obolum  pro  omnibus. 
Servientes  illorum  tres  obolos  cum  conredio,  vel  duos  denarios  et  obo- 
lum pro  omnibus.  Eodiatores,  et  qui  operantur  cum  civeriis,  tres 
obolos  cum  conredio,  vel  duos  denarios  et  obolum  pro  omnibus. 

o  o 



De  coquinis. 

Item,  consulunt  quod  omnes  coquine  super  Tamisiam  dealbeutur 
et  plastrieutur  intus  et  extra,  et  omuia  iutus  claustra,  et  diversoria 
pouantur  omniuo,  ita  quod  non  rernaueat  nisi  simpliciter  domus  et 

De  Mis  qui  edificare  volunt. 

Quicumque  edificare  voluerit,  videat  sicut  se  et  sua  diligit,  quod 
non  cooperiat  de  arundine,  nec  de  junco,  nec  de  aliquomodo  straminis 
neque  stipula,  nisi  sit  de  tegula,  vel  cindula,  vel  bordo,  vel  si  contin- 
git  de  plumbo,  aut  et  extra  detorchiato  infra  civitatem  et  Portsokna. 
Item  omnes  domus  que  usque  nunc  sunt  cooperte  arundine  vel  junco 
qui  possint  plastriari  plastrieutur  infra  octo  dies,  et  que  infra  termi- 
num  ita  facte  non  fuerint,  per  Aldermannum  et  legales  homines  de 
visneto  prosternantur. 

Omnes  domus  que  sunt  proxime  domibus  lapideis  in  Eoro  que 
sunt  de  ligno,  unde  domus  lapidee  vel  Forum  sit  in  periculo,  per 
visum  majoris  et  vicecomitum,  et  proborum  virorum  civitatis  salve 
emendentur,  aut,  sine  omni  exceptione  cujuscumque  sint,  proster- 

De  excubiis  et  hits  qui  vigilant. 

Excubie  et  qui  vigilant  de  nocte  ad  civitatem  custodiendam  exeant 
per  diem  et  redeant  per  diem,  vel  illi  a  quo  missi  fuerint  sint  in  mise- 
ricordia  civitatis  de  xl.  solidis.  Et  quod  omnes  domus  in  quibus  for- 
nietur  vel  bracietur  dealbentur  et  plastrientur  intus  et  extra,  ut 
salvum  sint  contra  incendium. 

De  operariis  qui  locandi  sunt. 

Omnes  operarii  et  qui  locandi  sunt  si  hec  predicta  non  servaverint, 
qui  de  civitate  sint  et  de  Portsokene  et  id  non  teneant,  tota  terra  sua 
et  domus  et  catalla  penitus  amittantur,  et  integre  remaneant  ad  opus 
civitatis.  Et  nullus  qui  sit  de  civitate  vel  Portsokne  plus  illis  donet, 
in  fide  qua  deo  et  civitati  tenetur. 

De  croco  habendo. 

Omnes  aldermanni  habeant  crocum  aptum  et  cordam,  et  qui  non 
habuerit  infra  terminum  positum,  sit  in  misericordia  civitatis.  Oper- 
arii autem  extranei  qui  veniunt  in  civitatem,  et  predictam  considera- 



tionem  sequi  noluerint,  corpora  eorum  atachiantur  donee  coram  ma- 
jore  et  probis  hominibus  ducantur,  ibique  judicium  suum  audituri. 
Bonum  etiam  dicunt  esse  dumtaxat  quod  coram  unaquaque  domo 
plena  cuva  aque  adsit,  sive  lignea  sit  sive  lapidea. 

Hec  facta  sunt  autem  anno  regis  Johannis  xiiij  .  (1212)  mense 
Julii  die  Lune  xxiiija  die  mensis  apud  GrildehaH',  Henrico  filio  Ailwini 
tunc  majore,  ceterisque  ejusdem  civitatis  baronibus  ibidem  tunc  exis- 
tentibus,  civitati  mederi  volentes  super  infortunium  ignis  quod  ibi 
advenerat  in  translatione  (July  2.)  sancti  Benedicti  per  x.  dies  antea, 
eodem  anno  et  mense,  qui  ignis  inconsolabiliter  pontem  London',  et 
quamplurima  nobilium  edificia,  cum  innumerabilibus  hominum  mu- 
lierumque  funeribus,  usque  ad  nichilum  destruxit. 

No.  II. 

Circa  A.D.  1200. 

Sciant  presentes  et  futuri  quod  ego  Ailbarnus  le  Feuprer  et  ego 
Aldusa  uxor  ejusdem  Ailberni  vendidimus  et  quietum  clamavimus  ex- 
tra nos  et  heredes  nostros  et  hac  presenti  carta  nostra  confirmavimus 
Henrico  Converso  et  Margarite  uxori  ejusdem  Henrici  et  heredibus 
ex  eis  exeuntibus  quoddam  mesuagium  quod  habuimus  in  parochia 
Sancti  Micbaelis  in  Bassehawe,  quod  mesuagium  hospitari  fecimus 
inter  domum  Walteri  Avenarii  et  domum  Bicardi  Conversi ;  scilicet 
cum  uno  pariete  juxta  vicum  regium  et  cum  alio  pariete  versus  do- 
mum Walteri  Avenarii,  et  cum  alio  pariete  versus  domum  Bicardi 
Conversi ;  Quicquid  in  predicta  domo  babuimus,  in  lignis  et  lapi- 
dibus,  in  parietibus3,  et  cameris,  in  opertoriisb,  in  omnibus  rebus  cum 
omnibus  pertinentiis  suis  integre  absque  omni  retenemento.  Ha- 
bendum eidem  Henrico  et  Margarete  uxori  sue  et  heredibus  ex  eis 
provenientibus  et  eorum  assignatis  extra  nos  et  beredes  nostros.  Ita 
etiam  libere  et  quiete  quod  bene  licet  eis  super  factum  illud  aspor- 
tare  quandocunque  voluerint  et  ad  quemcunque  locum  voluerint  abs- 
que omni  impedimento  et  contradictione.  Ego  vero  Aibarnus  pre- 
dictus  et  ego  Aldusa  predicta  et  beredes  nostri  predictum  mesuagium 
scilicet  super  factum  quod  in  prefato  loco  posuimus  integre  cum  om- 
nibus pertinentiis  suis  predicto  Henrico  et  Margarete  et  beredibus 
ex  eis  exeuntibus  et  eorum  assignatis  finabiliter  contra  omnes  ho- 
mines et  feminas  warantizare  tenemur,  et  ad  majorem  securitatem 

The  walls  were  probably  of  stone,  and  built  according  to  the  assise  of  1189. 
b  Possibly  work-shops.    See  Du  Cange  sub  voce. 



posuimus  in  contraplegium  omnia  catalla  nostra  que  habemus  in  Ci- 
vitate  London'  et  extra,  et  presens  scriptum  sigillis  nostris  robora- 
vimus.  Pro  hac  vero  vendicione  quieta  clamacione  warantizacione 
et  presentis  carte  nostre  confirmacione  dederunt  nobis  Henricus  et 
Margareta  predicti  quadraginta  solidos  esterlingorum,  Hiis  testibus 
Roberto  Capellano  &c. 


Circa  A.D.  1212. 

Sciant  presentes  et  futuri,  quod  hec  est  convencio  facta  inter  Jo- 
hannem  Bocquointe  et  Julianam  uxorem  suam,  et  Jobannem  filium 
Thome  Bermund'  et  heredes  ipsius  Johannis  Bermund',  et  inter  Re- 
ginaldum  de  Leges  et  heredes  suos ;  scilicet,  quod  murus  unde 
contentio  fuit  inter  eos  cum  antiquo  muro  existente  retro,  debet 
esse  communis  inter  eos,  quantum  terra  predicti  Reginaldi  continet 
in  longitudine  usque  ad  viam  que  vocatur  Athelingestrate,  ad  fa- 
ciendum ex  parte  sua,  scilicet,  ex  medietate  muri,  racionabiliter  quod 
ei  necesse  fuerit  ad  edificacionem  suam,  sine  dampno  et  fractura 
muri :  tali  condicione,  quod  predictus  Reginaldus  de  Leges  et  heredes 
sui  debent  facere  inperpetuum  gutteram  bonam  inter  predictum  Jo- 
hannem  filium  Thome  Bermund'  et  heredes  suos,  et  eundem  Regi- 
naldum  et  heredes  suos,  de  proprio  custo  suo,  bene  et  utiliter,  per 
totam  longitudinem  muri  predicti.  Ita  quod  predictus  Johannes 
filius  Thome  Bermund',  vel  heredes  sui,  inde  dampnum  non  habeant, 
nec  predicta  Juliana  quamdiu  vixerit.  Si  forte  contigerit  quod  pro 
defectu  reparacionis  predicte  guttere  predictus  Johannes  Bermund' 
vel  heredes  sui,  vel  predicta  Juliana  dampnum  aliquod  incurrerent, 
predictus  Reginaldus  vel  heredes  sui  totum  illud  dampnum,  predicto 
J ohanni  Bermund'  et  heredibus  suis,  et  predicte  Juliane  restaurabunt. 
Et  predictum  murum  securum  eis  de  proprio  custo  reparabunt.  Et 
sciendum  est  quod  illud  necessarium  predicti  Reginaldi,  quod  modo 
ibidem  est,  remanebit  in  eodem  loco,  sine  indempnitate  muri  predicti. 
Ita  quod  si  predictus  Johannes  Bermund'  vel  heredes  sui,  vel  predicta 
Juliana  aliquod  dampnum  habiierint  de  predicto  muro  per  illud  ne- 
cessarium, vel  causa  illius  necessarii,  prenominatus  Reginaldus  de 
lieges,  vel  heredes  sui,  totum  illud  dampnum  predicto  Johanni  Ber- 
mund' et  heredibus  suis,  et  predicte  Juliane  restaurabunt,  et  pre- 
dictum murum  securum  eis  de  proprio  custo  suo  reparabunt.  Et 
arche  que  sunt  ex  alia  parte,  contra  illud  necessarium,  versus  prefatam 
Julianam  et  predictum  Johannem  Bermund',  debent  impleri  petra  et 
calce  competenter.    Pro  hac  autem  convencione  et  warantisione  et 



sigillorum  suomm  appositione,  et  presentis  cyrographi  confirmatione, 
dedit  predictus  Eeginaldus  de  Leges  predicto  Johanni  Bocquointe,  et 
predicte  Juliane,  et  predicto  Johanni  Bermund',  quatnor  marcas  et 
dimidiam  argenti,  et  invenit  plenarie  medietatem  reparationis  novi 
muri.  Hanc  igitur  convencionem  fideliter  ex  utraque  parte  tenen- 
dam  predictus  Johannes  Bocquointe,  et  predicta  Juliana,  et  predictus 
Johannes  Berniund'  pro  se  et  pro  heredibus  suis,  et  prenominatus 
Eeginaldus  de  Leges  pro  se  et  pro  heredibus  suis,  sine  fraude  affida- 
verunt.  Hiis  testibus  :  domino  Eogero  filio  Alani,  Majore  London' ; 
Constantino  filio  Alulphi,  aldermanno  ;  et  aliis. 


Circa  A.D.  1212. 

Sciant  omnes  presentes  et  futuri,  quod  ego  Eobertus  Camerarius 
concessi  et  dimisi  Eandulfo  fratri  Eustacii  quandam  domum  meam, 
scilicet,  illam  domum  in  qua  predictus  Eandulfus  manet,  totum  ma- 
nagium,  scilicet,  quod  ipse  tenet  de  me,  in  ligno  et  lapide  ;  habendam 
et  tenendam  de  me  et  heredibus  meis,  illi  et  heredibus  suis,  in  feodo 
et  hereditate  et  finabiliter ;  reddendo  unoquoque  anno  mihi,  vel  he- 
redibus meis,  xxij.  solidos,  duobus  terminis  anni,  scilicet,  infra  octabas 
Pasche  xj.  solidos,  et  infra  octabas  Sancti  Michaelis  xj.  solidos,  omni 
occasione  remota.  Et  ita,  quod  ego  vel  heredes  mei  non  poterimus 
hoc  predictum  tenementum  vendere,  nec  expendere,  nec  invadiare, 
nisi  solummodo  hos  predictos  xxij.  solidos.  Neque  ilium  vel  heredes 
suos  poterimus  dehospitare,  propter  me,  vel  propter  heredes  meos, 
hospitare.  Nec  ego  vel  heredes  mei  poterimus  ilium  visum  qui  est 
de  veteri  domo,  quam  ipse  tenet  de  me,  obstupare,  nec  superius  nec 
inferius.  Nec  ego  vel  heredes  mei  poterimus  amplius  exigere  de 
consu  a  predicto  Eandulfo,  vel  heredibus  suis,  nisi  solummodo  hos 
xxij.  solidos  prenominatos.  Nec  ego  vel  heredes  mei  poterimus  pre- 
dictum Eandulfum  vel  heredes  suos  implacitare  de  aqua  que  cadit  de 
veteri  domo  sua  versus  occidentem.  Et  Eandulfus  affidavit  legaliter 
fidem  mihi  et  heredibus  meis  de.toto  isto  tenemento  prenominato. 
Et  propter  hanc  conventionem  et  concessionem  dedit  mihi  Eandulfus 
in  gersummam  xl.  solidos,  et  uxori  mee  j  bisantum  auri,  et  primo- 
genito  filio  meo  j.  bisantum  auri.  Et  si  forte  evenerit  quod  Ean- 
dulfus vel  heredes  sui  velint  relinquere  feodum  suum  et  tenementum, 
debent  mihi  reddere  vel  heredibus  meis  tenementum  illud,  tain  bene 
herbergatum  in  ligno  et  lapide,  sicut  ipse  Eandulfus  recepit  de  Will- 
elmo  Camerario  patre  meo.  Hiis  testibus:  Stephano,  sacerdote  de 
Sancto  Thoma;  Eicardo  Brit ;  Johanne  Buc;  [et  multis  aliis]. 




A.D.  1217—1218. 

Hec  est  convencio  facta  inter  Eobertum  filium  Simonis  et  Eegi- 
naldum  de  Lyeng',  scilicet,  quod  predictus  Eeginaldus  et  heredes  sui, 
de  custo  suo,  inperpetuum  facient  et  reparabunt  stillicidium  plumbeum 
quantum  mums  lapideus  extenditur  quern  idem  Eobertus  totum  fecit 
super  terrain  quam  Eeginaldus  Timbermongre  ei  liberavit  ad  ilium 
murum  construendum  inter  eos  versus  orientem,  scilicet  terre  ipsius 
Eoberti,  et  ita  debent  facere  et  reparare  stillicidium  illud  de  plumbo, 
ne  idem  Eobertus  vel  heredes  sui  in  aliquo  tempore  proinde  damnum 
incurrant.  Predictus  eciam  Eeginaldus  et  heredes  sui  habebunt  tan- 
turn  in  predicto  muro  decern  corbellos,  et  in  muro  dicti  Eoberti  versus 
aquilonem  duos  corbellos  tantum.  Ita  quod  illi  duodecim  corbelli  non 
sint  majoris  altitudinis  a  terra  quam  octo  pedes,  et,  illis  deficientibus, 
non  poterunt  nec  debent  alios  grossiores  nec  grandiores,  altius  vel 
inferius,  nec  alibi  ponere  vel  habere  quam  alii  fuerunt  die  quo  hec 
convencio  facta  fuit.  Et  idem  Eeginaldus  et  heredes  sui  non  poterunt 
nec  debent  amplius  habere  nec  clamare  in  predicto  muro  lapideo  ver- 
sus orientem  terre  dicti  Eoberti  quam  rebatum  suum  tantum,  cum 
decern  corbellis  ut  dictum  est  sitis,  quam  scilicet  rebatum  idem  Ee- 
ginaldus et  heredes  sui  si  voluerint,  et  facultatem  ad  hoc  habuerint, 
poterunt  exaltare  de  tribus  pedibus,  ita  tamen  quod  non  poterunt 
obturare  visum  fenestre  de  coquina  dicti  Eoberti.  Preterea  dictus 
Eeginaldus  et  heredes  sui  finabiliter  debent  recipere  aquam  deciden- 
tem  de  coquina  et  bracino  dicti  Eoberti,  quantum,  scilicet,  munis 
lapideus  ejusdem  coquine  extendit  in  longitudine.  Et  preterea  dictus 
Eobertus  concessit  eidem  Eeginaldo  et  heredibus  suis  quod,  si  volu- 
erint, exaltent  rebatum  suum  de  tribus  pedibus  versus  aquilonem 
dicte  coquine  et  bracini  dicti  Eoberti.  Ita  tamen  quod  aquam  inde 
decidentem,  ut  dictum  est,  recipiant.  Et  de  muro  superiori  versus 
occidentem  inter  terrain  dicti  Eoberti  et  terram  ipsius  Eeginaldi, 
medietas  erit  dicti  Eoberti  et  heredum  suorum,  et  altera  medietas 
dicti  Eeginaldi  et  heredum  suorum.  Preterea  dictus  Eeginaldus  et 
heredes  sui  habebunt  foveam  camere  private  sue  in  eodem  loco  quo 
fuit  die  quo  hec  convencio  facta  est.  Et  si  aliam  alibi  facere  volu- 
erint, ita  faciant  quod  non  sit  prope  murum  dicti  Eoberti  nec  he- 
redum suorum  de  tribus  pedibus  largiter.  Si  autem  dictus  murus 
per  forisfactum  dicti  Eoberti  vel  heredum  suorum,  vel  per  foveam 
camere  private,  vel  aliquo  alio  casu  cecidit  vel  devastaverit,  pactum 
est  quod  illud  emendari  vel  reparari  faciant.    It  si  murus  ille  per 



forisfactum  dicti  Reginaldi  vel  heredum  suorum,  vel  per  foveam  ca- 
mere  private,  vel  aliquo  alio  casu  cecidit  vel  devastaverit,  pactum  est 
quod  idem  B-egmaldus  vel  heredes  sui  illud  emendari  et  reparari  fa- 
ciaut.  Hanc  couveucionem  fideliter  et  sine  malo  ingenio  tenendam 
quilibet  eorum  alteri  pro  se  et  suis  heredibus  affidavit,  et  sigillo  suo 
confirmavit.  Hiis  testibus ;  Martino  filio  Alicie,  Aldermanno  ;  Ser- 
lone  Mercero  ;  Willelmo  de  Ely  ;  [et  aliis].  Actum  fuit  ix.  Kalendis 
Aprilis,  presentibus  predictis,  anno  regni  Henrici  regis  secundo. 



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